CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 DRUGS
Drugs are defined as psychoactive substances that can cause the mental, physical or the emotional state of a human to undergo adjustments in the body functions as it affects the central nervous system affecting the personality, thinking, notion and behaviour ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”NOTE: The information contained in this handbook is designed for an adult audience working in an educational environment and should not be used as a model for presenting drug-related information and facts to young people. The terms ‘substance’ and ‘drug’ are used interchangeably throughout this handbook. This material may be reproduced for educational purposes. Special permission for such use is not required.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Reaper-Reynolds”,”given”:”E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Reaper-Reynolds”,”given”:”S”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Keane”,”given”:”R”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Wolfe”,”given”:”E”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Book”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2006″},”page”:”2082″,”title”:”UNDERSTANDING SUBSTANCES — A HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS — Understanding Substances and Substance Use : A Handbook for Teachers”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d18c196b-97e4-4dc2-84b4-9ec7ec3f8dc9″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Reaper-Reynolds, Reaper-Reynolds, Keane, & Wolfe, 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Reaper-Reynolds, Reaper-Reynolds, Keane, & Wolfe, 2006)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Reaper-Reynolds, Reaper-Reynolds, Keane, & Wolfe, 2006)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Reaper-Reynolds, Reaper-Reynolds, Keane, & Wolfe, 2006). Drugs can be classified into five classes; narcotics, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens and anabolic steroids. Drugs coming from the same class tends to produce same effects and as a whole, regardless of class, drugs has typical features ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”U.S Drug Enforcement Administration”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”U.S. Department of Justice”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”94″,”title”:”Drugs of Abuse 2017 Edition: A DEA Resource Guide”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=416c0944-063a-4f95-9e3b-faf2281203d8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017). In a medico-legal aspect, drugs are classified as legal and illegal drugs. Legal drugs can generally be obtained with a prescription or sold over the counter and examples of legal drugs are alcohol, tobacco, inhalant and coffee ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”title”:”Key Concept in Drug and Society”,”type”:”book”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dcde777e-6efb-36d6-81a3-c3535a9346d5″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(<i>Key Concept in Drug and Society</i>, 2013)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Key Concept in Drug and Society, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(<i>Key Concept in Drug and Society</i>, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Key Concept in Drug and Society, 2013) . On the other hand, illegal drugs or commonly known as controlled drugs which is defined as drugs that are used for non-medical purposes and possession of drugs without any legal reason is against the law. Examples of illegal drugs are cocaine, cannabis, opiates and hallucinogens ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bryan”,”given”:”Audrey”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Moran”,”given”:”Rosalyn”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Farrell”,”given”:”Eimear”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”O’brien”,”given”:”Mary”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2000″},”title”:”DRUG-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS IN IRELAND REPORT OF A NATION-WIDE SURVEY”,”type”:”report”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2997ff26-ee5c-329c-aba5-b6961b9d8eef”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bryan, Moran, Farrell, ; O’brien, 2000)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Bryan, Moran, Farrell, & O’brien, 2000)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Bryan, Moran, Farrell, ; O’brien, 2000)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Bryan, Moran, Farrell, & O’brien, 2000).
Recent studies shows that the use of drug is increasing in Malaysia which proves that the need for drugs is increasing and actions that has been taken or conducted to help reduce the use of drug is incompetent. Kelantan has been known to have an increase of 10% of synthetic drug use annually. The statistics obtained from Agensi Anti-Dadah Kebangsaan (AADK) has shown that the highest number of drug dependents are aged between 25 and 29 years old which is known to be a financially productive age ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rahman”,”given”:”Fifa”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”March 2008″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”number-of-pages”:”10-14″,”title”:”Drug Harms in Malaysia: A Technical Brief”,”type”:”report”,”volume”:”17″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=612958f6-f7a7-4679-b2c7-6842e308751b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Rahman, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Rahman, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Rahman, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Rahman, 2015).

Figure 1: Annual Drug Arrest in Malaysia
(Figure obtained from the Narcotic Crime Investigation Department, Royal Malaysia Police, ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rahman”,”given”:”Fifa”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”March 2008″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”number-of-pages”:”10-14″,”title”:”Drug Harms in Malaysia: A Technical Brief”,”type”:”report”,”volume”:”17″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=612958f6-f7a7-4679-b2c7-6842e308751b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Rahman, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Rahman, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Rahman, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Rahman, 2015).)
