AMERICAN MEDIA STUDIES PAPER
Google Has Stifled Competition in the 60 Minutes on CBS

Written by:
Erika Putri Damayanti
13020115120035
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF HUMANITIES
DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY
SEMARANG
2018
Google Has Stifled Competition in the 60 Minutes on CBS
Erika Putri Damayanti
13020115120035
Abstract
In this research paper, the writer would like to analyze a news program called 60 Minutes on CBS and the news that discussed entitled How did google get so big?. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze an American television program, American television industry, and the viewers. This research paper uses Neo-Marxism theory. Meanwhile the method uses close viewing. The discovery of this research paper is Google dominates the world technology market by monopolizing search engine and advertising. In conclusion, Google may be engaged in technology, but its business is advertising and Google manipulated its search algorithms to promote its own products and services.

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Keywords: American Television, 60 Minutes, CBS, Close Viewing, Neo Marxism
INTRODUCTION
America has many various media used in daily life. The media are useful for conveying information from people who live in one place to people who live in other places so that the distribution will be more efficient. Media can be classified into three, they are print media, electronic media and internet. Electronic media is the most widely used media by Americans because it has many interesting programs. One of electronic media is Television. According to Erik Barnouw (1990:6), Television in the United States has been shaped to a considerable extent by events in these older, related media. On average, Americans spend four to five hours watching a television per day. American television provides many programs and entertainments, such as news, tv shows, tv series, animation and so on. Every program has their audiences, for example adults will tend to watch news rather than animation.
In the 21st century, we can easily get information through news programs that broadcasted on television either local news, national news or International news. Most of Americans choose to watch the news program that is trusted. One of the trusted news program in America is called 60 Minutes, which is a part of CBS News that broadcasted on CBS once a week. 60 Minutes is the most successful news program in America’s history. They have professional news anchors so that many Americans choose to watch this program rather than other news programs. The success of this program is also supported by the television industry CBS. CBS is one of the largest American television networks, and many other well-known television programs under this industry.

The news that broadcasted by 60 minutes are discussed in depth by interviewing many resources according to their disciplines. One of the news that will be discussed entitled How did Google get so big?. This news revealed the illegal acts committed by Google that has not been known by the society. The information obtained from experts who have proved the truth.

The purpose of this study is to analyze American television programs called 60 Minutes, the industry of American television, and the viewers who watched the program. This topic was identified as being of importance to the readers to show the influences of American television in American society.

THEORY AND METHODS
In this research paper, the writer uses Neo-Marxism theory. Neo-Marxism theory is used frequently to describe opposition to inequalities experienced by developed countries in a globalized world and as an approach to economics which stresses the monopolistic nature of modern capitalism. Baran and Sweezy (1968) argued that capitalism was now in the period of ‘monopoly system’. Big companies dominated the world economy and could exploit developing countries. Baran argued that the government of these developing countries should intervene and prevent funds that could be used for the development of country and as country’s profits. The reason for using this theory is that nowadays our economy is dominated by media and technology. Media, such as television can easily influence public opinion which can also give influence to politics. Meanwhile, technology has significant influences on society, especially in economic. The rapidly expanding media and technology mostly comes from developed countries, such as North America and European countries. The biggest technology companies for example Google Corporation comes from the United States. The company without our realization has exploited people all over the world and gives negative impacts to small companies with the manipulative business they do, like search engine and advertising. They get big profits by this business. Neo-Marxists agree that the media and technology help to put across an ideology that supports capitalism through the result of action taken by media and technology owner. People who is powerful and dominate the economy and politics can determine and control which news is worthy to display in the media, especially television. The Neo-Marxist theory also views social class by having productive asset and the labor power of others, for example property.

This research paper uses close viewing methods. The writer uses this method because the object is an audiovisual. Close viewing is a method of literary work that viewing and reviewing the object carefully to understand what the filmmaker trying to convey to us. We have to concern on the images, sounds, editing, narration, and the purpose of the program itself. Close viewing ensures the students to become critical and smart viewers by understanding what is the content of the program they have watched.

OBJECT
Google is the most powerful technology company. It has changed our lives. It becomes default setting on our computer or phone whenever we open the internet browser. Google is worth more than three-quarters of a trillion dollars, and it does not get that big by accident. Google has obtained more than 200 companies. It bought YouTube, Android, DoubleClick. Google dominates several markets. In fact, it is a monopoly in both search engine and advertising. Google also controls the access of internet. We can say that Google does not have any competitor because Bing only has 2% of the market and Google has 90%. Google may be engaged in technology, but its business is advertising. Google’s promise was to organize the world’s information but in reality Google was doing what is best for itself. The top result of pages that it shows and offers in the forefront web page is its own companies or other companies that work together with Google. In fact, many other companies are more potential but usually they are shown on the page four because Google is trying to get rid of their rivals as much as possible by pushing their contents in the last pages where it is less likely to be seen. Google was manipulating its search algorithms to promote its own products and services. However, Google denied that it does illegal things and was manipulating in both search or advertising. it says it does not make changes to its algorithm to disadvantage competitors and that it’s Google’s responsibility to shows the best result to users.

