Introduction to chapter 01
This chapter explains the underlying factors regarding the research topic. This inaugurate the topic along with the company’s background and justifies it with relevant details. This also includes the problem statement and justifies the problem. Research question is stated accompanying the specific objective and general objectives.
Topic: An Empirical Study of the Environmental Factors and its Effectiveness in Employee Engagement at Orel Corporation.
Introduction to the topic
Today’s world is entirely globalized, which has become the dominant to any industry in the market. Which means that the global environment today is much more different than it way 10 years ago. This may be because of environmental conditions shifting according to global trends. These environmental factors are influencing everyone in the society for their survival. There is a huge competition between everyone and organization to sustain in the market. To keep going in the competitive market organizations have found out that it is essential to grasp a positive workforce who are capable to manage different environmental changes. It is not easy for a company to practice, but for their success in the industry, companies need to make sure that they follow a positive practice to retain such employees. To retain the employees, it is necessary to have a genuine employee engagement towards their job and their company.
The force of employee engagement is that it is the heart of the employment relationship. It is about what people do and how they behave in their roles and what makes them act in ways that further the achievement of the objectives of both organization and themselves. A confidant that can be gained by the employees from their employer absolutely leads to positive impact in their employer-employee relationship. As a result, this will lead to a perfect employee engagement. This is important for both parties, for employers it is vital for their overall success and for the employees this helps them to find out their individuality within themselves. Quality products and services can only be received if there is a strong employee engagement in the organization.
To nourish the organization with energetic workforce it is important for the organization to recruit employees who can show a strong commitment towards their respective roles. Environmental factors influence the behaviour of individuals and the role they play in their organizations. Employees and employers in the organization nowadays takes decisions considering relevant environmental factors. This can be internal or external factors. However, both plays a role in any decision taken by an individual. Environmental factors can easily dominate individuals because mankind can be simply controlled by others.
In this globalized world mainly, technology has taken over everything that happens around an individual. To be a successful person even a person who perform a minor job needs to know how to handle technological devices. Whatever the company an individual work, without knowing at least the basic technology he or she will find it uncomfortable to work. To have a proper engagement with the organization individuals need to have enough knowledge about technology.
Not a single individual will be satisfied with their job if they were not compensated for the job they perform. Monetary factors are the main factor that fulfils the employee’s need which they expect from the organization. Cost of living is high considered to the past so receiving good amount of compensation has become a basic need for an individual. As an employer it is necessary to look at the cost of living when deciding the monetary factor for everyone.
A standard model of a successful organization is depending on its leadership. It is the art of influencing people to perform their respective jobs in a productive manner. Leaders are being considered as the key leaders of an organization. It is necessary for the organization to investigate individual’s leadership skills when recruiting. Better leadership brings up better employment, which is necessary to receive quality products and services. Leadership should be used as a key resource in an organization rather than a controlling component for the employees.
This research analyses the effectiveness of technology, monetary factors ad leadership in employee engagement at Orel Corporation Pvt Ltd.
Background to the organization
Orel corporation is an electrics company which was born as an orange selling business in 1929. Which later became a pioneer distributer of automotive spare parts in the country with the trade name of Orient Commercial Company. The birth of orient commercial company bought up a drastic change to the company. It diversified into luxury export business of gems for international jewellers such as Cartier in 1977. A they had a place in the market. The launch of Clipsal switch and sockets took place with 25 staffs.
As soon as the management was handed over to Kushan Kodituwaku a new vison was established. This was the time, where Orange Electrics entered the industry in 2004. The research they took over on cables wires was success, so it was distributed all around Sri Lanka in 2007. Orange Electrics was expanded into industrial manufacturing imports and exports. The exports were around ten countries at the beginning. The innovative introduction of CFL Bulb Recycling and Copper Recycling added more to life with electricity. Orange Electrics obtained SLS, ISO, IEC, British Standards and Italian Standards. Which led Orange Electrics to enhance their market space in the world, currently it is active in 25 countries around the world.
Orange Electrics is known as Sri Lankan ingenuity with the world’s leading technologies. It is later named as Orel Corporation. Orel is keen at delivering Electrical, Lighting, Industrial and IT related products. Orel confirm that innovation and technology as their essence of Orel Culture. They value in moulding their people to be upstanding individuals with principles such as simplicity, honesty and candidness.
The dominant core values of Orel Corporation follow are perseverance, enthusiastic, patience, honesty learn to go for the greater good, high moral values, loyalty, generosity, equanimity and learn through experience. Orel has connected with people of Sri Lanka with their products by having 3200 employees as their workforce.
The study which was selected for Orel Corporation is to ensure that the employees are having a positive employee engagement regarding environmental factors such as technology, monetary factors and leadership.
Justification of the study
In today’s competitive market scope for employees are drastically high, therefore, it has become a threat for companies to retain their employees. Individual’s nowadays are showing more concern on themselves, as they give more priority to their own growth than considering their co-workers expectations of the employees are very high. It is necessary for the employer to satisfy the expectations of the employees. To satisfy, the main factor to be concerned is what are the expectations of the employees. To study that, a proper evaluation must be taken, this does not only include the expectation but also what are the factors mainly influencing them. Environmental factors are playing a major role in influencing individuals for their survival.
The factors which influence the employee’s expectations are corelated to how much the employees are engaged to their job and the organization. To study further, the researcher is focusing mainly only three environmental factors, which are technology. Monetary factors and leadership. This research is mainly based on how each factor influence the employee engagement. Hence, in this current market space, environmental factors play a major role in individuals’ day today activities. Which means the participation of an individual for any activity or job is being dominated by the environmental factors.
This research has gathered enough information regarding each environmental factor taken and its effectiveness to the employee engagement. So that the gathered information will support the organization to take relevant actions to fulfil the employee expectations. The organization is benefited through this research since this research demonstrated each factor along with their respective theories. Which will help the organization to identify clearly the requirements for a proper employee engagement.
Researcher has given conclusion to the problems which were identified from the evaluations. And researcher has given more consideration to collect most relevant evaluations from the employees to come to a realistic conclusion. This research will help the organization in their future growth, to know how environmental factors, influence employee engagement.
Value of Orel Corporation is in moulding their people to be upstanding individuals with principles such as simplicity, honesty and candidness. In order to mould their workforce, the company need to study the employee needs according to the different environmental factors. By studying each factor, it guides the company to evaluate on the strategies which must be built up to cover the drawbacks of the employees. Strategies must be rough up in a manner that will lead a positive employee engagement in the company.
As innovation and technology is considered as the essence of Orel Corporations’ growth it is necessary to make sure that the individuals who are involved in the process of Orel’s growth are physically, emotionally and mentally healthy. Negative mental and physical health brings up a stumbling block in achieving overall goal of Orel Corporation. Consequently, it may lead to high employee turn-over and demotivation, to avoids such circumstances employees mental and physical conditions should be evaluated. A person who is working with technological instruments needs to have a healthy mindset. This research clarifies how technology influence employee engagement at Orel Corporation.
Sustaining individuals in todays competitive market is a vital responsibility for any organization. There is a immense scope for individuals in the market. Where monetary factors are being decided based on competitive companies. For an employee monetary factors are the primary needs. When considering Orel Corporation in order to have a decisive employee engagement as per the data gathered from the company, monetary factors must be determined effectively to have positive employee engagement. Since it easily makes employees demotivated, so that they will not show an active engagement towards their job they perform.
