-1371600-107950000787400-737235Laguna State Polytechnic University
San Pablo City Campus
Del Remedio, San Pablo City
Province of Laguna
00Laguna State Polytechnic University
San Pablo City Campus
Del Remedio, San Pablo City
Province of Laguna
4867292-79756000
“EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TVL K-12 CURRICULUM AND ITS IMPACT TO THE GRADUATES’ EMPLOYABILITY AND THEIR EMPLOYEE- EMPLOYER SATISFACTION”

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of
Graduate Studies and Applied Research
Laguna State Polytechnic University
San Pablo City Campus
Name: MARICEL P. MERCADEJAS
Professor:NELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed. D.

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Course Description:Graduate Seminar
Panel
Date: Adviser:
Time: Subject Specialist:
Room: Statistician:
Technical Editor:
Dean:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
Chapter
ITHE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction……………………………………………………..

Background of the Study……………………………………..

Theoretical Framework……………………………………….

Conceptual Framework……………………………………….

Research Paradigm…………………………………………..

Statement of the Problem…………………………………….

Research Hypothesis…………………………………………
Significance of the Study……………………………………
Scope and Delimitation of the Study……………………….

Definition of Terms…………………………………………..

IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIESRelated Literature……………………………………………
III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design……………………………………………
Respondents of the study…………………………………..

Sampling technique…………………………………………
Research Instruments………………………………………
Research Procedure……………………………………….

Statistical Treatment of Data………………………………
Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
 Given the fact that the Philippines is one of the only three countries in the world (Angola and Djibouti are the other two) and only one in Asia that still had only 10 years in basic education; and this has always been seen as disadvantage for the students who are competing in an increasingly global job (K12 Philippines, October 27, 2015).

K to 12(also K- 12) is an education system under the Department of Education that aims to enhance learners’ basic skills, produce more competent citizens, and prepare graduates for lifelong learning and employment. ” K ” stands for Kindergarten and “12 ” refers to the succeeding 12 years of basic education ( 6 years of elementary education, 4 years of junior high school, and 2 years of senior high school). As Isagani Cruz put it, “The whole point of the entire K to 12 reform is to answer the needs of about 30 million young people (those below 24 years of age) who have not finished Fourth Year High School. Or out-or-school youth of employable age, more than six million are unemployed, primarily because they do not have the skills that employers want. The new system guarantee that the students will be able to master lifelong skills by the time they graduated from the K-12 program, they will be more equipped and ready to enter college, get a job, or start on their own venture.
Background of the Study
Theoretical framework
Bandura stated in his Social Cognitive Career Theory that an individual’s confidence in her or his ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task determines the willingness and motivation with which the client will pursue a career or education path.

On the other hand, Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and Compromise states that career choice is a process of elimination or circumscription in which a person eliminates certain occupational choices from further consideration. This is influenced by self-concept development and various development life stages. Compromise is a complex process in which compatibility with one’s interests is often compromised for options that are in line with the need for prestige or external realities such as labor market, gender expectations, or cultural expectations.

In the early1900s Frank Parsons who developed Trait and Factor Theory through the talent-matching approach that later developed into the Trait and Factor Theory of Occupational Choice. It says that individuals and occupations each have unique characteristics and traits. Individuals develop these traits over their lifetime, and the highest satisfaction comes when there is a good match between the characteristics of the individual and the occupation.

Significantly John Krumboltz’ social learning theory shows how individuals make career decisions that emphasizes the importance of behavior (action) and cognitions (knowing or thinking) in making career decisions, teaching clients career decision techniques and how to use them and examines four basic factors to understand why people choose the work they do as well as other occupationally related decisions.

Lastly, the Career Development theory of Donald E. Super focuses on how careers unfold over the life span. Career choice is affected by complex and multi-faceted biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural factors.

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study focuses on the IV- DV relationship. It consists of the Independent and Dependent Variable. Independent variable consists of one (1) part, the NC Holder Related Factors as to; Willingness to work, Availability of work, and Interest to pursue college degree. Dependent variable consists of Employment status as to Unemployed, Underemployed and Employed.

Figure 1 shows the relationship of independent and dependent variable.

