• Child’s Health: the health status is an important factor that can change the child’s development. Elements like genetics illnesses (inherited by the parents’ DNA) such as a blood disorder, CNS disorders, diabetes or other immune system diseases, asthma, or other health problems due to the surrounding environment, like poor quality living conditions, or living with people who misuse substances or smokers, or a poor diet and other distressing conditions may determine a delay in the child’s development.
• Disability or disadvantage in the language, such as a delayed language or communication problems: when children can’t fully express themselves may find very difficult to develop friendships. This personal factor affects cognitive and social/emotional development because language is connected to the expression of children’s thoughts.
• Sensory impairments: children with hearing or visual impairments for instance may have a delayed cognitive development. For example, a light may be too bright, or a voice tone/noise level can be too low. Some children may have other sensory impairments: they may find a smell distracting or repellent (e.g. onion, garlic, damp, etc). These impairments may be difficult to identify for early years and school practitioners.
• Learning difficulties: children with learning disabilities have a delayed cognitive development, because they won’t be able to learn information at the right level. These difficulties can affect not only the cognitive development but also both social and emotional development. In fact, these children may not be able to play in the same way as their peers and will not be able to fully understand the needs of the other children. This will ultimately make impossible or very hard to play by rules correctly, due to the fact they will not fully understand the rules.