People expect to be a leader for themselves, they do not accept to be dominated by someone else. Dominated leads the employees to feel unsatisfied and stressed. So, this research emphasises on how leadership in carried out at Orel corporation along with how it influences the employees. The data gathered regarding this will help the researcher to conclude on how leadership should be practiced at Orel Corporation. Overall this research indicates hoe technology, monetary factors and leadership influence employee engagement at Orel corporation along with relevant findings.
1.6 Problem justification
Studying the environmental factors in order to know how engaged the employees are towards their organization has become a necessity because each factor in the environment is subsequently important for an individual to take part a role in the society. Since Orel Corporation is a reputed company with huge number of employees, in order to have positive workforce it is necessary to identify how engaged the employees are towards their jobs and the company. Each individual in any organization is more concerned about what others are receiving a monetary factor who is playing the same job. Which automatically decreases the employee engagement towards their company if they are not treated equally. This states that monetary factors influence the employee engagement.
Employee engagement is essential for the growth of the company, so that, it is necessary to evaluate certain environmental factors which has an interrelationship with the employee engagement. As Orel Corporation is more into technology, the employees who work there should at least have ground knowledge on how to handle the devices. Technology today has taken over the man power, it has become the dominant factor to survive in the society. This research identifies how technology is influencing the employees at Orel corporation. This helps the company to take further actions if drawbacks are being found.
Currently research studies say that the employee engagement towards their job is drastically decreasing. In order to have a healthy workplace there should be an encouraging leadership. If the organization does not have an encouraging leadership, the employees will not be satisfied with their job. So, in this research the researcher is finding out information regarding how leadership is influencing Orel Corporation and how it is being practiced by the individuals. Leadership must be considered seriously when doing an evaluation regarding employee engagement.
This research has been conducted after gathering relevant information in order to emphasize the environmental factors and its effectiveness in employee engagement at Orel Corporation.
The main research question that this research is going to address is,
What are the environmental factors and its effectiveness in employee engagement at Orel Corporation?
Objective of the study
The objective of this case study can be divided into two. They are:
To gather sufficient information regarding environmental factors and how it influences employee engagement at Orel corporation.
Analysing the environmental relevant to employee engagement.
Identifying how each factor plays a role in employee engagement.
Arrive to a conclusion to give sufficient recommendations to have a positive employee engagement.
Chapter 01 summary
This chapter elaborates the research by introducing the topic along with its relationship with the selected company. This gives a brief introduction to the company in order to give a clear idea about the relationship with the topic to the readers. The researcher has stated the research problem identified in the company, along with relevant details which justifies the whole report. An overview of the research question and objectives are being given in order deliver a descriptive knowledge. The researcher has reviewed the objective by classifying the objective as specific and general in this chapter. As a whole, this chapter gives a clear overview to the topic and its relationship with the company along with relevant information.
2.1 Introduction to Chapter 02
The literature review chapter includes the literature included I past researches, journal articles, books and websites. This chapter explains about the moral od employee engagement. Which is a viral factor for a company. As employee engagement is evaluated based on the environmental factors, the later sessions of this chapter describe the environmental factors along with respective theories. Together wit past literatures more value has been added to this research regarding the factors influencing the employee engagement.
2.2 What is employee engagement?
Employee engagement is an engine which drives talent management and draws its flexibility among the effectiveness of various environmental factors from within and outside an organization. Having a proper strategy in employee engagement supports organizational branding and reputation among employees CITATION Kal14 l 2057 (Kaliannan ; Adjovu, 2014). It is the extent to which employee commitment, both emotional and intellectual, exists relative to accomplishing the work, mission, and vision of the organization. Engagement can be seen as a intense level of ownership where each employee wants to do whatever they can for the benefit of their internal and external customers, and for the success of the organization CITATION Swa13 l 2057 (Swathi.S, 2013).
It is a workplace approach that creates the right conditions for all the employees of an organization to do their outstanding performance everyday in order to aim to achieve the goals and values of their organization. Employee engagement is about how we create the conditions in which employees offer more of their capability and potential CITATION Mac09 l 2057 (Macleod ; Clarke, 2009).
According to a survey conducted by the Boston Consulting Group and the World Federation of People Management Association, executive from around the world say that enhancing employee engagement is one of four most critical Human Resource topics to focus on in volatile times along with management talent, leadership development and strategic workforce planning. Not only does employee engagement have the potential to significantly affect employee retention, productivity and loyalty, it is also a key link to customer satisfaction, company reputation and overall stakeholder value CITATION Eli17 l 2057 (Paul, 2017).
Employee engagement is based on trust, integrity, two-way commitment and communication between an organisation and its members. It is an approach tat increases the chance of business success, contributing to organizational and individual performance, productivity and well-being.
2.3 Categories of Employee Engagement
An organization is the collection of a large number of individuals striving towards the accomplishment of a common objective. Ideally, every employee must work to their full potential to further the organization’s reputation and interests, but however this is not the case in most of the companies. Thus, according to the Gallup the consulting organization there are three different types of people CITATION Nit16 l 2057 (Vazirani, 2016). They are;
Not Engaged Employees
Actively Disengaged Employees
2.3.1 Engaged Employees
Engaged employees are builders. They want to know their desired expectation to the role they are playing. So that they can full fill those needs up to a standard. Employees are interested about their company and their role in it. Rationally they execute their role at a high level. They want to make use of their talents and strengths at any work they perform to produce a quality output to the organization. Effective employee engagement is critical to the success of every organization CITATION Kal141 l 2057 (Kaliannan & Adjovu, 2014). They work with passion and they drive innovation to make a success to the organization.
2.3.2 Not Engaged Employees
Not engaged employees strive to focus on tasks rather than the goals and outcomes they are expected to produce. They want to do what they were said to do. So that they can be able to finish the work and say that they have finished their work. Employees who are not engaged tend to feel their contributions are being overlooked, and their potential is not being tapped. This type of employees often feels this way because they do not have a healthy productive relationship with their managers or with their co-workers CITATION Swa13 l 2057 (Swathi.S, 2013).
2.3.3 Actively Disengaged Employees
The actively disengaged employees are the cave dwellers. They are consistent against everything. They are unhappy at work and they tend to look busy acting out their unhappiness at the workplace. They produce negative thoughts for every opportunity they receive to enhance themselves CITATION Swa13 l 2057 (Swathi.S, 2013). As employees increasingly rely on each other in order to produce quality products and services, the issues that can arise due these actively disengaged employees are that, they can damage the organization’s functioning.
The Gallup Employee engagement index reported that only 33 percent of workers are engaged in their job, 49 percent are not engaged, and 18 percent are actively disengaged CITATION Eli17 l 2057 (Paul, 2017).
2.4 The aspects of employee engagement
The three basic aspects of employee engagement according to the global studies are;
The employee and their own unique psychological makeup and experience
The employers and their ability to create the conditions that promote employee engagement
Interaction between employee at all level
It is generally the organization’s responsibility to create an environment and culture which will act as a supportive to build-up this relationship at a win-win situation CITATION Nit16 l 2057 (Vazirani, 2016).
