Antibodies or immunoglobulin’s are protein molecule generated a through a specialized group of cells called B-lymphocyes. The invasive foreign substance specially antigens attack the defense system of our body. Antibodies are part of defense system of our body which protect from antigens. Each substance contain a unique substance determinant (epitops). The main reason for the antigen specificity is the complimentary determinative regions (CDRs) of antibodies. When an antigen comes in contact with body’s defense system, various antibodies are made from B-lymphocyte. These form of antigens are termed as polyclonal antibody which might react with specific antigen. There are many difficulties for using polyclonal antibodies for therapeutic and diagnostic use.
Monoclonal antibodies are single kind of antibody that is specific for a particular epitope. It had been a dream of scientist to produce monoclonal antibody for various antigens. Within a few years, animals were immunized against a specific antigen and B-lymphocytes had been collected and cultured in vitro for producing MABs. This approach became failed since culturing nomal B-lymphocytes were troublesome. The antibodies produced by this method were short-lived and restrained.
In 1975, George Kohler and Cesar Milstein achieved large scale manufacturing of MABs. They fused antibody producing B-lymphocytes with myeloma cells to produce a hybridoma cell in vitro.
Immortalized B-lymphocytes will multiply indefinitely and produce MABs. The expansion and multiplying properties of myeloma cell secrete antibody of B lymphocyte. The production of monoclonal antibody by hybridoma cell is referred to as hybridoma technology. To provide desired antibody in large amount hybridoma cells are used.