In this research paper the writer discusses an American television program from CBS channel, it is 60 Minutes. The program is not only broadcasted on television, it is also can be accessed and viewed on their website https://www.cbsnews.com/60-minutes/. This study is classified as electronic material objects because television is an audiovisual. Meanwhile, according to the formal object, this study is classified as electronic objects because television is an electronic media for displaying information and entertainment through sounds and images.

ANALYSIS
The Television Program
60 Minutes is an American news program that broadcasted on CBS channel. It premiered for the first time on September 24, 1968. 60 Minutes airs every Sunday at 7 P.M. ET/PT. It is the most successful American television program in America’s history. This program offers the current events, the report of investigations, interviews, features, and people’s profiles in the news. 60 Minutes has many viewers, about 12.4 million viewers. In certain topics 60 Minutes chooses the speakers who are highly qualified depend on their disciplines. The team work and viewers’ responses lead this program to win many awards. It has won 138 Emmy Awards, 20 Peabody and 16 duPont-Columbia University Awards for excellence in television broadcasting. The following are the crews of 60 Minutes, the program’s executive producer is Jeff Fager and the correspondents and contributors of 60 Minutes are Anderson Cooper, Steve Kroft, Lara Logan, Norah O’Donnell, Scott Pelley, Lesley Stahl, Oprah Winfrey and Bill Whitaker.

This research paper discusses one of the 60 Minutes’ news entitled How did Google get so big? It is broadcasted on Sunday, May 20th 2018 at 7 P.M. ET/PT presented by Steve Kroft. This program shows how Google manipulates the search engine and advertising with algorithms to promote its own products and services. The data were collected by 60 Minutes by interviewing some experts such us Gary Reback who is the most prominent antitrust lawyers, Jonathan Taplin who is a digital media expert, and Jeremy Stoppelman who is co-founder of Yelp.

The Television Industry
CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American broadcast television network that works under CBS Corporation. The company itself is located in New York City. CBS is founded on September 18, 1927 by Arthur Judson. It becomes big three television networks along with ABC (American Broadcasting Company) and NBC (National Broadcasting Company). CBS owns the most-watched television network in the United States compared other networks. This is available in every state in the United States because CBS is a national channel.

The Viewers
60 Minutes as a television news program that usually watched by both middle and upper class because the contents require a high reason to understand. People choose to watch this program because they may need information, but they do not have much time to read the newspaper. Upper class might rely on news as the sources of information. They use news as a topic while talking to their business partners and colleagues. Meanwhile, middle class people, they often spend a lot of time watching news reports seeing the current events that happened either in national or international. All of races in American society watch news, from Whites, Blacks, Hispanic or Latin, Asians, and even Native Americans. However, children tend to find the news boring, too serious, or emotionally disturbing.
According to journalism.org, television remain to be the dominant platform to get news for Americans. As we can see from the graph 1 there are 57% of Americans get news from television. In the graph 2, it shows which age group who often watch news on television. The most audience are from the age 65+ with 85%. Americans who are in the age 50-64 has 72%. The next one is Americans who are around the age 30-49, it has 45%. And the last one with 27% is Americans who are in the age 18-29. Old people and American adults tend to get news by watching a television, whereas teenagers choose to get them from online.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, television as media use to convey information by displaying sounds and images. One of American television programs is 60 Minutes that broadcasted on CBS. On Sunday, May 20th 2018 the program discussed a news entitled How did Google get so big?. It was presented by Steve Kroft. This program shows how Google manipulates the search engine and advertising with algorithms to promote its own products and services. According to the news the writer used Neo-Marxism theory and Close Viewing methods. 60 Minutes itself is the most successful American television program in America’s history. Because of the interesting programs they have CBS owns the most-watched television network in the United States compared other networks. The viewers are American adults both from upper class and middle class. They come from all races in the United States. They watch news program because they need information about the current events that occurred either in national or international.

APPENDIX

Graph 1 and 2
References
Barnouw, Erik. 1990. Tube of Plenty: The Evolution of American Television, 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
http://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/pathways-to-news/, accessed on May 21st, 2018.

https://www.cbsnews.com/60-minutes/about-us/, accessed on May 21st, 2018.

https://www.facinghistory.org/resource-library/teaching-strategies/close-viewing-protocol, accessed on May 24th, 2018
Kroft, Steve. “How did Google get so big?”. CBS. 60 Minutes. May 20th 2018.

Willies, Katie. 2011. Theories and Practices of development. New York: Routledge.