3.4.1 Pilot test
The pilot test serves as a tool to examine the effectiveness of a questionnaire. Pilot testing can be viewed as a rehearsal of research survey, it priory test the survey on small scale of test participants before conducting the exact data collection process. The purpose is to test the appropriateness of the instructions to be measured to make sure the respondents are able to follow the direction as indicated. Moreover, the accurateness and ambiguity of the question were tested in order to make sure that the respondents understand and perceive the question in the same way. Besides, pilot testing allows researchers to obtain accurate information and to recruit for the total time taken for a particular survey to be completed in the real time.
There were total 30 sets of questionnaires has been issued through the online channel during the pilot testing. Respondents are required to give their own view on the question’s structure, complexity, and vagueness in the questionnaire. During the pilot test, simple and appropriate use of words and sentences, the easy understanding question must be considered to make sure the respondents able to understand the questionnaire well. After the collecting and analyzing the result from the pilot survey, positives feedbacks have been given by the respondent. Thus, the questionnaire is ready to be conducted among the actual target population.
3.4.2 Questionnaires design
Questionnaires are normally used to obtain data for a research study. It is considered as one of the research methods for the study that is able to obtain data/ information from massive numbers of respondents. In this research study, the construction of the questionnaires had implied the use of close-ended questions. In order to avoid misinterpretation, questions are constructed with straightforward and easy understanding question to enhance the understanding of the question by the respondents.
This questionnaire is designed with three various sections. Section A consists of seven questions related to the respondent’s demographic profile and general question such as gender, age, occupation, basic incomes, highest education level, the frequency of staying in a hotel and etc. These questions are constructed by using the nominal scale and ordinal scale. Respondents are required to answer the questions by selecting the answer among the multiple choices that are consistent with their own self the most.
Furthermore, in section B, questions are designed based on the four independent variables. The four variables are subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, perceived moral obligation, and environmental awareness. Each variable contains four to five questions. Questions in this section are applied with the Likert scale. Respondent is required to choose the answer among the 5 points of scales, strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly disagree.
Lastly, Section C focuses on the customer’s intention to stay in a green hotel. Questions in this section are designed similarly with section B which was Likert scale. Respondents are asked to select answer among the 5 point of scales.
3.5 Construct Measurement
3.5.1 Origin of Constructs
This research consists of 5 conducts and each of the constructs was adopted from at least one source.
Table 3.1: The Origin of Constructs
Construct Adopted from
Subjective norms •
Perceived behavioral Control •
Perceived Moral Obligation •
Environmental Awareness •
Intention to stay in a Green Hotel •
Source: Developed from the research
3.5.2 Scale of Measurement
Table 3.2: Demographic Profile of Respondent, Independent Variables and Dependent Variable Measurements
Section Variables Primary Scale of Measurement Scaling Technique
Section A: Demographic Profile Gender Nominal –
Age Ordinal –
Employment Status Ordinal –
Education Level Ordinal –
Income Ordinal –
Frequency staying in a hotel Ordinal –
Purpose staying in a hotel Ordinal –
Past experience of staying in a green hotel Nominal –
Section B: Independent Variables Subjective Norms Interval 5-Point Likert
Perceived Behavioral Control Interval 5-Point Likert
Perceived Moral Obligation Interval 5-Point Likert
Environmental Awareness Interval 5-Point Likert
Section C: Dependent Variable Intention To Stay in a Green Hotel Interval 5-Point Likert
Source: Developed for research
188.8.131.52 Nominal Scale
Section A and section C is suitable to measure with this method because it is used to differentiate from one category to another category by putting the code in every single category. The code is all in numerical form, the purpose of the code is helping the respondents to identify the characters (Brace, 2008). The following example was extracted from section C of the questionnaire.
Figure3.1: The extracted question from the survey
184.108.40.206 Ordinal Scale
This measurement was applied in section A and section C. This scale is carrying the meaningful ranking which allows the researchers to convey their result in the orderly manner (Guy, 2013). Following figure 3.2 was the example of the question.
Figure3.2: The sample questions taken from a survey
220.127.116.11 Likert Scale
The five Likert scales that use for identify the respondent intensity of agree and disagree on one question. The scale range is set from strongly disagree to strongly agree (1 to 5). This scale applied in section B because is easy to administer and process the data (Boone;Boone, 2012). The example of the Likert scale was showed below:
Figure 3.3: The extracted question