According to Rahman (2015), about 30 methamphetamine laboratories were demolished between the year 2008 and 2011, worth RM1 million in Penang and RM10 million in Sepang, Selangor. The number of drug abuser are increasing constantly and based on a statistical data provided by the Malaysian Department of Statistics in 2010, between 2000 and 2008, the number of drug abusers recorded were 126 153 with an estimation of 14 017 growth annually ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hwa”,”given”:”A N G M E I”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”title”:”REPRESENTATION OF PEOPLE WHO USE DRUGS IN MALAYSIAN MAINSTREAM NEWS REPORTS”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7c9e6101-56df-4810-b6da-eb11187feb5c”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hwa, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hwa, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hwa, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Hwa, 2015). The geographical position of Malaysia has made it easier for the scattering of illegal drugs as it is close to countries that produces drugs such as Thailand, Burma and Laos which is famously known as the “Golden Triangle”. It was also revealed in a study conducted years ago that the highest age group involved with drugs are between 20 and 29 years old ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Yun”,”given”:”L O W W A H”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hans”,”given”:”B A”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Psy”,”given”:”M Se Med”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1988″},”page”:”34-39″,”title”:”Drug Addiction – Current Trends”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”43″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9dd68b84-72e1-4398-8605-6d39a1dfb6b1″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Yun, Hans, & Psy, 1988)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Yun, Hans, & Psy, 1988)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Yun, Hans, & Psy, 1988)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Yun, Hans, ; Psy, 1988). In a study by ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Degenhardt”,”given”:”Louisa”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lewis”,”given”:”Gary”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”title”:”Overview of drug trends in East and Southeast Asia”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=10f4d615-df60-4a3a-bd63-65d9ea89f843″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d.)”,”manualFormatting”:”Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d.)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d.)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}Degenhardt ; Lewis, n.d, opium poppy cultivation is more popular in Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. This statement is supported by results from a South-East Opium Survey conducted by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in December 2011.

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Figure 2: Opium poppy cultivation in South East Asia (hectares), 1998-2011

Table 1: Heroin seizures in kilogram in 2010 and 2011, ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Degenhardt”,”given”:”Louisa”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lewis”,”given”:”Gary”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”title”:”Overview of drug trends in East and Southeast Asia”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=10f4d615-df60-4a3a-bd63-65d9ea89f843″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d.)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d.)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d.)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Degenhardt ; Lewis, n.d.)
In 2011, a number of trends related to amphetamine –type stimulants (ATS) has been identified. South East Asia has ranked ATS as top 3 drugs in the region and are labelled as primary drugs of concern in Asia. East Asia and South East Asia shows high levels of ATS manufacture which shows an increase in the number of arrest and need for ATS treatment ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Degenhardt”,”given”:”Louisa”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lewis”,”given”:”Gary”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”title”:”Overview of drug trends in East and Southeast Asia”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=10f4d615-df60-4a3a-bd63-65d9ea89f843″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d.)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d.)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Degenhardt & Lewis, n.d.)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Degenhardt ; Lewis, n.d.). According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2016), one in twenty adults has used drug at least once in 2014. About 29 million people that uses drugs are those who agonizes from drug use disorders and about 12 million from them are those abusers who injects drug, where 14.0 percent suffers with HIV.

2.2 DRUG ABUSE
Drug abuse is defined as the action of using the controlled substance in a way that it is not used for a medical reason. Under drug abuse, there are a few terms that should be taken account into such as drug dependence, drug addiction and drug withdrawal. Drug dependence can be caused by controlled substance that has been abused. Drug dependence can be further branched out into two which is physical dependence and psychological dependence. The adjustments that takes place within the body due to the action of consuming a drug to restrain the body from a withdrawal syndrome is known as physical dependence ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”U.S Drug Enforcement Administration”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”U.S. Department of Justice”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”94″,”title”:”Drugs of Abuse 2017 Edition: A DEA Resource Guide”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=416c0944-063a-4f95-9e3b-faf2281203d8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017). On the other hand, psychological dependence is the thirst for drug which makes the individual feel that it is a need to consume drug in order to function normally and achieve a certain level of euphoria or satisfaction ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Razali”,”given”:”Asbah”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”8″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”page”:”77-89″,”title”:”Issues and Challenges of Drug A ddiction among Students in”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”3″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=fef6fc4d-1e2c-44c8-88b2-474996aa80a2″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Razali, 2016)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Razali, 2016″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Razali, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Razali, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Razali, 2016; ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”U.S Drug Enforcement Administration”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”U.S. Department of Justice”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”94″,”title”:”Drugs of Abuse 2017 Edition: A DEA Resource Guide”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=416c0944-063a-4f95-9e3b-faf2281203d8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”,”manualFormatting”:”U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017). Psychological dependence is chronic compared to physical dependence as it is the dominant reason for relapsing.
