Employability of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Hospitality Management Graduates Batch 2013-2016
A Research Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of the Hospitality Management
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Sta. Mesa, Manila
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the HORE 4113
Fundamentals of Research
Rose Marie C. Gierza
Glyden Joy P. Lomocso
Kristine Mae I. Tumampos
Problem and Its Setting
This chapter tackles about the Introduction, Theoretical Framework, Conceptual Framework, Statement of the Problem, Hypothesis, Scope and Limitations, Significance of the Study, and Definition of Terms that is used in this study.
Goodness is still the universal trait of people. Though there are always the bad, goodness is still felt more than the negative. There are lots of societies and nations around the world that takes pride in their smiles, warmth, and the ability to make you feel comfortable which is commonly known as hospitality. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes hospitality in the Encyclopedia as the virtue of a great soul that cares for the whole universe through the ties of humanity. There are different global concepts of hospitality but it just signifying only one and that is the care given for everyone regardless of race, religion, national affiliation or economic status.
The culture of hospitality in the world has its similarities and differences. But such country is known worldwide for having a rich culture of hospitality and that is the Philippines. Ask a non-Filipino to describe a Filipino in a word and you will most likely hear the word, ‘hospitable’. Filipinos treasure this trait so much for it is deeper than making one feel the warmth that is why having a hospitality centered course isn’t new to them. Therefore, the demand of the hospitality industry in the country is increasing as well as the demand for hospitality courses. For them, being hospitable is also more genuine than a full smile.
BS in Hospitality Management (BSHM) former BS in Hotel and Restaurant Management (BSHRM) is a general hospitality centered course that provides knowledge, skills enhancement and proper training to those who want to be in the field of hospitality industry. There are schools who offer BS in Hospitality Management and place “tourism”, “hotel and restaurant management” and “travel management” as fields of specializations. However, there are also schools that have completely different programs for those three specializations (BS Tourism, BS in Travel Management and BS Hotel and Restaurant Management).
The Polytechnic University of the Philippines is one of the top ranking universities in the Philippines which offer BSHM/BSHRM since 1978. (Tracer study of BSHRM Batch 2010; as a basis for curriculum enhancement, 2016).The College of Tourism, Hospitality and Transportation Management is a vital arm of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Its vision and mission are anchored on the University’s thrust to turn itself into an Epistemic Community. The College of Tourism, Hospitality and Transportation Management (CTHTM) was established in 2001 when the Hospitality Management (former Hotel and Restaurant Management) program and Tourism program were separated from the College of Hotel and Restaurant Management and Food Technology and the College of Business CITATION Pol l 13321 (Polytechnic University of the Philippines Website, n.d.). Being one of the well-known state universities in the country, PUP is expected to have an effective academic quality.
Academic quality and education can mean different things to different people, depending on their perspective but one thing is for sure, evaluating it is notoriously difficult. It is hard to know which university performs the best quality of education that could lead students to a better career in the future.
One of the factors that determine the effectiveness of an academic institution is through the employability of its graduates. The current status of the graduates can mirror how equipped they are with the knowledge, skills and values the institution taught them.
Tracer study is one of the effective methods which are primarily needed to locate graduates of academic institution, past recipient of scholarship grants, former participants among other situation in order to collect data and update information about this type of people.
This study will track down graduate’s employment status of the university hospitality management alumni batch 2013-2016 in order to seek and develop continuous feedback from their alma mater. It will serve as a basis for the development of the curriculum. It is likewise regulating document efficiency and support on the demographic profile of a certain institution that can be measured through the quality of graduates.
This paper will use the Career EDGE Model and the USEM model for the reason to know the factors that affecting the employability of a graduate. In the area of employability, the chosen theories are well-known and respected.
Figure 1.The Career EDGE Model of Graduate Employability
CITATION Lor07 l 13321 (Swell, 2007)
The development of this model was to avoid the credence that when the term ’employability’ is not only about the employment or just about the developing of skills, though this is an important facet it is not the complete picture. Usage of this model will help to construe that employability involves broader progress of students to graduate to face whatever the future will offer to them. It features that it is indispensable to students to know and estimate their experiences to expand the levels of their self-efficacy, self-confidence, and self esteem which is pivotal links to employability. Career EDGE has key components namely career development learning (CDL), experience, degree subject knowledge skills and understanding, generic skills, and emotional intelligence which compose the lower tier of the model.
Career Development Learning (CDL)
This will help the students to form knowledge, skills, and attitudes to manage their career. They need to be articulate on how their stay in their university developed both their personality and professionalism. It will make them to make decision more informed, to be competitive in labor market to achieve their full career potential.
