1.1 Describe the factors to take into account when planning healthy and safe indoor and outdoor environments and services 1.2 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in the work setting are made aware of risks and hazards and encouraged to work safely 1.3 Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services 1.4 Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service – teachers 2.4 Explain how health and safety risk assessments are monitored and reviewed Health and safety risk assessments are usually carried out if an adult has a responsibility for health and safety or because you are going on a school trip/taking children off the school premises. If, for example, a school trip is taking place, the staff responsible for ensuring risk assessments are carried out should make sure this is completed in enough time before the trip takes place. In addition, the staff must remember to allow any parents that are assisting on the trip to read through the paperwork and leave a signature to show they have understood the risks that may be involved and the procedures that follow if a risk was to occur. Risk assessments will need to be checked by the representative and by the head teacher to make sure that it has been completed correctly. Moreover, internally risk assessments are carried out daily with regular checks of the environment that pupils will be using, including risk assesments of tools/equipment which is reviewed termly. This ensures that any equipment or environment that is no longer suitable for pupils can be highlighted as a risk and dealt with accordingly. 3.1 Explain why it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management Risk management is not about eliminating the risk but managing it. This should be done using a balanced approach, whereby you acknowledge the age and abilities of the child and avoiding extreme risk yet still understanding the importance of risks and obstacles to a childs development. Cushioning and being overprotective over children can be detrimental as they will lack the knowledge and experience to assess risks and challenges when they are an adult. It is important to give young people independence as this will increase them in confidence and also allow them to consider how their decisions will impact themselves and others around them. In my setting working with Year 1 pupils, a lot of them enjoy doing acrobatic challenges during playtime in the playground one of which is using their legs to hang upside down off of one of the bars on the apparatus. When I am observing this, I do not restrict them as it is clear they have the confident physical ability to do such a thing, especially as they become extremely excited when they are showing me. However, I constantly encourage them to be aware of their surroundings in terms of space and other classmates because there is a risk that they may accidentally hit/kick another pupil whilst they are swinging/hanging. This will then trigger a child to think twice before they do anything out of the ordinary and analyse whether it would be sensible as sometimes the apparatus area can get congested at times. 3.2 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and young people and health and safety requirements It is important to understand and find the balance of allowing children to make their own choices (ensuring they are sensible) and not denying them their rights. This can be done through prompting them to think about risks in the environment and what can we done to manage and avoid these risks. This will then help them to arrive at their own choice that safe, sensible and accords to health and safety requirements. For example, a Year 1 child may want to play with Year 2 children. In essence, they have a right to play with whom they wish, however they must be told of the risk of playing with older children due the nature of their play ie. Fast pace, rough play. After they have been told this, they have the choice of whether they feel they are compatible with this risk and henceforth they can make their own decision based on this. 3.3 Give examples from own practice of supporting children or young people to assess and manage risk In my setting, sometimes I have the responsibility of escorting pupils from one site of the school to another. This involves crossing a road. Before the road is crossed, I remind pupils of the risk a road poses ie. There may be incoming vehicles approaching, some of which may be coming at speed. Pupils are aware of the process that they must follow when crossing the road which is the looking left/right and listening out for any vehicles. I remind them to carry this out and report to me their judgements and make the decision whether to cross the road. In addition to this, to encourage independence and confidence in this vital life skill, I try to avoid holding the child (depending on the childs temperament) when crossing, so to allow them to feel like they are able to able to do the task independently. Furthermore, when working with my focus (Year 1) child, we were tasked with a maths activity which involved cutting shapes out. As the shapes were quite large and not intricate, I allowed my pupil to cut out his shapes, however I reminded him in the process to keep the blade away from his fingers as coming too close can cause an injury. In addition, to help him cut more efficiently, I encouraged him to cut on the bold black line, to avoid him cutting in a sudden random direction which could also risk him cutting his finger. By allowing him to do the task on his own allowed him to develop independence and his fine motor skills. However, once the activity was completed, my pupil began to wave around his scissors holding them from the blade area. Immediately, I took the scissors off him and gave the child a stern reminder of the risk he was causing, not only to himself, but to the other classmates around him. The child understood that he must not behave in that manner again and decided to give a sincere apology. 