Not to misinterpret physical dependence as drug addiction since physical dependence exist depending on the reason the individual consumes a drug. For example, an individual may consume benzodiazepines to help treat their anxiety and not because they are addicted to it ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”U.S Drug Enforcement Administration”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”U.S. Department of Justice”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2017″},”page”:”94″,”title”:”Drugs of Abuse 2017 Edition: A DEA Resource Guide”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=416c0944-063a-4f95-9e3b-faf2281203d8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(U.S Drug Enforcement Administration, 2017). Drug addiction is a serious issue as it is defined as the inability of the individual to restrain themselves from abusing drugs on a daily basis. Individual will continues to abuse the drug even though they are aware of the danger of abusing the drug ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”title”:”The Science of Addiction”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=42162638-c226-4beb-b112-a03b84d21d82″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(“The Science of Addiction,” n.d.)”,”manualFormatting”:”(“The Science of Addiction,” 2007)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(“The Science of Addiction,” n.d.)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(“The Science of Addiction,” n.d.)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(“The Science of Addiction,” 2007). Furthermore, drug withdrawal is defined as the after effects or symptoms shown due to the abrupt cessation of drug. There are two phases of the withdrawal; acute withdrawal and protracted withdrawal. Acute withdrawal only happens for the first few hours after the abrupt discontinuation of drug and eventually stops whereas, protracted withdrawal shows signs of acute withdrawal as well but last for a long time compared to acute withdrawal ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Markgraf”,”given”:”Carrie G”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”title”:”Introduction to Tolerance, Physical Dependence and Withdrawal”,”type”:”report”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=509e1607-dd7b-3f8e-9252-55c6d6c363d6″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Markgraf, n.d.)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Markgraf, n.d.)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Markgraf, n.d.)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Markgraf, n.d.)
2.3 COMMON DRUG OF ABUSE IN MALAYSIA
In a research conducted by AADK Malaysia, about 22,811 drug abusers were caught and a total of 12,430 were repeated offenders. This statistics showed a decrease by 34.47% in the number of cases encountered in 2005. Top states with the highest cases detected are Pulau Pinang (5,127), Kedah (2,634), Perak (2,545), Kelantan (2,243) and Johor (2,329).
According to Hwa (2015), AADK 2013 report states that the highest drug users are the Malays (18,693 as of 2010) and declined to 5667 which is about 13.97% in 2013. The Chinese drug users were 7.29% followed by Indian users about 9.79% between the year 2009 and 2013. The most commonly abused drugs in Malaysia is heroine, followed by methamphetamine, kratom, cannabis, ketamine and ecstasy (MDMA) by order (Alcohol Rehab, n.d.; Hwa, 2015). Amphetamine-type stimulants is beginning to grow in the market ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rehab”,”given”:”Alcohol”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”4-8″,”title”:”Drug Addiction in Malaysia Drug Problems in Malaysia Most Commonly Abused Drugs in Malaysia”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b87c1ce3-d5cd-4cd0-81de-739e1d27494a”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Rehab, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Rehab, 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Rehab, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Rehab, 2018). Relatively, about 1.1% of the Malaysian population which is about 300,241 total drug users were recorded by the AADK from the year 1988 to 2006.