Experience (Work and Life)
It likely tackles that students who have work experience in line with their program of study easily gain employment after graduation and those who don’t have experience will have a hard time adjusting to the new environment of their work since they left the university with little knowledge about the nature and culture of a work place.
Degree Subject Knowledge Skills and Understanding
Indeed, it is the heart of the Career EDGE since students should have study and finish a specific degree considering that it is what the employers are seeking when accepting employee.
Employers are looking for employees that have develop their skills, knowledgeable and understanding of a specific area but they further look for someone who have develop their generic skills in different area of work. Some of these skills are creativity, flexibility and good communication.
One should pay attention to their own and other feelings to build good relation with their colleague, enjoy more their work and to promote good health.
Through the process of evaluation and reflection they are able to develop their self-efficacy, self-confidence, and self esteem
Figure 2. Understanding, Skillful practices, Efficacy belief Meta-cognition (USEM) Model.
CITATION Man06 l 13321 (Knight, Learning & Employability , 2006)Another model to be used in this study is the USEM Model which was constructed by Knight and Yorke in 2004 for the Skills Plus Project Assessment, Learning and Workforce. It has four broad areas which are the understanding, skillful practices, efficacy beliefs, and meta-cognition which really is the acronym for USEM.
Understanding the subject matter
Application of the knowledge they gain that might help in their employability
It is how a graduate see their self worth and the way they improve themselves.
Analysis and awareness of oneself about the knowledge of strategies of learning in problem solving, support and promote the life-long learning.
The researchers use the Career Edge Model of Graduate Employability and the USEM Model whereas it easily and clearly explained the concept of employability. Each term in the model is an important factor also in contributing higher employability rate. It will also help the educators to generate skilled graduate and produced good employee.
The chart shows the conceptual framework of the study.
BSHM Graduates Batch 2013-2016
BSHM Graduates Batch 2013-2016
199072560325Adaptation of questionnaire from the Tracer Study of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Distribution of questionnaire
Gathering the data
Interpretation of the data
Presentation of the data
00Adaptation of questionnaire from the Tracer Study of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Distribution of questionnaire
Gathering the data
Interpretation of the data
Presentation of the data
409575060325Determine the employment rate of the BSHM graduate batch 2013-2016
Know the effectiveness of the knowledge and skills the graduate gain from the university.
Building connection with the alumni
00Determine the employment rate of the BSHM graduate batch 2013-2016
Know the effectiveness of the knowledge and skills the graduate gain from the university.
Building connection with the alumni
. The input box the Career Edge and USEM model which will be a guide to accomplish this study, BSHM graduate batch 2013-2016, the survey questionnaire, studies and literature.
The input are processed by adaptation of questionnaire from the tracer study of Polytechnic University of the Philippines, distribution, gathering and interpreting of it.
The output of the processed inputs will result to determine the employment rate of BSHM graduate batch 2013-2016, to know the effectiveness of the knowledge and skills the graduate gain from the university and to build connection with the alumna.
The feedback in this conceptual framework is to show the effectiveness of the school program and to reduce the rates of college graduates who are not able to find job and to avoid mismatching between the degree and the job requirement.
Statement of the Problem
The aim of the study is to determine the employment status of the Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management graduates batch 2013-2016 of Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
Socio-demographic profile of the graduates
How did the graduates developed the qualities that the Understanding, Skillful practices, Efficacy belief Meta-cognition (USEM) Model requires toward employability in the university
Is there a significant difference in the assessment of the knowledge and skill of the educators, student respondents, and those who practices a profession on?
5.1 Career development learning
5.3 Degree subject knowledge, skills and understanding
5.4 Generic skills
5.5 Emotional intelligence
The hypothesis that stated below will be tested in this study:
There is a difference in the assessment of the knowledge and skill of the educators, student respondents, and those who practices a profession on Career development learning, Experience, Degree subject knowledge, skills and understanding, Generic skills, Emotional intelligence.
Scope and Limitation
This study seeks for the employability of the graduates and if they are in line with the Hospitality industry. The researchers aim to know if the hospitality management graduates of Polytechnic University of the Philippines do have enough knowledge and trainings earned from the university on which it serves as their edge towards the real world of the industry. The target respondents of this study are the graduates from Polytechnic University of the Philippines with the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management from batch 2013 to 2016. The graduates from this year may easy to find with the help of social media. The researchers are expected to have a small number of respondents since they have a limited time which is two months to distribute the questionnaire. This study is conducted to give information for future readers to enhance the hospitality students and the university to build graduates that is globally competitive.