2.5 Employee Engagement Strategies
Engaged employees are productive employees. To have positive and healthy engaged employees it is necessary for the organization to possess effective employee engagement strategies. Such strategies are;
Have in place those leaders who model the positive change they wish to see in their organization. Since the attitudes and behaviours of leaders tend to trickle down to their employees, having involved leaders who act upon implementing improvements provides a powerful influence on the level of enthusiasm and commitment of their teams CITATION Lin15 l 2057 (Anderson, 2015).
Recognize great employee performance with a handwritten note. According to Custom Insight, “Poor relationships between employees and their managers are a leading cause, if not the leading cause, of employee disengagement.” CITATION Suj17 l 2057 (Patel, 2017).
Have an HR team that greatly influences managers and leaders through the use of strong practices and holds them accountable to develop and strengthen their teams CITATION Lin15 l 2057 (Anderson, 2015).
Ensure that employees’ basic needs are met. When employees know what is expected of them, can fulfil their jobs, and feel supported by management, then employee engagement tactics are easier to implement CITATION Lin15 l 2057 (Anderson, 2015).
Identify internal growth paths. One common complaint heard from workers especially career-driven Millennials is that opportunities for advancement within their current companies aren’t clear, leaving them to look externally for better options. So that it is essential to identify the internal growth paths by asking them what they like to do and help them to understand what they need to achieve to reach the targets CITATION Suj17 l 2057 (Patel, 2017).
Effect organizational culture changes despite financial downturns. Companies who have experienced periods of tightening budgets but continue to work toward increasing employee engagement see the payoff in the long run with improved company culture CITATION Lin15 l 2057 (Anderson, 2015).
Don’t over-manage employee engagement by solely measuring and tracking metrics. Successful companies instead focus on the expected outcomes that are produced by improved employee engagement CITATION Lin15 l 2057 (Anderson, 2015).
2.6 Components of Employee Engagement
The institute of Employment Studies has modelled the components of engagement as shown in Figure 2.1, which is the IES model of employee engagement.
Figure 2.1: IES model of Employee Engagement
IES model of employee engagement includes three main factors related to employee engagement. They are;
Motivation CITATION mic12 l 2057 (Armstrong m. , 2012)Commitment is the relative strength of individual’s identification with, and involvement in an organization. Organizational citizenship behaviour is employee behaviour that goes above and beyond the call of duty and contributes to organizational effectiveness. It is discretionary and not explicitly recognized by the employing organization’s formal reward system. Motivation is the force that energizes, directs and sustains behaviour. It can be intrinsic, that means behaviour can be affected by factors that may arise from the work itself and are self-generated; ore extrinsic, which occurs when things are done to or for people to motivate them. The motivation element in employee engagement is intrinsic. It is not the pay or recognition that yields positive feelings of engagement but the work itself. Engaged employees feels that their jobs are an important part of what they are CITATION mic12 l 2057 (Armstrong m. , 2012)2.7 Drivers of Employee Engagement
Employee engagement has transcended from being the latest business buzzword to being recognized by organizations as a tool that positively influences business performance. Hence, it is vital for companies to understand what cause employee engagement if they want to influence the effects of employee engagement.by understanding the following drivers’ organizations can try to manage engagement level of employees CITATION Jun18 l 2057 (Juneja, 2018)The MacLeod report summarized the main drivers of employee engagement and related leadership practices as follows CITATION pet09 l 2057 (Hunter, 2009)Engaging leadership: Ensures a strong, transparent, and explicit organizational culture that gives employees a line of sight between their job and the vision and aims of the organization. Such leaders are strategic, anticipatory, proactive, and people focused. They provide a clear strategic narrative about where the organization is going and why, in a way that gives employees information and insight for their own job CITATION Lor12 l 2057 (Freifeld, 2012).
Engaging managers: Are more critical in driving effort on a day-to-day basis. “They offer clarity about what is expected from individual members of staff, what involves some stretch, and much appreciation and feedback/coaching and training. They also treat people as individuals, with fairness and respect and with a concern for employees’ well-being. They also ensure work is designed efficiently and effectively.” In companies that do this well, managers treat people as individuals, as full human beings. In Standard Chartered Retail Bank, for example, the task of managers in engaging employees is summarized as “Know me, focus me, value me.” CITATION Lor12 l 2057 (Freifeld, 2012)Employee voice: Employees feel able to voice their ideas and be listened to, both about how to do their job and in decision-making in their own department, with joint sharing of problems and challenges and a commitment to arrive at joint solutions. In companies that do this well, there is a constant free flow of ideas up and down and across the organization. That requires managers who are willing to listen to people and are not afraid of relinquishing control CITATION Lor12 l 2057 (Freifeld, 2012).
Organization lives the values: A belief among employees that the organization lives the values, and that espoused behavioural norms are adhered to, resulting in trust and a sense of integrity. In organizations that do this well, values and behaviours are aligned, creating integrity and trust. Any gap between these creates distrust and cynicism CITATION Lor12 l 2057 (Freifeld, 2012).
Organizational purpose: The nature of the organization’s purpose may have a differentiating effect on levels of engagement. Research by Holbeche and Springett (2004) into how people experience meaning at work found that an organizational purpose that focuses intensely on customers is more likely to engage staff than those focused on shareholders, profits, or a mix of stakeholder needs. However, it is essential that there is a clear line of sight to this purpose in people’s day jobs if the motivational effect is to be achieved. Bureaucracy and inconsistent behaviours, policies, and practices act as barriers and lead to cynicism and disengagement CITATION Lor12 l 2057 (Freifeld, 2012).
2.8 Role of HR in Employee Engagement
Human Resources plays a significant role in engaging employees. HR professionals serve as teachers and mentors for other leaders in the organization to ensure that leaders continue to learn and grow in their roles. Employees respond favourably when their leaders are learning and when they show vulnerability in the workplace. HR professionals can influence leaders to communicate often with employees, especially when they share stories of their path to leadership and the lessons learned along the way CITATION Bar05 l 2057 (Mitchell, 2105).
The added value that engaged and committed employees have is increasingly being recognised by CEOs, stakeholders, managers and HR. The researcher Astrid discussed about the influence of Human Resource on employee engagement and commitment. CITATION Ast15 l 2057 (Erlandsson, 2015)The researcher revealed that the four statements with the biggest influence are:
Manger has a role in motivating employees.
The work of a team contributes to the organizational success.
Employees feels that they fit to the organization
Employees feels that they are being appreciated by the organization CITATION Ast15 l 2057 (Erlandsson, 2015).
The researcher elaborates on how Human resource can positively impact on the above influences. The main two ways in which HR can influence employee engagement are;
Employees fit within organization
Appreciation from the organization CITATION Arn16 l 2057 (Barends, 2016).
Employees fit within organisations
HR can add value by helping to cultivate employees’ cultural fit with their organisations.
HR can begin this process by hiring perspective employees on cultural fit. Helping to create an initial compatibility between employee and organisation provides a good basis for an employee’s engagement and commitment. No matter how talented perspective employees may be, there shouldn’t be any doubt as to their fit with the organisation’s culture. Skills can be taught, cultural cannot CITATION Nik15 l 2057 (Smith, 2015).
Following on from this, there is a key role for HR in keeping hired employees at the organisation. HR occupy a unique position within organisations as they mediate between stakeholders and business objectives, and employees. By inhabiting such a unique position, HR are best placed to create synergy between the direction set by stakeholders and the culture at the organisation. By helping to create synergy and avoiding potential rifts between the two, HR are safeguarding the culture that employees align with CITATION Nik15 l 2057 (Smith, 2015).