Table 2: Types of drugs used in 2006 ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”1 • In 2006, as many as 22,811 drug users were detected, 12,430 of whom were repeat offenders. • There was a 34.47% reduction in the number of cases detected in 2006 as compared to the 34,813 cases detected in 2005. • Pulau Pinang recorded the highest number of detected cases at 5,127, followed by Kedah (2,634), Perak (2,545), Kelantan (2,243) and Johor (2,329). • All states recorded a drop in number of detected cases except for Kedah, Sarawak and WP Labuan • The total number of drug users recorded by the ADK for the period of 1988-2006 is 300,241 people, approximately 1.1% of Malaysia’s population. DRUG USER PROFILE The profile of drug users detected in 2006 are as follows: • 97.97% male • 69.48% Malay • 71.04% youth aged between 25-29 years old • 78.30% minimum Form 3 secondary education • 90.69% employed (majority labourers) • 60.73% abuse heroin/morphine • 12.56% abuse ATS • 59.78% influenced by friends to use drugs.”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”0″},”title”:”FACT SHEET STATISTICS OF DRUG USERS IN MALAYSIA-2006″,”type”:”report”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e3e3d969-87d2-3a5c-b9f3-40ac79d6517b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(<i>FACT SHEET STATISTICS OF DRUG USERS IN MALAYSIA-2006</i>, n.d.)”,”manualFormatting”:”(FACT SHEET STATISTICS OF DRUG USERS IN MALAYSIA, 2006)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(FACT SHEET STATISTICS OF DRUG USERS IN MALAYSIA-2006, n.d.)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(<i>FACT SHEET STATISTICS OF DRUG USERS IN MALAYSIA-2006</i>, n.d.)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(FACT SHEET STATISTICS OF DRUG USERS IN MALAYSIA, 2006)
Current research has shown that opiates as the most common drug used followed by cannabis and amphetamine-based stimulants ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lian”,”given”:”Cai”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”2-3″,”title”:”Contributory Factors : Drug Abuse in Malaysia”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=67c7dd69-1d3a-4b79-9ec3-3edd2c7aa61f”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lian, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lian, 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Lian, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lian, 2018). Heroin ranked first as commonly abused drugs between 2008 and 2012 but current studies shows that the trend is decreasing. New drug users tend to abuse ATS and is proven by a data from 2012. Malaysia has become one of the destination for methamphetamine trafficking and large amounts are smuggled into Malaysia from nearby countries. Kratom or locally known as “ketum” has become popular due to its cheap price and ample of supplies in Malaysia. in a research it is stated that according to United Nations (2005) report, a cup of Kratom only cost RM4 and a kilogram is about RM25 ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“URL”:”https://today.mims.com/the-pattern-of-illicit-drug-use-in-malaysia”,”accessed”:{“date-parts”:”2018″,”8″,”11″},”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Mak Wen Yao”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2016″},”title”:”The pattern of illicit drug use in Malaysia”,”type”:”webpage”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aaa70c93-de6c-38c9-968d-345ed7059997″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Mak Wen Yao, 2016)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Mak Wen Yao, 2016)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Mak Wen Yao, 2016)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Mak Wen Yao, 2016).

2.4 RELAPSE AND RELAPSE RATE
Relapse is defined as the action of returning to consuming or abusing drugs after undergoing rehabilitation to treat their addiction. Individuals begin to crave for drugs during their rehabilitation periods as they have to abstain themselves from using drugs. The definition of relapse may be shaded by the rate of success of rehabilitation and treatments. Relapsing back into drugs does not mean that the treatment is a failure ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tims”,”given”:”Frank M”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Carl”,”given”:”G”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Leukefeld”,”given”:”D S W”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Public Health Service Alcohol”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”1986″},”title”:”Relapse and Recovery in Drug Abuse”,”type”:”report”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7e22f359-8164-3f82-a18d-602376b90049″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Tims, Carl, & Leukefeld, 1986)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Tims, Carl, & Leukefeld, 1986)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Tims, Carl, & Leukefeld, 1986)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Tims, Carl, ; Leukefeld, 1986). Drug relapsed is interpreted as a complicated, vigorous and fickle process which is classified as usage of psychoactive substance after undergoing treatment and rehabilitation for drug addiction, physically and psychologically ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISSN”:”18404529″,”abstract”:”Introduction/Background: Drug abuse is a complex issue and has been a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The high relapse rate which has been consistently over 50% for the past decades has been worrying also. Research into the contributory factors of drug abuse represents a continuing effort to curb this growing social threat and past research has shown that family factors and peer influence were two of the primary contributory factors of drug abuse.