4.1 Explain the policies and procedures of the setting or service in response to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness Any situation that arises when working with/around children will require a specific response. When an accident occurs, such as a child has fallen and grazed their knee, then there should be a adequate number of first aiders on the school site or on a school trip. First aid boxes should be regularly checked and refilled and any accident should be recorded correctly e.g. in a first aid handbook/report folder. In my setting, during lunchtime play, a child approached me who as bumped his head. Immediately, I knew the first aider was on the playground in their designated spot so I took the child over. Here, the child was given a cold pack for the bump and the accident was written down in the journal with all the details or where, when and how the injury occurred. Furthermore, to avoid emergencies e.g. missing child, the school should have security measures in place in terms of who is allowed to enter and leave the school premises. Those who are in school should be correctly identified. In my setting, all staff members have a badge to which they scan to sign in with when they arrive and when they leave the premises at the end of the day. In addition, to enter the two main sites of the building, each gate has a buzzer and camera to which the adult must communicate to state who they are and why they are present. This prevents unidentified people entering the school premises. Another emergency may be that of a potential fire. Each school has fire evacuation procedure which should be clearly displayed around the school and regular fire drills should occur termly to get this into practice. In my setting, when a fire alarm sounds, the pupils know that they must prepare to leave the classroom in a controlled and collected manner, ensuring chairs are tucked in. Staff ensure all doors are closed as they leave the building and head towards the playground at a safe distance from the school premises. The register is then taken to ensure every child that has been registered as present have all been evacuated safely from the building. Moreover, to avoid incidents where children may come into contact with hazardous substances e.g. cleaning materials, chemicals, the school and especially those responsible for the storage of those substances must ensure they are kept securely away from children. This may be in a locked cupboard or high up on a shelf, out of a young persons reach. Furthemore, in illness situations, there is a different response taken. Each school may have a different illness policy. In my setting, a child who has missed 5 days or more due to an illness must provide a medical note from their GP. A child who has vomited in school must be sent home and is not allowed to return to school for a maximum of 48 hours until the all clear is given by the parent. 4.2 Identify the correct procedures for recording and reporting accidents, incidents, injuries, signs of illness and other emergencies In my setting, when an incident occurs e.g. recently a pupil had severely bitten a member of staff, the incident is recorded in an incident book. This book is located in intervention rooms and states who was involved in the incident, where it happened, when it happened and how it happened. In addition to this, it is also verbally reported to a member of senior staff. Furthermore, for emergencies, we have emergency procedures displayed at specific points around the school where it is clearly visible by everyone. Every display states what to do in an event of a fire and evacuation. Regular fire drills are carried out and each fire drill is timed and dated to allow for any scrutiny to the procedure. PAGE CACHE Insert qualification name Learner Achievement Log CACHE 2010 PAGE 1 There are many factors a professional needs to consider to ensure activities are safe, whether it be indoors or outdoors. There needs to be adequate space, enough to cater for the number of children that will be present. This is to avoid collisions when playing and so everyone can safely access materials and equipement. Also, it is to ensure everyone can move around freely without feeling constricted. In terms of indoor activities, one should take note of the level of light and noise. There should be sufficient light allowing the children to work comfortably. Limited lighting can cause straining on the eyes, whereas harsh lighting e.g. flouresxccent bulbs may cause headaches after a certain amount of time. As a result, it is important to find the balance. Moreover, noise levels should be kept to a minimum if children are required to be working, however may differ if children are doing interactive activities. In my setting, a calming instrumental is played during work periods as this helps children remain calm when working and also controls their own noise/talk level- when the music can no longer be heard, the pupils are notified that they are being too loud. Furniture is also a factor to consider. Children should be made to sit on chairs (for example), that are suitable for their size ie. They shouldnt be small so that they are hunched over the tables. If this is the case, this can negatively affect their general posture and decrease their focus when working. Furthermore, a professional must also look at specific needs to the individual. For example, in my setting, working with a non-verbal child, it is important for me to always put visual aids infront of him when working indoors to help him with his understanding of his work, therefore build up his self-esteem. On the other hand, when it comes to outdoor activies such as playtime, to ensure his safety he is always made to wear a fluorescent pink vest so he is easily recognisable on the playground. This is the case for many of the SEN/ASD children that I work with. Also, organisation is another important factor. In terms of indoor activities, all equipment used must be put away when no longer in use in the correct place. This is important because children should be aware of where different equipments are kept so it is easily found. Looking closely at outdoor factors, we must ensure that the weather conditions are suitable for children to go out in e.g if it is icy/snowy/heavily wet, this can portray a slip hazard, therefore it is better for pupils to be kept indoors. Also, gates should be securely locked off to prevent any child wandering off causing them to put themselves at risk, especially off-site. In addition, the adult must be observant of any traces of animal litter or anything else hazardous such as broken glass. Children must also be reminded of their responsibility of putting away outdoor toys when finished with. In my setting, when I am working with reception children, they are aware they have need to cover the sandpit are as this can attract foxes, which are prone to be around the area. One must always remember to ensure these factors are analysed and satisfied as an professional working with children has a duty of care towards pupils to keep them safe and ensure the environment is secure. There is always someone