Alongside maintaining employees feeling of fitting, HR can also enhance employees’ fit by ensuring the continuous communication of the organisation’s values, and what they stand for. When employees know what an organisation stands for, it becomes easier for them to regularly gauge their fit with the organisation. In their unique position as mediators, HR are perfectly placed to facilitate this by helping to keep the communication of organisational values on the agenda CITATION Nik15 l 2057 (Smith, 2015).
Appreciation from the organisation
Alongside cultural fit, HR can make sure that employees receive adequate appreciation from the organisation and add further value by:
In liaison with managers, HR need to make sure that outstanding individual and team performances are recognised and rewarded. Taking the lead in sharing regular performance related insights (obtained from measuring tools such as engagement surveys) is one area where HR can illustrate real added value. Key organisational metrics should, for motivational and transparency purposes, be made visible throughout the organisation and no-one is better placed to do this than HR CITATION Arn16 l 2057 (Barends, 2016).
Building a culture of praise and recognition
As an extension of this, and to further drive engagement and commitment, the same insights can be used to build a culture of praise and recognition. Ideally, employees not only receive appreciation from managers, but also colleagues. Encouraging employees to do so and creating an environment where praise is well received has a tremendous positive impact, throughout all levels of organisations CITATION Arn16 l 2057 (Barends, 2016)2.9 Employee Engagement Process
Figure 2.2: Employee Engagement Process
Source: Management Study Guide,2008
Prepare and Design: The first step in the process is about discovering the specific requirements of your organisation and deciding the priorities. After that a customised design of carrying the whole process can be designed. It is recommended to seek advice of expert management consultant in order to increase the chances of getting it done right at the first attempt CITATION Man08 l 2057 (Management Study Guide, 2008).
Employee Engagement Survey: Design the questions of the employee engagement survey and deploy it with the help of an appropriate media. It can be either in printed form or set online depending upon the comfort level of the employees and your questionnaire evaluation process CITATION Man08 l 2057 (Management Study Guide, 2008).
Result Analysis: It is the most important step in the entire process. It is time when reports are to be analysed to find out what exactly motivates employees to perform their best and what disengages them and finally compels them to leave the organisation. The results and information can then be delivered through presentations CITATION Man08 l 2057 (Management Study Guide, 2008).
Action Planning: ‘How to turn the results of the survey in to an action’ is a challenging question that organisations need to deal with the utmost care. Coaching of line managers as well as HR professionals is very important to tell them how to take appropriate actions to engage employees. They should also be told about do’s and don’ts so that they can successfully implement the changes CITATION Man08 l 2057 (Management Study Guide, 2008).
Action Follow-up: Action follow up is necessary to find out if the action has been taken in the right direction or not and if it is producing the desired results CITATION Man08 l 2057 (Management Study Guide, 2008).
2.10.1 Social Exchange Theory
Social exchange theory is a major theoretical perspective in sociology. Within this framework, social behavior is viewed primarily in terms of the pursuit of rewards and the avoidance of punishment and other forms of cost. Individuals engage in interaction to meet their needs. The basic unit of analysis is the relationship between actors. Thus, exchange theorists view social relations and the social structures generated by the ties that bind people in different forms of association as the central object of sociological inquiry CITATION Hig01 l 2057 (Highbeam research, 2001)It is conceptualized as a joint activity of two or more actors in which each actor has something the other values. The implicit or explicit task in exchange is to generate benefit for everyone by exchanging behaviours or goods that actors cannot achieve alone. Exchange theory assumes that actors face substantial degrees of ambiguity and uncertainty about what potential partners value, the utility of different exchanges to them, and what exchanges are being made between others in the exchange network CITATION Edw01 l 2057 (J.Lawler, 2001).
Figure 2.3: The social exchange theory at work in the organization
Source: Beal, Stavros & Cole,2013
The figure 2.3 explains that the qualitative data support social exchange theory as a theoretical pathway through which PsyCap influences positive organisational change. Social exchange theory is the result of an exchange process, the purpose of which is to maximise benefits and reduce costs until risks outweigh rewards. Researcher suggests that social exchange theory is the catalyst between family-friendly environments and positive job-related attitudes. One can extend social exchange theory to positive organisational behaviour in that, taken together, citizenship behaviours improve group performance because they help people to work together.
Given the behavioural properties and the relationship between PsyCap and OCB, employees in this figure may have engaged in a social exchange in which PsyCap led to greater efficiency in organisational change CITATION Bea13 l 2057 (Beal, Stavros, & Cole, 2013).
Technology is science or knowledge put into practical use to solve problems or invent useful tools CITATION You18 l 2057 (Your Dictionary, 2018)2.12 History of Technology
The development over time of systematic techniques for making and doing things. The term technology, a combination of the Greek techne, “art, craft,” with logos, “word, speech,” meant in Greece a discourse on the arts, both fine and applied. When it first appeared in English in the 17th century, it was used to mean a discussion of the applied arts only, and gradually these “arts” themselves came to be the object of the designation. By the early 20th century, the term embraced a growing range of means, processes, and ideas in addition to tools and machines. By mid-century, technology was defined by such phrases as “the means or activity by which man seeks to change or manipulate his environment.” Even such broad definitions have been criticized by observers who point out the increasing difficulty of distinguishing between scientific inquiry and technological activity CITATION Rob15 l 2057 (Buchanan, 2015).
A highly compressed account of the history of technology such as this one must adopt a rigorous methodological pattern if it is to do justice to the subject without grossly distorting it one way or another. The plan followed in the present article is primarily chronological, tracing the development of technology through phases that succeed each other in time. Obviously, the division between phases is to a large extent arbitrary.
One factor in the weighting has been the enormous acceleration of Western technological development in recent centuries; Eastern technology is considered in this article in the main only as it relates to the development of modern technology CITATION Rob15 l 2057 (Buchanan, 2015).
Within each chronological phase a standard method has been adopted for surveying the technological experience and innovations. This begins with a brief review of the general social conditions of the period under discussion, and then goes on to consider the dominant materials and sources of power of the period, and their application to food production, manufacturing industry, building construction, transport and communications, military technology, and medical technology. In a final section the sociocultural consequences of technological change in the period are examined.
This framework is modified according to the requirements of every period discussions of new materials, for instance, occupy a substantial place in the accounts of earlier phases when new metals were being introduced but are comparatively unimportant in descriptions of some of the later phases but the general pattern is retained throughout. One key factor that does not fit easily into this pattern is that of the development of tools. It has seemed most convenient to relate these to the study of materials, rather than to any application, but it has not been possible to be completely consistent in this treatment CITATION Rob15 l 2057 (Buchanan, 2015).
2.13 Technology and organizational structure
An organization and its technology need structure. Much like your information technology networks and systems have an architecture, so does an organization itself. Businesses organize themselves to best achieve their goals and accomplish all their necessary tasks. To ensure an organizational structure is truly viable, it must take into account the technologically-related operations, infrastructure and functions CITATION Eri17 l 2057 (Feigenbaum, 2017).
The groupings of a company’s functions, positions and operations form an organizational structure. Typically, companies express their structures visually on an organizational chart. Charts show the positions within an organization, the roles they play and the relationships between them — including supervisory relationships. Focusing on organizational structure and its design helps companies gain clarity on what they are doing currently, their ideal functioning and how they can achieve it CITATION Eri17 l 2057 (Feigenbaum, 2017).