\r\nAim & Objectives: The present study aims to examine the contributory factors of drug relapse among drug addicts and the treatment effectiveness of a centre in Malaysia. Methods/Study Design: An in-depth qualitative interview which was flexible, nondirective, and semi-structured was employed. There were 17 drug addicts and 3 administrative staffs being selected from the Malaysian Private Rehabilitation Centre for interview.\r\nResults/Findings: Result indicated that peer influence and curiosity were the top two significant factors contributing to drugs abuse. Treatment provided in the centre was highly effective as majority of the participants have a very low intention to relapse after recovered.\r\nDiscussion/Conclusion: The current research provides us a general idea of how the drug abusers and rehabilitation centre are like in Malaysia, providing clue to related parties on how we can further work on reducing if not eliminating drug abuse in our country.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tam”,”given”:”Cai”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Foo”,”given”:”Yie Chu”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health E”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”page”:”217-232″,”title”:”A qualitative study on drug abuse relapse in Malaysia: contributory factors and treatment effectiveness”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=69a916c3-ceda-4561-a6e6-9d0b17c8ff9e”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Tam & Foo, 2013)”,”manualFormatting”:”(Fauziah & Kumar, 2009; Tam & Foo, 2013″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Tam & Foo, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Tam & Foo, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Fauziah ; Kumar, 2009; Tam ; Foo, 2013).
In the year 2007, the National Anti-Drug Agency (NADA) has reported that the number of new drug addicts and relapsed addicts were 6679 and 7810 respectively. This number however has decreased in the following year from 6679 to 5939 and 7810 to 6413 ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISSN”:”18404529″,”abstract”:”Introduction/Background: Drug abuse is a complex issue and has been a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The high relapse rate which has been consistently over 50% for the past decades has been worrying also. Research into the contributory factors of drug abuse represents a continuing effort to curb this growing social threat and past research has shown that family factors and peer influence were two of the primary contributory factors of drug abuse.\r\nAim & Objectives: The present study aims to examine the contributory factors of drug relapse among drug addicts and the treatment effectiveness of a centre in Malaysia. Methods/Study Design: An in-depth qualitative interview which was flexible, nondirective, and semi-structured was employed. There were 17 drug addicts and 3 administrative staffs being selected from the Malaysian Private Rehabilitation Centre for interview.\r\nResults/Findings: Result indicated that peer influence and curiosity were the top two significant factors contributing to drugs abuse. Treatment provided in the centre was highly effective as majority of the participants have a very low intention to relapse after recovered.\r\nDiscussion/Conclusion: The current research provides us a general idea of how the drug abusers and rehabilitation centre are like in Malaysia, providing clue to related parties on how we can further work on reducing if not eliminating drug abuse in our country.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tam”,”given”:”Cai”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Foo”,”given”:”Yie Chu”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health E”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”page”:”217-232″,”title”:”A qualitative study on drug abuse relapse in Malaysia: contributory factors and treatment effectiveness”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”5″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=69a916c3-ceda-4561-a6e6-9d0b17c8ff9e”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Tam & Foo, 2013)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Tam & Foo, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Tam & Foo, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Tam ; Foo, 2013). The data obtained shows that the percentage of relapsed addicts is higher compared to the new drug addicts. A study was conducted to compare between PUSPEN and Cure ; Care Service Centres which showed results that 50% of the individuals in PUSPEN relapsed back to drugs one month after release and within a year, 100% of the individuals relapsed. In the Cure ; Care Service Centre which provides voluntary treatment showed less than 40% of individuals relapsed within a year. This shows that the risk for relapse for individuals in PUSPEN is 7.6 times higher compared to individuals in voluntary treatment ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rahman”,”given”:”Fifa”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”March 2008″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2015″},”number-of-pages”:”10-14″,”title”:”Drug Harms in Malaysia: A Technical Brief”,”type”:”report”,”volume”:”17″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=612958f6-f7a7-4679-b2c7-6842e308751b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Rahman, 2015)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Rahman, 2015)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Rahman, 2015)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Rahman, 2015).