171450170815I. Demographic Profile
Age
Gender
Employment Status
II. Assessment of the TVL Curriculum
Subject offers
0I. Demographic Profile
Age
Gender
Employment Status
II. Assessment of the TVL Curriculum
Subject offers
2924175180975I. Assessment of the Technological Vocational Livelihood



II. Employee Satisfaction



III. Employer Satisfaction



0I. Assessment of the Technological Vocational Livelihood



II. Employee Satisfaction



III. Employer Satisfaction



IV DV
2425065286402
Figure 1. Research Paradigm
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to find out the relationship of Employability status of NC holder graduates batch 2017-2018 to the implementation of the K to 12 curriculum.

Specifically, the study will seek to answer the following questions:
1. What is the employment status of the NC holder of Pagbilao National High School graduates in terms of employment status?
2. What is the perception of the respondents in the NC holder related factors
2.1. willingness to work;
2.2. availability of work; and
2.3. interest to pursue college degree?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the employability status and in the acquisition of NC?
Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between employment status and the acquisition of NC to the senior high school graduates.

The
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the discussion of related literature and studies having direct bearing to the study.

Related Literature
Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses the operational framework of the study. Further, this portion will present the research design and methods, the population and sample, the instrument and data gathering procedure, and statistical tools used.

Furthermore, this chapter explains how the whole research was conducted.
Research Design
This study will use descriptive research with survey questionnaire.

It involves NC holder graduates in Pagbilao National High School Year 2017-2018.

Statistical Treatment of the Data
This study will use mixed method wherein interview and survey questionnaire will be used to determine the alignment to current employment of the NC holders of Pagbilao National High School.

This study will use weighted mean method. Weighted mean is the point on the score scales that is equal to the sum of score divided by the total number of scores.
2809875258445The formula for weighted mean: x = ?fx N
ReferencesBigcas, J. (2016). A Mini Critique of K-12 Education Curriculum.
”What is k12”. 27 Oct. 2015.Web. 15 July 2016.http://k12philippines.com/Johnson, C.(2016). Applying Career Development Theory.

Title 2. “TVL COURSES IN PUBLIC SHS: INPUT TO SUSTAINABILITY AND NEEDS OF LOCAL INDUSTRIES IN PAGBILAO DISTRICT I”
Rationale
Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) and Technical-Vocational-Livelihood (TVL) Track is one of the four tracks under Senior High School Specialized Subjects. It is separated from the main article because it offers broader choices and also, subjects are already TESDA accredited. By finishing them, one will be given a National Certificate, depending on the level completed. 
Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL) is one of the tracks offered in Senior High School. It focuses on technical skills development in any area. Food and Beverage Services is one of the specialized subjects under the TVL career track.

Five common competencies based on the training regulations of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), are covered in the exploratory phase: mensuration and calculation, technical drafting, use of tools and equipment and occupational health and safety. TVL track can make students become more prepared, equipped and armed with job-ready skills for future employment. Not all students will be able to go to college because of financial problems so if they took the SHS TVL track which is not very costly, after 2 years they can acquire certificates that will lead them to seek job than waiting several years to graduate when they took college.

Technical Vocational and Livelihood track invests primarily on skills that can gain requisite COCs (Certificates of Competency) and NCs (National Certifications) which would be essential when looking for better career opportunities in agriculture, electronics, and trade. This is also important when applying abroad where the skills gained would prepare one in the workforce.

In the end, TVL track plays a very important role to preparing our students towards their future career. This track is their ticket to have a better and stable working life.

Theoretical Framework
Learning theories have reshaped themselves from behaviourism to
information processing to constructivism. Recognising that context and culture
influence memory and cognition forced researchers to explain personal meaning
and the nature of reality and its representations (Doolite & Camp, 19999). Consequently social and radical constructivism developed with the following four principles:
Learning is an active process according to which learners construct their own knowledge;
Cognition is an adaptive process;
Meaning making is a subjective process and does not render an accurate representation of reality;
Social, cultural, language , and biological/neurological process influence
Knowing (Yilmaz, 2008)
Constructivism is a way of teaching and learning that intends to maximize student understanding. Like discovery learning, it is situated within meaningful learning in the cognitive school of thought. Constructivism is defined variously as teaching that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information (Woolfolk, 2009); learners’ construction of knowledge as they attempt to make sense of their environment (McCown, 2001); and learning that occurs when learners actively engage in a situation that involves collaboratively formulating questions, explaining phenomenon, addressing complex issues, or resolving problems.

