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???? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ?????. ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? 1665 ?? ????? ?????? “Journal des Scavans”. ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????? ????? ??? 1992 ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????????. ???? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? “?????? ???? ?????????” (????? 2014? ?. 17).

??? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? . ???? (2013) ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????… ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? (?. 1).

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??????? ??????? ??? ????? “??? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??????: ?????? ?????”? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? (??? ?????? ?????? 2012). ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????? “??? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??????: ????? ????????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????”? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? (??????? ???????? 2013).

?? ????? ?????? “????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????”? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? (???? ??????2013).

?? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???????.

????? ???????
?? ????? ???? ????. (2015). ???? ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????. Cybrarians journal: ????? 40. ???? ??? ?????? ??????
http://www.journal.cybrarians.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=705:wghida&catid=280:papers&Itemid=103554990039243000????? ?????. (2014). ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????. ???? ??? ?????? ??????
http://search.shamaa.org/PDF/Dissertation/LebUL/lu_ilam_2014_a23500_geageah.p df
5531485109537500????????? ???? ???? ???????. (2011). ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? 38? ???? 5. ???? ??? ?????? ??????
https://journals.ju.edu.jo/DirasatEdu/article/viewFile/3725/3047??? ??????? ???? ????? ? ?????. (2012). ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??????: ?????? ?????. ???? ??? ?????? ??????
file:///C:/Users/fatima.hemade/Downloads/4_2.pdf???????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ????. (2013). ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??????: ????? ????????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????. ????? ????????? ???? 35 (????? 113)? (122- 143). ???? ??? ?????? ??????
https://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=81807????? ??? ??????. (2010). ?????? ???? ?????????: ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????. ???? ????? ????? ??? ??????? (?? 16 , ? 1). ???? ??? ?????? ??????
file:///C:/Users/fatima.hemade/Downloads/%D8%B7%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%82%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%A8%D9%84%20%D9%81%D9%8A%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B1%D8%B4%D9%81%D8%A9%20%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D8%B4%D8%B1%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A22.pdf????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????. (2013). ????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????. ???? ???? ????- ?????? ?????????? ???? 21 (?????3)? (934-946). ???? ??? ?????? ??????
www.uobabylon.edu.iq/publications/humanities_edition9/humanities_ed9_10.doc?????????????
552386581026000???????? ????. (2017). ????? ??????? ??????? ????????. ????? ???? (???? ????? ??? ????????): ???? ??????: ?????? ??????. ???? ??? ?????? ??????
https://annabaa.org/arabic/authorsarticles/11372??? ??????? ?????. (2017). ?????? ??????? .. ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ???????. ????? ??????? (?????????). ???? ??? ?????? ??????
55270401143000http://www.alittihad.ae/details.php?id=8410&y=2017&article=full5530215520065003.???????? ????.(2007). ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????. ????? ??????. ???? ???
http://www.siironline.org/alabwab/derasat(01)/376.htm