The focus of this study is to find the graduates of Hospitality Management from year 2013 to 2016 in the Polytechnic University in the Philippines to trace their employability status and for the researchers to give some recommendation to improve the students in the university especially to the department of Hospitality Management.
Significance of Study
The findings of this study will serves as a guide for the students, the professor, the department of Hospitality Management, and the future readers of this study.
This study may help the Hospitality Management students to know what are the possible career they may achieve and the struggles they may encounter upon entering the real world of the industry.
The professors benefit this study by improving their method of teaching to boost the student performance. Department
For the department, they will have an idea to what courses or subject they should focus more and what to disregard. They can also enhance the facilities of the university for the coming students.Future readers
This research will give enough information from the data they will gathered that could help the readers what happened to the graduates of the Hospitality Management in the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. The purpose of this study is to let the future readers to be aware on how Hospitality Management graduates are effective and competitive.
Definition of terms
The terms that were described in this part of the paper is essential to facilitate the comprehension of terms being utilized operationally and theoretically. Some terms are used interchangeably or may have the same function.
Career Development Learning (CDL): provides students with the skills and knowledge to plan and manage career options and outcomes and to improve their employability. (http://mams.rmit.edu.au/m2475ihxl5a2.pdf)
Credence: A mental acceptance as true or real (www.merriam-webster.com)
Construe: To understand or explain the sense or intention of usually in a particular way or with respect to a given set of circumstances (www.merriam-webster.com)
Curriculum: the course that are taught by a college. (Merriam Webster, 1828)
Demographic profile: a description of a particular type of person, including their sex, age, income, etc.: (dictionary.cambridge.org)
Emotional Intelligence: The measure of an individual’s abilities to recognise and manage their emotions, and the emotions of other people, both individually and in groups. (http://www.skillsyouneed.com/general/emotional-intelligence.html)
Employability: Refers to a person that is capable to have a job and getting paid for it.
Equipped: To furnish with intellectual or emotional resources; prepare (www.dictionary.com)
Facet: Any of the definable aspects that make up a subject (www.merriam-webster.com)
Generic skill: One which is not specific to work in a particular occupation or industry, but is important for work, education and life generally (https://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/generic-skills/12058)
Graduate: A person who has successfully completed studies at a school or received a degree from a college or university. (https://dictionary.campbridge.org/us/dictionary/english/graduate)
Hospitable: generous and friendly to guests or visitors (Merriam Webster,1828)
Hospitality Industry: It is a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry. (www.definitions.net)
Indispensable: Absolutely necessary (www.merriam-webster.com)
Knowledge: Refers to the awareness of people on a thing from an experience or learning.
Pivotal: Vitally important (www.merriam-webster.com)
Privilege: Refers to an advantage of one person to another on a specific thing.
Program: is an academic and career plan developed by the university to help move towards a career path.
Tracer Study: Defined as study to trace graduates of higher education institute (https://prezi.com)
Quality Education: It is one that provides all learners with capabilities they require to become economically productive, develop sustainable livelihoods, contribute to peaceful and democratic societies and enhance individual well-being. (www.ovvb.be)
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth search done by the researchers. This will also present the synthesis of the art to fully understand the research to be done and the definition of terms for better comprehension of the study.
Tracer study is an approach which widely being used in most organization especially in the educational institutions to track and to keep record of their students once they have graduated from the institution. Through tracer study, an institution is able to evaluate the quality of education given to their graduates by knowing the graduates job status and positions in the society which later can be used as a standard in producing more qualified and competitive graduates. There are books, articles and studies that could be useful as a tool for studying the present topic which is “Employability of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Hospitality Management Graduates Batch 2013-2016”.