When business leaders undertake the process of designing or revising their organizational structures, they must first take a full inventory of the tasks and goals of their companies. They look to see which functions and tasks are not being accomplished as well as any current redundancies or inefficiencies. All aspects, duties and positions in the organization must be taken into account, including information technology. In fact, once companies reach a certain size, they usually designate at least one person, if not a team of people to be an IT department – responsible for handling all of the technological aspects of a company CITATION Eri17 l 2057 (Feigenbaum, 2017).
Information technology is so central to how a company operates. Networks and computers hold data on finances, company secrets, personal information and sometimes in the case of banks, hospitals and insurance companies — data which companies have a legal obligation to safeguard. Network administrators and computer technicians who have too much access to a company’s data can present a breach of security. Because of this, many companies plan IT positions so that no one person has all access or unmonitored access to important systems and data CITATION Eri17 l 2057 (Feigenbaum, 2017).
Companies that employ multiple, sophisticated computer and technological systems often find it necessary to structure their divide their IT staff into specialties. One system may require special programming and support that only some people know. Others that are vital to safety and security — such as communications company servers and switches or hospital networks — may require round-the-clock monitoring by trained personnel. Organizational structures must take account of these needs and delineate how the organization is addressing them CITATION Eri17 l 2057 (Feigenbaum, 2017).
As companies grow and develop new lines of business or acquire other companies, they often choose to organize their diverse operations in separate divisions. Typically, divisions run somewhat autonomously, each with its own structure, leadership and approaches while all reporting to a common top management. Divisions usually have different needs and systems, which make supporting them all more challenging to a centralized IT department. Therefore, rather than specializing in one type of software or hardware and providing support across the company, companies may prefer their IT staff to be generalists attuned to a division’s needs CITATION Eri17 l 2057 (Feigenbaum, 2017).
2.14 Impact of technology on Human Resource
Rapid changes in technology have affected businesses in more ways than we can count, from globalization and organizational adjustments to a workforce clamouring for remote and mobile job opportunities. HR wants to continue to play a critical role in helping businesses anticipate and manage organizational change, it must have technology at its core CITATION Meg17 l 2057 (Biro, 2017).
The convergence of these innovations led to a new era of tech-savviness in talent management being ushered in. Within a span of five years, HR tools and techniques that are driven by these technologies have been regarded as the “future of HR”. For example, more than 5000 companies have moved to the cloud in the past five years. Yes, some companies are still using their legacy on-premise HR software, but the trend is slowly dying, with everyone vying for the cloud. The pace of adoption of these futuristic HR technologies is only set to increase CITATION Sta17 l 2057 (Staff, 2017).
From telephone and e-mail in the 20th century to unified communication and enterprise social networks in the 21st, businesses have long applied the latest technology in the hopes of improving efficiency and productivity. When this happens successfully, the investment turns in enough business impact to justify the cost. When it doesn’t, businesses eventually try something else CITATION dio13 l 2057 (Hinchcliffe d. , 2013).
Figure 2.3: Opportunities and limits of technology to drive employee engagement
Source: Hinchcliffe d,2013
2.14 Monetary Factors
Extrinsic or Monetary rewards are the external or tangible ones. These incorporate a worker’s base pay which could be yearly pay, compensation or performance based pay that a worker get CITATION Ahm14 l 2057 (Mehta, 2014).
The financial factors considered in this model are pay/compensation and promotion. This paper reveals that if organizations are not paying well than they cannot retain employees. Although it is at number five or six of importance overall but still when employees have an equal or competitive pay package to the other organizations than the significance of pay as a retention factor reduces and other nonfinancial factors take its place. So, to retain the employees you don’t want to lose your organization must be paying them better than the market. Promotion is also a reward that is valued for retention but not only promotion is important, but speed of promotion also must be appropriate CITATION Nau15 l 2057 (Shakeel, 2015).
Monetary factors are extrinsic to work, such as the following:
Salary or wages
This is one of the most important motivational factors in an organization. Salaries and wages should be fixed reasonably and paid on time CITATION Smr15 l 2057 (chand, 2015).
Bonus is an extra payment over and above salary, and it acts as an incentive to perform better. It is linked to the profitability and productivity of the organization CITATION Smr15 l 2057 (chand, 2015).
The organization provides additional incentives to their employees such as medical allowance, travelling allowance, house rent allowance, hard duty allowance and children educational allowance CITATION Smr15 l 2057 (chand, 2015).
Promotion (monetary part)
Promotion is attached with increase in pay, and this motivates the employee to perform better CITATION Smr15 l 2057 (chand, 2015).
This is an arrangement by which organizations distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around the company’s profitability CITATION Smr15 l 2057 (chand, 2015).
This is a system by which the employee receives shares on a preferential basis which results in financial benefits to the employees CITATION Smr15 l 2057 (chand, 2015).
Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning
Figure 2.4: Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning
The people who fed Pavlov’s dogs wore lab coats. Pavlov noticed that the dogs began to drool whenever they saw lab coats, even if there was no food in sight. Pavlov wondered why the dogs salivated at lab coats, and not just at food. He ran a study in which he rang a bell every time he fed the dogs. Pretty soon, just ringing a bell made the dogs salivate CITATION Nat16 l 2057 (Boyd, 2016).
Pavlov said the dogs were demonstrating classical conditioning. He summed it up like this: there’s a neutral stimulus (the bell), which by itself will not produce a response, like salivation. There’s also a non-neutral or unconditioned stimulus (the food), which will produce an unconditioned response (salivation). But if you present the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus together, eventually the dog will learn to associate the two. After a while, the neutral stimulus by itself will produce the same response as the unconditioned stimulus, like the dogs drooling when they heard the bell. This is called a conditioned response. Think of an unconditioned response as completely natural and a conditioned response as something that we learn CITATION Nat16 l 2057 (Boyd, 2016).
How classical conditioning play a tole in employees
From a management perspective it’s important to understand that the brain works this way, but that the conditioning can be changed over time so that people will not always respond the same. The people you interact with in your auto shop, whether they’re employees or customers, likely have conditioned responses formed to various stimuli, and they may or may not make a great deal of sense to you. For instance, one of your employees may have a phobia they struggle with or a situation that makes them nervous or agitated. Paying attention to the way people react to various environments or situations can only help you be a better manager CITATION Rac16 l 2057 (Potter, 2016).
Leadership means inspiring people to do their best to achieve a desired result. It involves developing and communicating a vision for the future, motivating people and securing their engagement CITATION Nor94 l 2057 (Dixon, 1994).
Leadership is no more than exercising such an influence upon others that they tend to act in correct towards achieving a goal which they might not have achieved so readily had been left to their own devices. Leadership skills include the ability to CITATION Mic091 l 2057 (Armstrong M. , 2009)Inspire others
Persuade others willingly to behave differently
Clarify what needs to be done and why
Communicate a sense of purpose to their team
Get their team into action in order to achieve the task CITATION Mic091 l 2057 (Armstrong M. , 2009).
2.18 leadership Theories
2.18.1 “Great Man” Theory
Great man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent, that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term great man was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially military leadership CITATION Ama15 l 2057 (Amanchukwu, Stanley, & Ololube, 2015).
