CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Electricity energy has been one of pillars supporting socio-economic development of a modernize country. The energy consumption is rising rapidly due to growing economic in industrialization and progress in the standards of living ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.008″,”ISSN”:”1364-0321″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Ehsan”,”given”:”Seyed”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wahid”,”given”:”Mazlan Abdul”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”page”:”454-462″,”publisher”:”Elsevier”,”title”:”Feasibility study of biogas production and utilization as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”19″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=238d921d-7646-4c9d-9b83-ca637323134c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”1″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”1″,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”1″},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}1. The status of people’s residential, industrial development, transportation and agricultural sectors in the world are completely affiliated to the fossil fuels energy.

International Energy Agency has predicted almost 30% of power demand in 2023 is provided by the renewables and it will have the fastest growth in the electricity sector, up from 24% in 2017. During this period, renewables are forecast to meet more than 70% of global electricity generation growth, led by solar PV and followed by wind, hydropower, and bioenergy. Hydropower remains the largest renewable source, meeting 16% of global electricity demand by 2023, followed by wind (6%), solar PV (4%), and bioenergy (3%) ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“URL”:”https://www.iea.org/renewables2018/”,”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,”10″,”15″},”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Birol”,”given”:”Fatih”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Energy Agency”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”title”:”Renewables 2018″,”type”:”webpage”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4e923806-94cb-3ff1-ae24-059b2b081fd9″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”2″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”2″},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}2.

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The world is however, facing the limited and fast depleting sources of conventional energy that use to generate power electricity. The conventional sources like coal, natural gas, crude oil are threatening the balance of energy demand for future generation. Furthermore, the emission gases from production of energy by conventional sources in increasing and might lead to greenhouse effect and global warming ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.rser.2011.11.011″,”ISSN”:”1364-0321″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Erdinc”,”given”:”O”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Uzunoglu”,”given”:”M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2012″},”page”:”1412-1425″,”publisher”:”Elsevier Ltd”,”title”:”Optimum design of hybrid renewable energy systems : Overview of different approaches”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”16″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=991023eb-5191-46d2-83ae-3233970ec8c8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”3″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”3″,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”2″},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}3.

According to Malaysia Energy Commission’s statistic in 2016, the electricity generation in Malaysia is dominantly powered by gas power plant and followed by coal power plant. The hydro is the resource that monopoly the renewable energy in power generation system. While the other power plant from source diesel and biomass power plant.