who is responsible for health and safety in schools e.g. caretaker. This person should regularly carry out routine safety checks and ensure these are carried out regularly. When hazards such as a drippy roof or a broken cupboard are discovered, they should not be left unreported, rather they should be recorded and reported immediately. Risk assessments are usually noted down in health and safety policies and should be followed up in an event of a discovered hazard. The hazard must be assessed, evaluated and changed if needed for the safety of staff and pupils. Saftey check should also be carried out on equipment, especially those that are hardly used as they can become hazardous. For example, electrical equipment should be put under annual checks, which should be carried out by a qualified electrician, in addition to fire extinguishers which should also be checked annually and the date of each check should be recorded on the outside of the extinguisher. The topic of health and safety should be regularly covered in staff meetings as to notify all staff of a potential hazard,so the issue can be resolved as soon as possible. The Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) was formulated to protect everyone at work through procedures for preventing risks/accidents. All staff must be aware of its main points. It is important for children and staff to be extremely vigilant and report any hazards that they encounter. They must report it to the appropriate person e.g. the schools health and safety representative, the head teacher or another member of staff. In my setting, the designated person to whom we are meant to approach are listed on posters which are stuck on walls around the school site, for pupils and staff to see. Furthermore, every school should have a safety policy, which should state information to all staff about procedures in school to ensure it is safe for all members. This policy should be explained to new staff joining the school through induction training, where they should also be trained in procedures incase of emergencies e.g. fire evacuations, terrorist attack. In addition, health and safety must regularly be spoken about in staff meetings and staff should be required to sign the health and safety policy to indicate that they have read it. Moreover, staff must be aware that any actions that they do take will not harm themselves or others e.g. putting things away after use or on a larger scale going back into the building without permission (to find a child) after being evacuated in a fire emergency This should be left to a qualified safety individual. On the other hand, staff need to understand the effects of not taking immediate action e.g. After encountering a potential risk, it is the responsibility of the staff member to not ignore it, rather report it as appropriate. Also, staff need to ensure they are aware of the safety equipment which is provided when carrying out certain activities. For example, during science lessons goggles/gloves would need to be used to prevent substances causing harm to skin/eyes, whilst in DT, it would include the safe use of tools. In my setting, when the ASD are learning life skills such buttering bread, they would use a blunt butter knife, preferably a plastic one for the less-able pupils. Lastly, staff must ensure that equipment is safe and has fulfilled the recognised standards of safety. The most commonly used safety symbol is the Kitemark, which indicates that an item has been checked and tested by the British Safety Institute. We must not only ensure that equipment is physically safe but we must question whether it is age appropriate. For example, equipment with small parts would not be suitable for a reception or even a SEN Year 1 child as they still may be prone to putting things in their mouth, hence indicating a choking hazard. Every member of staff in care of children must follow the above guidelines religiously as under The Children Act 1989, we are required to protect children as far as we can when they are in our care. Under The Health and Safety etc Act 1974, all professionals have a responsibility to report hazards when noticed. In my work setting, in order for us to notice these hazards, teachers regularly check classroom tidiness, especially before pupils are expected to enter to ensure it is safe and suitable. Once pupils have entered the classroom, they are reminded to hang up there bags and jackets on their designated pegs this is to make sure nothing is left lying around on the floor as this can be a hazard to somebody walking past who can easily then trip over. Moreover, when travelling around the school especially entire classes, there are always children that are picked to hold the door for the rest of their classmates. This acts as a safety precaution as it prevents the door shutting on a student/staff member which can lead to an injury. Moreover, in outdoor scenarios, as I primarily work with ASD children, I have the responsibility of teaching them life skills as well as academics. For example, when I am moving around to different sites on the school premises, there are moments where a road needs to be crossed. In this circumstance, I must make know the child acknowledges that crossing the road can be a safety hazard, therefore thorough checks in both directions must be made to ensure the road is clear and safe enough to cross. In addition, this act also covers the use of safe equipment/apparatus. In my setting, the playground apparatus for reception and KS1 children differ greatly aswell as with KS2. Reception pupils are given equipment/toys are push for more imaginative play such as building blocks, sandplay, water play,and bikes as these are more child-friendly to children of that age group. They are also given a make-shift post office to enforce their life skills as well as their imagination. On the other hand, KS1 have the opportunity to use wooden apparatus that tests their climbing/balancing abilities. This is appropriate for their age as it is slightly more advanced compared to the Reception equipment yet still safe enough for them to use independently. The Children Act 1989 states that we must protect children as far as we can having said this, staff members analyse the weather conditions before we send pupils out to play. If it has snowed, it is likely the playground and apparatus is likely to be icy or if it has heavily rained, conditions may be slippery, therefore a decision is made to prepare an indoor playtime for the children. 9r Y, 4IsNXp
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