As cited by Buerano (2015) Whilst, Bandura’s Social Learning Theory, it states that he learning occurs within a social context. Anything that can be learned by direct experience can also be learned from observation (Olson and Hergenhahn, 2013). Teacher can be the most influential model to the learners. Hence, teachers play a fundamental role in motivating and encouraging their learners to achieve high performance in school.

Skinner as cited by Tulio (2010) suggests that the teachers should use techniques that produce meaningful behavior changes. He favored the use of teaching materials, programmed instruction and behavior therapy, for it provide immediate reinforcement and help bridge the gap between the students behavior and more instant conditioned reinforces such promotion in grades.

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study focuses on the IV- DV relationship. It consists of the Independent and Dependent Variable. Independent variable consists of one (1) part, the TVL Courses Offered of Public SHS as to; Goals/ Objectives, Content, Availability of Teacher’s Materials, Readiness of the Teachers, and Students Readiness. Dependent variable consists of Students’ Performance, Skills in Measuring and Calculations, Skills in Using Tools and Equipment and Sustainability of the Local Industry.

Figure 1 shows the relationship of independent and dependent variable.

2927985178435Students’
Performance
skills in measuring and calculations
skills in using tools and equipment
Sustainability of the local industry
0Students’
Performance
skills in measuring and calculations
skills in using tools and equipment
Sustainability of the local industry
165370178989TVL courses offered of public SHS
-goals/objectives
-content
-availability of teacher’s materials
-readiness of the teachers
-students readiness
0TVL courses offered of public SHS
-goals/objectives
-content
-availability of teacher’s materials
-readiness of the teachers
-students readiness
IV DV
242506577470
Figure 1. Research Paradigm
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the TVL courses offered by the public SHS that suits to the needs and sustainability of the local industry in Pagbilao District I.

Specifically, it will answer the following questions:
1. What is the perception of the respondents in the courses offered in public SHS to the needs and sustainability of local industry in Pagbilao District I1.1. goals/objectives;
1.2. content;
1.3. availability of teacher’s materials;
1.4. readiness of the teachers; and
1.5. students readiness?
2. What is the students’ performance in terms of:2.1. skills in measuring and calculations;
2.2. skills in using tools and equipment?
3. How will TVL courses sustain the needs of local Industries in Pagbilao District?
4. Is there a significant relationship between the offered TVL courses and the sustainability and needs of local industries in Pagbilao?
Hypotheses
There is no significant relationship on TVL specialized courses and the
sustainability and needs of local industry in Pagbilao District I.

There is no significant relationship on TVL courses offered of public senior high school to the students’ performance.

Research Design
This study will use descriptive research and mixed method with survey questionnaire and interview for data collection.

It involves public Senior High School teachers and students in Pagbilao District I.

Statistical Treatment of the Data
This study will use weighted mean method. Weighted mean is the point on the score scales that is equal to the sum of score divided by the total number of scores.
2809875258445The formula for weighted mean: x = ?fx N
References:

Senior High School Specialized Subject: Food and Beverage Services

K to 12: Senior High School TLE and TVL Track Curriculum Guides 2017


Title 3.

“ASSESSMENT OF GRADE 8 T.L.E MODULE ON STUDENTS PERFORMANCE OF PAGBILAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL”

Rationale
The K to 12 Curriculum has as its overarching goal the holistic development of every Filipino learner with 21st century skills who is adequately prepared for work, entrepreneurship, middle level skills development and higher education.

The dominant goal of the K to 12 curriculum, tells that the teaching of TLE plays a very important role in the realization of the overall goal of the curriculum. Whether or not the K to 12 graduate is skilled and ready for work, entrepreneurship and middle skills development depend to a great extent on how effectively you taught.

