Bruner felt that it was vital for a child to obtain the fundamental principles of a subject. His theoretical framework is that learning is an active process and pupils construct new ideas and concepts based upon existing knowledge; like Piaget, he used three phases to develop his theory on modes of representation (how a pupil may think of an object). Each mode is dominant at different stages of development but all are present and accessible at all times. The first stage (0-3)he termed was “enactive”. It involves encoding action based information and storing it in the child’s memory. Taking muscle memory as an example, a baby might remember the action of shaking a rattle. The second stage was named “iconic”, where learning can be obtained through using models and forms of images. When a child is learning a new subject, it is often useful to have diagrams or illustrations when explaining a topic. The third stage is “symbolic” in which the learner develops the capacity to think in abstract terms, using language as a symbol. Based on this three-stage notion, Bruner recommended using a combination of concrete, pictorial and then symbolic activities which will lead into more effective learning. This holds true even for adult learners.