Fig. 1: Total Primary Energy Supply by Fuel Type ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Handbook”,”given”:”Statistics”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”title”:”No Title”,”type”:”report”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f61aded7-efeb-4b7e-85bb-d08a877fc7d8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”4″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”4″,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”3″},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}4
Based on the current rising trend of fuel prices in the world market, the Malaysia government comprehended the potential of renewable energy as another option to ensure the sustainability of energy resources ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISBN”:”9781457713545″,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rahman”,”given”:”A A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bakar”,”given”:”N A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hanaffi”,”given”:”F”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Khamis”,”given”:”A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Teknikal”,”given”:”Universiti”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2011″},”page”:”170-176″,”title”:”Study of Renewable Energy Potential in Malaysia”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=87e0903b-3a31-4a8d-8da0-d32822e21723″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”5″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”5″,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”5″},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}5. Besides hydro, another renewable resources like solar, wind and tidal are not fully utilized as Malaysia is seeking to intensify the development of renewable energy, particularly biomass as ‘fifth fuel’ resource under the country’s Fuel Diversification Policy.
The statistic in 2013 has stated that the electricity access rate in Malaysia had achieved 96.86%. The percentage contribution of electricity in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are 99.72%, 92.92% and 88.01% respectively ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Liang”,”given”:”Tian Shen”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”title”:”Rural Electrification in East Malaysia – Achieving optimal power generation system and sustainability of rural electrification projects”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=043dd405-385c-4207-818c-a1fcceb667a6″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”6″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”6″,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”4″},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}6. Sarawak has the biggest rate of poor electrification access in Malaysia which most of them are living in unreachable electric grid of rural areas.
The lack of electricity intensifies the poverty thus the developing countries have high demand for electricity. One of the most significant current discussion in legal and moral philosophy is the off-grid hybrid renewable energy focusing in rural area to reduce the poverty rate.
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the decentralized electricity supply has traditionally considered as a technology -based limited level of supply to meet the basic needs, without considering reliable energy provision to rural customers ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.renene.2013.07.028″,”ISBN”:”0960-1481″,”ISSN”:”09601481″,”abstract”:”Renewable energy-based off-grid or decentralised electricity supply has traditionally considered a single technology-based limited level of supply to meet the basic needs, without considering reliable energy provision to rural consumers. The purpose of this paper is to propose the best hybrid technology combination for electricity generation from a mix of renewable energy resources to satisfy the electrical needs in a reliable manner of an off-grid remote village, Palari in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. Four renewable resources, namely, small-scale hydropower, solar photovoltaic systems, wind turbines and bio-diesel generators are considered. The paper estimates the residential, institutional, commercial, agricultural and small-scale industrial demand in the pre-HOMER analysis. Using HOMER, the paper identifies the optimal off-grid option and compares this with conventional grid extension. The solution obtained shows that a hybrid combination of renewable energy generators at an off-grid location can be a cost-effective alternative to grid extension and it is sustainable, techno-economically viable and environmentally sound. The paper also presents a post-HOMER analysis and discusses issues that are likely to affect/influence the realisation of the optimal solution. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sen”,”given”:”Rohit”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bhattacharyya”,”given”:”Subhes C.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Renewable Energy”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2014″},”page”:”388-398″,”publisher”:”Elsevier Ltd”,”title”:”Off-grid electricity generation with renewable energy technologies inIndia: An application of HOMER”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”62″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=530af089-7be1-4b80-9746-24dd89550e90″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”7″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”7″,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”6″},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}7. Hybrid renewable energy systems are to enhance the renewable energy deployment worldwide. It is effectively take advantage of scalability and flexibility of these energy sources, as combining two or more allows it to support the weaknesses of a stochastic renewable energy source with the strengths of another or with the predictability of a non-renewable energy source ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.3390/su70912787″,”ISSN”:”20711050″,”abstract”:”Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) are a trendy alternative to enhance the renewable energy deployment worldwide. They effectively take advantage of scalability and flexibility of these energy sources, since combining two or more allows counteracting the weaknesses of a stochastic renewable energy source with the strengths of another or with the predictability of a non-renewable energy source. This work presents an optimization methodology for minimum life cycle cost of a HRES based on solar photovoltaic, wind and biomass power. Biomass power seeks to take advantage of locally available forest wood biomass in the form of wood chips to provide energy in periods when the PV and wind power generated are not enough to match the existing demand. The results show that a HRES combining the selected three sources of renewable energy could be installed in a rural township of about 1300 dwellings with an up-front investment of US $7.4 million, with a total life cycle cost of slightly more than US $30 million. Such a system would have benefits in terms of energy autonomy and environment quality improvement, as well as in term of job opportunity creation.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”González”,”given”:”Arnau”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Riba”,”given”:”Jordi Roger”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rius”,”given”:”Antoni”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Sustainability (Switzerland)”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”9″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”page”:”12787-12806″,”title”:”Optimal sizing of a hybrid grid-connected photovoltaic-wind-biomass power system”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”7″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6b5ac55b-71d9-49e6-a600-4d0900959b7e”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”8″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”8″,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”7″},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}8.

However, a major problem with this kind of application is the to find the optimum hybrid energy that can satisfy customers’ demand with minimum cost.
1.2 Problem statement
Sarawak has a centralize power system planning under Sarawak Energy which the sole entity is responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in the state.

Rural electrification in Sarawak. 1.2 million people living in rural setting with 6235 villages with about more than 200,000 homes. In 2016, SEB has identified 4316 villages that consist of 40,000 homes in rural area have not received 24-hour electricity yet. The government state and villagers are expected to have positive social economic impacts such as increased employment and business opportunities, increased development for affected areas and increased in infrastructure to improving their quality of life.

Some of the rural area are remote and very far reach to national grid. Hence, Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB) has introduced an initiative to build stand-alone power generation systems as a mission to support community’s activities. Diesel generator (genset) is popular stand-alone system used as it is very cheap, However, the genset itself might not achieve the sustainability of rural electrification since it cannot electrify many households in a village.

1.3 Objectives
Aware of the issues confronting the stand-alone generating system, the aim of this paper is to optimize the best hybrid renewable energy in a remote rural area with minimal cost. This paper will focus on the available resources in a given village location that can meet the electricity demand in a reliable and sustainable manner. The optimization of hybrid can be achieved by estimate the potential demand, identify the potential hybrid system and analyse their applicability in term of cost and performance. The potential energy of mini-hydro, solar, wind and diesel generator is modelled as a hybrid electricity generation in a software. HOMER is a software used to model and study the optimization of hybrid energy with minimum cost of electricity generation.
1.4 Job scope
This project is about optimization of hybrid renewable energy sources in a remote rural area. There are many renewable energy and conventional energy can be a combination as a hybrid energy system. Variant type of prices need a particular method to analyse the economic issues. The worst hybrid renewable issues in this project is to investigate the optimal hybrid energy as it is depending to efficiency of renewable resources and cost expenditures. However, based on the past research, the researcher have found that four sources of micro-hydro, solar, wind and diesel is suitable for remote rural area in Sarawak, Malaysia. Effective policies and incentive on the renewable energy sourced (RES) is stressed to promote low carbon economy for the future.
1.5 Summary