2.18.2 Contingency Theories
Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which style of leadership is best suited for a particular work situation. According to this theory, no single leadership style is appropriate in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including leadership style, qualities of followers and situational features. A contingency factor is thus any condition in any relevant environment to be considered when designing an organization or one of its elements. Contingency theory states that effective leadership depends on the degree of fit between a leader’s qualities and leadership style and that demanded by a specific situation CITATION Ama15 l 2057 (Amanchukwu, Stanley, & Ololube, 2015).
2.18.3 Participative Theory
Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. Participative leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members to feel relevant and committed to the decision-making process. A manager who uses participative leadership, rather than making all the decisions, seeks to involve other people, thus improving commitment and increasing collaboration, which leads to better quality decisions and a more successful business CITATION Ama15 l 2057 (Amanchukwu, Stanley, & Ololube, 2015).
2.18.4 Skills Theory
This theory states that learned knowledge and acquired skills/abilities are significant factors in the practice of effective leadership. Skills theory by no means refuses to acknowledge the connection between inherited traits and the capacity to lead effectively, but argues that learned skills, a developed style, and acquired knowledge, are the real keys to leadership performance. A strong belief in skills theory often demands that considerable effort and resources be devoted to leadership training and development CITATION Ama15 l 2057 (Amanchukwu, Stanley, & Ololube, 2015).
2.18.5 Trait Theory
The early theorists opined that born leaders were endowed with certain physical traits and personality characteristics which distinguished them from non-leaders. Trait theories ignored the assumptions about whether leadership traits were genetic or acquired. Jenkins identified two traits; emergent traits (those which are heavily dependent upon heredity) as height, intelligence, attractiveness, and self-confidence and effectiveness traits (based on experience or learning), including charisma, as fundamental component of leadership CITATION Kha16 l 2057 (Khan, Nawaz, & Khan, 2016).
2.18.6 Behavioural Theory
In reaction to the trait leadership theory, the behavioural theories are offering a new perspective, one that focuses on the behaviours of the leaders as opposed to their mental, physical or social characteristics. Thus, with the evolutions in psychometrics, notably the factor analysis, researchers were able to measure the cause an effects relationship of specific human behaviours from leaders. From this point forward anyone with the right conditioning could have access to the once before elite club of naturally gifted leaders. In other words, leaders are made not born CITATION lea15 l 2057 (leadership Theories, 2015).
2.18.7 Transactional theory
Transactional theories, also known as exchange theories of leadership, are characterized by a transaction made between the leader and the followers. In fact, the theory values a positive and mutually beneficial relationship.
For the transactional theories to be effective and as a result have motivational value, the leader must find a means to align to adequately reward (or punish) his follower, for performing leader-assigned task. In other words, transactional leaders are most efficient when they develop a mutual reinforcing environment, for which the individual and the organizational goals are in sync.
The transactional theorists state that humans in general are seeking to maximize pleasurable experiences and to diminish un-pleasurable experiences. Thus, we are more likely to associate ourselves with individuals that add to our strengths CITATION lea15 l 2057 (leadership Theories, 2015)2.18.8 Transformational Theory
The Transformational Leadership theory states that this process is by which a person interacts with others and is able to create a solid relationship that results in a high percentage of trust, that will later result in an increase of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, in both leaders and followers.
The essence of transformational theories is that leaders transform their followers through their inspirational nature and charismatic personalities. Rules and regulations are flexible, guided by group norms. These attributes provide a sense of belonging for the followers as they can easily identify with the leader and its purpose CITATION lea15 l 2057 (leadership Theories, 2015).
2.19 what leaders do?
Great leadership can be a difficult thing to pin down and understand. There are six critical things that great leaders do that really stand out CITATION Tra16 l 2057 (Bradberry, 2016).
Great leaders lead by example with an overriding guiding vision or purpose. They possess an unquenchable passion for successfully implementing the vision of the company regardless of the disapproval of those individuals who fail to see the bigger picture. They don’t waste time worrying about day to day responsibilities or problems. Instead, they focus on where the organization needs to go CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
Great leaders know how to be themselves and are proud of who they are. Because they are comfortable with who they are, they are able to do what they need to do and say what they need to say with conviction — and without caring about what anyone else thinks CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
Great leaders have the ability to inspire confidence in others. They can clearly and concisely communicate their message to motivate those around them to greater heights of achievement. People will do more for leaders they respect than they would do for anyone else CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
Great leaders are never self-serving. Unlike the star employee, they aren’t focused on proving themselves but are focused unconditionally (and not selfishly) on what is best for the organization. They put their vision for the company above their own interests CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
Great leaders rarely question themselves. Instead, they listen to their inner voice and trust it completely, allowing it to be their guide with each step they take, even as they move in directions that no one has gone before. To be a great leader, you must believe in this voice and trust that it will always be there to guide you CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
Great leaders know when to take advice. They value support from others and bring others into their circle who can provide the counsel they need. They realize how large their tasks are and find the resources and people they need to generate support, which is vital for success. You can develop your top talent by providing them with coaches and mentors, so that they have support when they need it CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
Great leaders possess the foresight to move ahead, even in the most questionable times. They take risks and realize the importance of moving forward—daring themselves and others to venture out in new directions. They realize this is part of their responsibility and not something they can turn their backs on. Once they realize the vision, they rise up to the occasion and take the necessary risks required for implementation CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
Great leaders love what they do and communicate their passion to others. They exude a passionate energy that rubs off on others around them. They have a light, effortless, and clear persona that is projected to everyone they meet because they are so in tune with their work. Others feel this and want to be a part of the vision that the leader is bringing forward CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
Great leaders learn to lead by following. They trust those who are in authority above them and are loyal to them. They are inspired by the vision that is being passed on to them and may even notice themselves liking and wanting to be more like their leaders and managers CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
Great leaders never quit. They embrace and overcome any obstacles, personal or otherwise, that stand in their way. Thus, they need to do the necessary work on themselves to prevent anything from holding them and eliminate habits that are keeping from being the best leader possible CITATION Joe07 l 2057 (Garfinkle, 2007).
2.22 Types of leaders
Autocratic leadership style is centered on the boss. In this leadership the leader holds all authority and responsibility. In this leadership, leaders make decisions on their own without consulting subordinates. They reach decisions, communicate them to subordinates and expect prompt implementation. Autocratic work environment does normally have little or no flexibility.
In this kind of leadership, guidelines, procedures and policies are all-natural additions of an autocratic leader. Statistically, there are very few situations that can actually support autocratic leadership CITATION Mic091 l 2057 (Armstrong M. , 2009).
In this leadership style, subordinates are involved in making decisions. Unlike autocratic, this headship is centered on subordinates’ contributions. The democratic leader holds final responsibility, but he or she is known to delegate authority to other people, who determine work projects.
The most unique feature of this leadership is that communication is active upward and downward. With respect to statistics, democratic leadership is one of the most preferred leadership, and it entails the following: fairness, competence, creativity, courage, intelligence and honesty CITATION Mic091 l 2057 (Armstrong M. , 2009).
Strategic Leadership Style
Strategic leadership is one that involves a leader who is essentially the head of an organization. The strategic leader is not limited to those at the top of the organization. It is geared to a wider audience at all levels who want to create a high-performance life, team or organization.