In the book Employment and Career Opportunities after Graduation by Arcelo and Sanyal, the existence of a huge number of educated unemployed can lead to a certain amount of political instability in a country, for they being among the educated class and knowledgeable about the privileges society can offer, feel doubly deprived. In this matter, the analysis of the unemployment situation in the Philippines shown that the young graduates is still in the job-hunting stage.CITATION Arc871 p 123 l 13321 (Arcelo, 1987, p. 123)According to the book, Contemporary Social Problems and Issues, the educational levels and literacy rates of workers in the Philippines are among the highest in Asia, but technical, manual and managerial are poorly developed and in short supply. There is an over-abundance of college graduates that most especially in Manila area were in the field of education, law and other professionals exceed in demand to find employment appropriate to his educational training. The authors wants to show on how did the graduates will used their skills and trainings to gained and developed the technical, manual and managerial skills that Filipino workers are lack of. This is the realization that even college graduates may find it difficult to be employed if they are not well-equipped of trainings and programs that their college had.CITATION San97 p 196 l 13321 (Sanches, 1997, p. 196)The Philippines may go beyond the standing of employment in the country rights and importance should be understood. As specified in the book of Labor Economics by Cristobal M. Pagoso, it states that in view of low literacy rates in rising unemployment in developing countries it has become imperative that greater educational opportunities should be provided for the great proportion of adult population as well as the large number of youth outside the formal school system to help them acquire further knowledge and skill thereby improve their livelihood and strengthen the country.CITATION Pag1 p 82 l 13321 (Pagoso, p. 82)Employment is the capacity of an individual to showcase his talent and to use the trainings gathered in course program, Thomas Powers on his book “Educating for Careers” stated the notion that marketable skills provided today’s crop of worker’s employment opportunities. The statement of Powers is relevant to the present study because he pointed out that education is very important in having the marketability and general skills needed in finding an appropriate job. In this study, it helps to develop such skills among the college graduates for them to find or to get an appropriate job. CITATION Tho l 13321 (Powers)The book, Unemployment and the Dual Labor Market stressed that the unemployment is the outgrowth of a process of job search where workers have limited information about the labor market. On the other hand, people who first begin looking for jobs lack basic information will help the graduates to disseminate the rejection of jobs to higher expectations. This book mainly wants to view that job searching is a wide-process action where in job-seekers should gain more knowledge or information that will reaches their satisfaction on what and where to find jobs that will bring out their profession. CITATION Doe80 l 13321 (Doeringer, 1980)Philippine society nowadays has encountered so many problems in terms of labor or employment. As it is stated in the book, Labor- only contracting in a “cabo” economy that some economist would justify labor- only contracting as our only weapon to remain competitive. Therefore, some of the workers are seeking for better employment opportunities abroad for a high salary. In the case of the graduates nowadays, their first problem is seeking job after graduation. Knowingly that it is very hard to find a job suitably to their graduated course right away after graduation that may cause to trigger them to work not aligned to the profession they graduate for their usual reason is the salary that they can get right away. CITATION Kap06 l 13321 (Kapunan, 2006)Related Studies
Jarito Verona, “A Tracer Study of the Employment Status of PUPQC AY 2004-2005″, The study determine the general profile and the present employment status of the respondents which are the graduates of Polytechnic University of the Philippines academic year 2004-2005. This research tackles about the tracer study that uses as a method in which is primarily intended to locate graduates of academic institution, past recipient of scholarship grants, former participants and among other situation in order to collect data and update information about this type of people. This kind of study is also tool to generate or influence decision making and planning of a certain institution about the development of the curriculum. It is likewise regulating document efficiency and support on the demographic profile of a certain institution that can be measure through the quality of graduates. CITATION htt1 l 13321 (htt1)Alcovendas and Espares, ” A Tracer Study of AB English Honor Graduates from 1987-2009″ the study discusses that AB English honor graduates are gainfully employed have sufficient annual income, have a tendency of staying long in the company, have moderate satisfaction in their present job, indicating a lack of sense of fulfillment in their capabilities, and a feeling of insufficiency in the returns they get for their hard work. The statement of Alcovendas and Espares is relevant to the present study because employability is not limited only to those who are being well-train and it is always open to all even to those handicapped.
The researchers find out that when it comes to level of job satisfaction, honor graduates are found to be satisfied with their current job. With these, the graduates will improve learning and communication through experiences. Furthermore, graduate students expose to real, actual and practical situations such as seminars, workshops and conferences are strategies that may better prepare them for future employment. CITATION Alc13 l 13321 (Alcovendas, 2013)According to some part of the journal entitled “Journal of Education and Literature” Preparing the students to become globally competitive graduates with leadership capabilities and professional integrity would set them to boundless opportunities anywhere in the world of business. The sense of unity, fairness and nationalism would give them pride of being Filipinos who make a difference in any field of work and worthy undertakings. Lyceans have the perseverance to achieve all their dreams in the most specified time without being tired of facing new challenges, meeting with different nationalities