Technology and Livelihood Education is one of the subjects in the Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum of the Department of Education. Based on its name, it teaches competencies to students that are very useful in livelihood. These learnings can be applied for the students to have another source of income.

According to the Department of Education, the TVL specializations may be taken between Grades 9 to 12. Exploratory Subjects at 40 hours per quarter are taken during Grades 7 to 8. These subjects are horticulture, household services, care giving and handicraft production which are being offered among Grade 8 students.

Learning module is a tool that provides course materials in a logical, sequential, order, guiding students through the content and assessments in the order specified by the instructor.
Theoretical Framework
As express by Koch (2012) before real learning occurs, one needs to make information his own so that it becomes significant and one can use it for his own purposes. These ideas form the basis of a group of learning theories called constructivism. The constructivist approach builds on cognitive and social cognitive theories but goes further by considering how new information becomes meaningful to the learner.
Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions.

It is often seen in contrast to constructivism. Constructivists are more likely to allow for experimentation and exploration in the classroom and place a greater emphasis on the experience of the learner. In contrast to behaviorists, they feel that an understanding of the brain informs teaching.

As cited by Buerano (2015) Whilst, Bandura’s Social Learning Theory, it states that he learning occurs within a social context. Anything that can be learned by direct experience can also be learned from observation (Olson and Hergenhahn, 2013). Teacher can be the most influential model to the learners. Hence, teachers play a fundamental role in motivating and encouraging their learners to achieve high performance in school.

Skinner as cited by Tulio (2010) suggests that the teachers should use techniques that produce meaningful behavior changes. He favored the use of teaching materials, programmed instruction and behavior therapy, for it provide immediate reinforcement and help bridge the gap between the students behavior and more instant conditioned reinforces such promotion in grades.

As mentioned by Aquino (2009), Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is composed of five types of needs that motivate people and classified into two categories: deficiency (psychological, safety and security and social needs) and growth needs (esteem and ego and self- actualization needs). Maslow’s theory explained that in order to fulfill dreams in life the five basic human needs must be satisfied first. Failure to meet this needs means lack of qualities for basic psychological adjustment or lack of positive sense of self (a sense that allows us to love, be loved, or feel secured). Similarly, Maslow believed that this positive sense of self is very important in developing optimism for future actions and decisions. Failure to meet needs, produce a very weak foundation of personality (Aquino, 2009). Thus, if a learner’s wants and needs were satisfied, a tendency of performing well in school will be manifested.

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study focuses on the IV- DV relationship. It consists of the Independent and Dependent Variable. Independent variable consists of one (1) part, the Inquiry-Based Learning variables as to; Grade 8 Module, Goals/Objectives and Content of the Exploratory Courses namely Horticulture, Household Services, Care Giving and Handicraft. Dependent variable consists of Students’ Performance; Skills and Output.

IV DV
17095318525Grade 8 Module
Horticulture
Household Services
Care Giving
Handicraft
goals/objectives
content
0Grade 8 Module
Horticulture
Household Services
Care Giving
Handicraft
goals/objectives
content
292210418526Students’ Performance
Skills
Output
0Students’ Performance
Skills
Output

2424430134620
Figure 1. Research Paradigm
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to assess the Grade 8 TLE Module on the Students’ Performance of Pagbilao National High School.

Specifically, it will answer the following questions:
1. How effective is the grade 8 module
1.1 goals/objectives;
1.2 content?
2. What is the significance of the students’ performance in terms of2.1 skills learned in TLE;
2.2 their output?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the grade 8 TLE module and the students’ performance?
Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between the grade 8 TLE module and the students’ performance.

Research Design
The research design to be used in this study is a descriptive survey method in gathering data.

It involves Grade 8 students in Pagbilao National High School .Statistical Treatment of the Data
This study will use weighted mean method. Weighted mean is the point on the score scales that is equal to the sum of score divided by the total number of scores.
2809875258445The formula for weighted mean: x = ?fx N
References:
http://www.academia.edu/8495139/

Behaviorism


https://www.pressreader.com/philippines/sunstar-pampanga/20170616/281663959996722
Koch, J. (2012). Teach: Student Edition. Wadsworth, USA.