The strategic leader fills the gap between the need for new possibility and the need for practicality by providing a prescriptive set of habits. An effective strategic leadership delivers the goods in terms of what an organization naturally expects from its leadership in times of change. 55% of this leadership normally involves strategic thinking CITATION Wis16 l 2057 (Wise Toast, 2016).
Unlike other leadership styles, transformational leadership is all about initiating change in organizations, groups, oneself and others.
Transformational leaders motivate others to do more than they originally intended and often even more than they thought possible. They set more challenging expectations and typically achieve higher performance.
Statistically, transformational leadership tends to have more committed and satisfied followers. This is mainly so because transformational leaders empower followers CITATION Wis16 l 2057 (Wise Toast, 2016).
Team leadership involves the creation of a vivid picture of its future, where it is heading and what it will stand for. The vision inspires and provides a strong sense of purpose and direction.
Team leadership is about working with the hearts and minds of all those involved. It also recognizes that teamwork may not always involve trusting cooperative relationships. The most challenging aspect of this leadership is whether or not it will succeed. According to Harvard Business Review, team leadership may fail because of poor leadership qualities CITATION Wis16 l 2057 (Wise Toast, 2016).
This form of leadership normally exists where there are various cultures in the society. This leadership has also industrialized as a way to recognize front runners who work in the contemporary globalized market.
Organizations, particularly international ones require leaders who can effectively adjust their leadership to work in different environs. Most of the leaderships observed in the United States are cross-cultural because of the different cultures that live and work there CITATION Wis16 l 2057 (Wise Toast, 2016).
Facilitative leadership is too dependent on measurements and outcomes – not a skill, although it takes much skill to master. The effectiveness of a group is directly related to the efficacy of its process. If the group is high functioning, the facilitative leader uses a light hand on the process.
On the other hand, if the group is low functioning, the facilitative leader will be more directives in helping the group run its process. An effective facilitative leadership involves monitoring of group dynamics, offering process suggestions and interventions to help the group stay on track CITATION Wis16 l 2057 (Wise Toast, 2016).
Laissez-faire leadership gives authority to employees. According to azcentral, departments or subordinates are allowed to work as they choose with minimal or no interference. According to research, this kind of leadership has been consistently found to be the least satisfying and least effective management style CITATION Wis16 l 2057 (Wise Toast, 2016).
Coaching leadership involves teaching and supervising followers. A coaching leader is highly operational in setting where results/ performance require improvement. Basically, in this kind of leadership, followers are helped to improve their skills. Coaching leadership does the following: motivates followers, inspires followers and encourages followers CITATION Wis16 l 2057 (Wise Toast, 2016).
In this leadership, the charismatic leader manifests his or her revolutionary power. Charisma does not mean sheer behavioural change. It actually involves a transformation of followers’ values and beliefs.
Therefore, this distinguishes a charismatic leader from a simply populist leader who may affect attitudes towards specific objects, but who is not prepared as the charismatic leader is, to transform the underlying normative orientation that structures specific attitudes CITATION Wis16 l 2057 (Wise Toast, 2016).
2.23 Effective leadership
Effective leaders are confident and know where they want to go and what they want to do. They have the ability to take change, convey their vision to their team, get their team members in action and ensure that they achieve agreed goals. They are trustworthy, effective at influencing people and earn the respect pf their team. They are aware of their own strength and weaknesses and are skilled at under-standing what will motivate their team members. They appreciate the advantages of consulting and involving people in decision making. They can switch flexibility from one leadership style to another to meet the demands of different situations and people CITATION Mic091 l 2057 (Armstrong M. , 2009).
2.24 Summary of Chapter 02
The literature reviewed in this chapter was gathered through referring more than 20 various journal articles, web pages and books. This chapter has described about employee engagement and its importance in an organization along with respective theories. And further clarifies information is being discussed in this chapter for the factors which influence the employee engagement. Such factors that are being explained are technology, monetary factors and leadership. This chapter has given a clear description on how each factor mentioned above influence and effect employee engagement. The literature available for employee engagement and environmental factors are being reviewed in this chapter.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 Introduction to Chapter 03
This chapter mainly compromises the conceptual frame work, which describes the independent and dependant variables, and its inter-relationship. Based on the conceptual framework hypothesis is developed to examine the relationship further. And this chapter included the methodology of this research and the population taken in order to conduct this research, while getting a sample size, along with this how the sample size was calculated is described in this chapter. For further clarification sampling technique used and how data was collected and analysed is described in this chapter.
3.2 Research Methodology
The main objective of this study is to examine what are the main environmental factors which influence the employee engagement in an organization. For this study this research examines how leadership, technology and Monterey factors influence employee engagement at Orel corporation. This research is conducted based on the scientific method, which is recognized globally, and it is empirical; and quantitative. Scientific method means principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experiment, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses CITATION Mer28 l 2057 (Webster M. , 1828). For this research questionnaires; quantitated data was critically analysed using Excel and SPSS software.
3.3 Conceptual Framework
This conceptual framework is built up based on the literature review. Following the literature review’s analysed information conceptual framework examines the topics according to two different variables. They are independent variable and dependent variable. The dependent variable is supported with three independent variables. This explains the relationship between each variable.
Dependent variable- Employee engagement
Independent variables- Environmental factors
The researcher has considered three sub variables for independent variable in order to find out additional information on how each independent variable influence the dependent variable.
Figure 3.3: Conceptual Framework
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
As indicated in the above conceptual frame work, the independent variables are examined one by one to analyse its impact on the dependent variable. The operationalization of the variables was identified by the primary data collection, and the quantitative data was analysed through Five-point Likert scale. The range of the Likert scale was selected as, Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neutral, Agree, Strongly Agree.
To identify the influences of environmental factors, the collected data was categorized and summarized to tables. The independent variables, technology, monetary factors, leadership were analysed by using five-point Likert scale.
A hypothesis can be defined as a tentative explanation for the research problem, a possible outcome of the research, or an educated guess about the research outcome CITATION Rao01 l 2057 (Rao, Rehani, & Prasad, 2001).
Table 3.1: Hypothesis and variables
H1 HO1 There is a relationship between technology and employee engagement
Ha1 There is no relationship between technology and employee engagement
H2 HO2 There is relationship between monetary factors and employee engagement
Ha2 There is no relationship between monetary factors and employee engagement
H3 HO3 The is a relationship between leadership and employee engagement
Ha3 There is no relationship between leadership and employee engagement
Source: Researcher’s work- 2018
Table 3.2: Operationalization Chart
Main Concepts Sub-Parameters Question Number Analysis through Questionnaire Scale of AnalyzingEmployee Engagement B.1 I am satisfied with the work I do Likert Scale 1-5
B.2 I will recommend this organization to people as a good employer Likert Scale 1-5
B.3 The facilities provided here are excellent Likert Scale 1-5
B.4 The management is really concerned about the well-being of employees. Likert Scale 1-5
-1123315-15875000 B.5 Required technology has been provided Likert Scale 1-5
Environmental Factors Technology B.6 Technology provided is user friendly Likert Scale 1-5
B.7 The management considers about the technology necessary to my department Likert Scale 1-5
B.8 Technology used by me is environment friendly Likert Scale 1-5
960050306454 B.9 I am satisfied with the technology which is provided to me Likert Scale 1-5
B.10 I perform well to increase my monetary factor Likert Scale 1-5
Monetary Factors B.11 I am motivated to perform my job well because of the monetary factor I receive Likert Scale 1-5
B.12 I compare my salary with co-workers Likert Scale 1-5
B.13 My salary package is not confidential Likert Scale 1-5
B.14 I am satisfied with my salary and other monetary factors Likert Scale 1-5
-69850-15684500 B.15 I am given opportunity to take part in decision making Likert Scale 1-5
Leadership B.16 Leadership style in my department motivates me to perform my job Likert Scale 1-5
B.17 My subordinates treat me with respect and dignity Likert Scale 1-5
B.18 I satisfy independent tasks, individual and group needs Likert Scale 1-5
-6032530226000 B.19 I need more opportunities to develop my performance and strength Likert Scale 1-5
Source: Researcher’s work- 2018
3.6 Role of the researcher
The researcher is an outsider to the organization, and the data gathered are very accurate and realistic. The information received will be used only for academic purpose to complete the research and the information about the organization will not be disclosed to any outer individuals or competitors. The prior permission is being received from the respective person from the company to conduct this research. The outcome of this research will provide advantage to the organizational success.