and breaking world boundaries. CITATION Dot14 l 13321 (Dotong, 2014)Another journal entitled “Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences” proves that Extreme qualification and ample requirements are the primary reasons why most of the graduates do not want to work abroad. Most of them are working in the hotels and fast food stores. Most of them also have their jobs relevant to their field of expertise and are regular employees. Those who work internationally receive more than those who work locally or in the Philippines. It doesn’t also mean that if the company is big, the salary is also big. In addition, majority of the graduates acquired their first job in less than three months after their graduation.CITATION DeC17 p 41-47 l 13321 (De Castro G. L., 2017, pp. 41-47)Such study entitled “Unemployment among Malaysia Graduates: Graduates attributes, lecturers’ stated that competencies and quality education” concluded that effective skills training will produce graduates who are educated and skillful before entering the working field. Besides, it will also produce graduates with a good working ethics, proactive and able to solve problems related to the work. A graduate is selected to fulfil a post because the employer believes that the individual has a better knowledge and working skills as compared to other candidates. CITATION Han13 l 13321 (Hanapi, 2013) The study Employability of Diploma in Hotel and Restaurant Management graduates Laguna State Polytechnic University Siniloan Campus S.Y. 2005-2006 answers the questions on the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their employability. It proves that the male is more employed in killed level positions while the female, in entry level position CITATION Tor08 l 13321 (Torbela, G., & M., 2008)
According to (Management, 2011) cited the worked of CITATION Campbell2002 l 13321 (Campbell & Rozsnyai, 2002) education in its broadest that has a formative effect on the mind, character, and physical ability of an individual. It is also the process which the society of transmitting the knowledge, skills, and value from one generation to another. The Hospitality Industry has been a key in the economic life of every nation. The hospitality industry’s increasing growth rate has the importance of finding good employees, especially youth workers, which is one of the priority. College of Business, 2011
The department should enforce discipline on the HRM students who are not taking their studies seriously. The beneficiaries of this are the students themselves when they join the workforce to apply confidently the HRM knowledge and skills they have acquired in school.CITATION Tra15 l 13321 (Fronda & Villanueva, 2015)In the study conducted by Lalican (2007) she emphasized that the acquisition of knowledge in the undergraduate specialization, skills and competencies will also promote productivity, efficiency and expertise in the graduates’ present job. CITATION Cru14 l 13321 (Cruz & Nida, 2014)The result of the perception between employers and undergraduates on employability skills such as qualities of stress tolerance and emotional intelligence are perceived to have been moderately developed by graduates. Furthermore, such qualities as integrity and honesty, responsibility, positive attitude toward work, and punctuality also reported as employability skills for graduates to be employed. CITATION DrM14 l 13321 (Dr. Menez, 2014)In the study of Cook (1999) as cited by (Labaria J. J., 2016) stated that job satisfaction is conceptualized as a multi- dimensional measure on a continuum ranging from not satisfied at all to very satisfied and is composed of several components such as satisfaction with pay, promotion opportunities, and relationships with management and co-workers. The assumption is made that people will not like all aspects of their jobs equally. In the study of Smith (2003) as cited by (Labaria J. J., Job 2016) stated that employees are more satisfied when they have challenging opportunities at work. This includes chances to participate in interesting projects, jobs with a satisfying degree of challenge and opportunities for increased responsibility. This is not simply “promotional opportunity.” As organizations have become flatter, promotions can be rare. People have found challenge through projects, team leadership, special assignments-as well as promotions.
The studies of Menez and Ylagan (2011) and Buted and Menez (2005) cited from the study of CITATION DrC13 l 13321 (Dr. Celis, Mr. Festijo, & Engr. Cueto, 2013) whose findings revealed that there is a high demand for job opportunities of BS HRM and that the graduates of the said program immediately find employment along their field of specialization. In addition, there is a high demand for hospitality and tourism practitioners which means that graduates can easily get a job because of the demand of the hospitality industry. They also noted that majority of their graduates were working in the Philippines which implies the job opportunities outside the country require ample work experience. According to CITATION Placeholder1 l 13321 (De Castro G. L., 2017) The Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management is one of the in demand courses nowadays because of the increased number of industries in tourism, accommodation, restaurant, etc. However, in the study of (Fronda and Villanueva,2015)they found notable findings that most of their HRM graduates work abroad. This indicates that their institution produces globally competitive human resource.
Synthesis of the Related Literature and Studies
The collected data shown above from related literature and studies will help the study to be more significant. Details presented will be the guide in analyzing the result of the study. This study feature significant details.
A Tracer Study of the Employment Status of PUPQC AY 2004-2005 that tracer study will locate the status of employability of graduate and to help the curriculum improve their program for better providing of well skilled graduates.
Another is the study of Cook (1999) cited by Labaria in 2016 is about the job satisfaction that is multi-dimensional measure of the not satisfied up to the very satisfy. Satisfaction has component such as satisfaction with pay, promotion opportunities, and relationships with management and co-workers.
Job satisfaction increases with higher family dependence on employee wages, and that permanent contracts or greater length of service do not increase job satisfaction levels, but working part time does. CITATION San14 l 13321 (Santa Cruz, Lopez-Guzman Tomas, & Cañizares, 2014)