3.7 Research Design
This research was designed with the main purpose to achieve the objectives of the study and to implement effective solution to the identified research problem. With the clearly identified dependent and independent variables of the study, the research is formulated to evaluate the variables according to the research topic. The hypothesis was developed according to the conceptual framework to test the relationship between the variables. Since the research was conducted in scientific methodology by using only quantitative philosophy. The questionnaire was developed to examine the operationalization of dependent and independent variables.
The population of orel corporation is very huge, which is around 3600 employees. This company’s strength is its population. So that this research will help them to analyse their employees needs by reviewing the statistical; data gathered through the selected few employees.
3.9 Sample and Sample Technique
The size of the sample was determined by using Simple Random Sampling Technique, and the researcher selected a sample size of 108 out of 150 employees. This sample was calculated trough The Sample Size Calculator, applying 95% confident level, with a confidence interval of 5.
Figure 3.2: Sample Size Calculation
Source: Survey System,2012
3.10 Data Types
3.10.1 Questionnaire Method
The openminded questionnaires was drawn to receive information from the employees of orel Corporation. The sequence of questions were designed based on five point Likert scale with a range from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree. This questionnaire includes two main parts as Part A and Part B. Part A is about demographic information about the sample employees, Part B is designed in order to gather related information regarding how technology, monetary factors and leadership influence employee engagement, relationship between independent variables and dependent variable.
The questionnaire includes 19 questions, Part A consists of 4 parts, demographic details as age group, gender, marital status and educational level, Part B consists of 19 parts in order to identify whether environmental factors are influencing employee engagement. The gathered data will be used to analyse the variables as mentioned in the hypothesis.
3.11 Data collection procedure
The questionnaires were distributed through email. And collected all the questionnaire within two days as everyone could not send them back within a day.
3.12 Data analysis and presentation techniques
3.12.1 Data Analysis
The researcher has used quantitative analytical techniques in the study to analyse collected data. Questionnaire was distributed to the selected sample in order to study how environmental factors are influencing the employee engagement. Data was analysed through the SPSS software upon data being collected through the questionnaire. Thus, in order to analyse the strength of relationship between dependent and independent variables the Pearson’s correlation (R value) was used and the relative contribution of each factor was analysed by coefficient of determination (R2 value). ‘Simple linear regression’ analysis was used to interpret the relationship between dependent and independent variables.
Further, statistical measures was used to describe the basic features of the data in the study and show simple summaries about the sample and the measures, with graphics as bar charts and pie charts to summarize demographic data, independent and dependent variable data. Moreover, likert-scale questionnaire were used to test the dependent and independent variables.
Tools used for data analysis:
Microsoft Office Excel
3.12.2 Data Presentation
Demographic data is presented in pie charts and bar charts.
Data analysed through Five point Likert scale questionnaire was presented in tables, figures, scatter diagrams and graphs
3.13 Trustworthiness of the methodology
3.13.1 Research limitations
The research is based on the effectiveness of environmental factors ( technology, monetary factors and leadership) and how they influence employee engagement. Thereby, researcher has undertaken to distribute a questionnaire based on key variables to identify and carryout thorough analysis through SPSS based on questionnaire results proving how environmental factors influence employee engagement.
3.13.2 Research Reliability
3.13.3 Research Validity
This research is been conducted to analyse the effectiveness of environmental factors; technology, monetary factors and leadership and how they influence employee engagement at Orel Corporation. The research will be beneficial for the management of the company as well as the employees to recognize how employees feel engaged to their job. The research findings and recommendations will be applicable to Orel corporation and other same scale organizations also. Furthermore this research can be beneficial to any other researcher who is willing to conduct a research about employee engagement in the future
3.13.4 Ethical Validity
The information collected, and findings about the company and its employees will only be used for the ultimate purpose of the research. The responses of the employees to the questionnaire will not be disclosed to any party and they will remain anonymous. Privacy of the employees and the organization will be maintained at a high level.
3.13.5 Generalized Validity
The identified variables of the study are thoroughly examined by the questionnaire, gathered responses from 100 employees out of 108. The environmental factors (technology, monetary factors and leadership) are identified as independent variable and employee engagement is being identified as the dependent variable. All the suggestions and recommendations are implemented according to the data analysis and it will contribute to the advancement and the improvement of the company and will be beneficial for other industries also.
3.14 Summary of Chapter 3
This chapter illustrated the methodology used to conduct the study and its attributes. The methodology undertaken is scientific methodology. The hypothesis is developed to explain the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variables. To provide further clarification conceptual frame work has been developed based on independent and dependent variables. It elaborates how the sample was collected through the population of 150. In addition to this the data types used in this study explained as primary data and the methods of data collection accordingly. Finally by research limitations, reliability and validity establish the trustworthiness of the methodology.
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.1 Introduction to chapter 04
4.2 Data Analysis
4.2.1 Findings through Research
18.104.22.168 Presentation of Employee Identification Data
22.214.171.124 Section A
126.96.36.199 Age Distribution of the respondents
188.8.131.52 Gender analysis of the respondents
184.108.40.206 Marital Status analysis of the respondents
220.127.116.11 Educational Background of the respondents
4.2.2 Data analysis: Section B
4.2.3 Summary of the responses for section B
18.104.22.168 Question B.1.1
22.214.171.124 Question B.1.2
126.96.36.199 Question B.1.3
188.8.131.52 Question B.1.4
184.108.40.206 Question B.2.1
220.127.116.11 Question B.2.2
18.104.22.168 Question B.2.3
22.214.171.124 Question B.2.4
126.96.36.199 Question B.2.5
188.8.131.52 Question B.2.6
184.108.40.206 Question B.2.7
220.127.116.11 Question B.2.8
18.104.22.168 Question B.2.9
22.214.171.124 Question B.2.10
126.96.36.199 Question B.2.11
188.8.131.52 Question B.2.12
184.108.40.206 Question B.2.13
220.127.116.11 Question B.2.14
18.104.22.168 Question B.2.15
4.3 SPSS Analysis
4.3.1 Hypothesis Testing
22.214.171.124 Testing hypothesis 1
126.96.36.199 Testing hypothesis 2
188.8.131.52 Testing hypothesis 3
4.4 summary of Chapter 04