2.5 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DRUG ABUSE IN MALAYSIA
Family relationship has shown to be one of the contributing factors for an individual to abuse drug. More specifically, the behaviour of the parents, the relationship between the parents and also between the individual, the atmosphere among family and the financial of the family ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Foo”,”given”:”Yie-chu”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Tam”,”given”:”Cai-lian”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lee”,”given”:”Teck-heang”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”1-8″,”title”:”International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health Family Factors and Peer Influence in Drug Abuse : A Study in Rehabilitation Centre”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85abd39b-a814-4a5e-9cff-11143b0a26c7″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Foo, Tam, & Lee, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Foo, Tam, & Lee, 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Foo, Tam, & Lee, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Foo, Tam, ; Lee, 2018). Glynn (1981) explained that a child is easily influence by their parent, therefore, the child’s substance abuse habits is influenced by their parent’s substance abuse habits. Bandura’s social learning theory was used for further explanation, if the individual is able to relate with the parent, then they would model the parent’s behaviour of substance abuse. In a research conducted by Andrews, Hops ; Duncan (1997), about 657 teenagers found them copying their parent’s using marijuana and cigarette’s use if the relationship between the parent and child was relatively good.

Moreover, peer influence contributes to drug abuse among young adults especially. Based on Dr Tam Cai Lian’s research, the social pressure on an individual to fit into a social group or to feel accepted makes them to begin taking drugs. According to Tam & Foo (2013), in 2009, Agensi Anti-Dadah Malaysia published statistics identifying peer influence as the main contributory factor of drug abuse by 57.9%. Other reasons like curiosity or rebellion against social norms also are reasons to abuse drugs. ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Lian”,”given”:”Cai”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”2-3″,”title”:”Contributory Factors : Drug Abuse in Malaysia”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=67c7dd69-1d3a-4b79-9ec3-3edd2c7aa61f”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Lian, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Lian, 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Lian, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Lian, 2018). The urge to try or experiment with drugs is strong among immature teenagers who wants to fit in into a group (McDonald, 1993).
Moos (2007) argued that psychological factors on the other hand contributes to relapse among drug abusers after a period of abstaining from drugs. In a research conducted by Chuah (1990), the reason for relapsing among drug addicts after been released from the rehabilitation centre is due to low self-efficacy. Lack of knowledge and attitude on drug abuse are factors that causes relapse among drug addicts (Abdullah & Iran, 1997). Support and communication from family plays and important role in the lives of the former drug addicts. Research by Mohd Taib, Rusli and Mohd Khairi (2000) shows that weak communication and lack of support are reasons for relapse to occur. In a research conducted by Yahya & Mahmood (2002), after receiving treatments and leaving the rehabilitation centres, most of the former addicts are unable to get a job and due to this, they lack financial support which causes them to relapse back to drugs. Even when former addicts manages to get a job, employers tend to take advantage on them by paying low salaries without considering their qualifications and talents causing the individuals to quit their job and relapse back to drugs (Yunos, 1996).
2.6 EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE
When drugs are abused, the dopamine targets the brain’s reward system by flooding it. Drugs like marijuana and heroin can mimic a natural neurotransmitter because of their chemical structure activating the neurons in the brain. Similar structure of the receptors allows the drug to attach onto and activate the neurons. The drugs are only able to mimic the brain’s own chemical but are unable to activate neurons like how the natural neurotransmitter does, which causes abnormal messages being transmitted through the network ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/sciofaddiction.pdf”,”ISBN”:”10-5605″,”ISSN”:”1932-0620″,”PMID”:”20831806″,”abstract”:”For much of the past century, scientists studying drug abuse labored in the shadows of powerful myths and misconceptions about the nature of addiction. When scientists began to study addictive behavior in the 1930s, people addicted to drugs were thought to be morally flawed and lacking in willpower. Those views shaped society’s responses to drug abuse, treating it as a moral failing rather than a health problem, which led to an emphasis on punishment rather than prevention and treatment. Today, thanks to science, our views and our responses to addiction and other substance use disorders have changed dramatically. Groundbreaking discoveries about the brain have revolutionized our understanding of compulsive drug use, enabling us to respond effectively to the problem. As a result of scientific research, we know that addiction is a disease that affects both the brain and behavior. We have identified many of the biological and environmental factors and are beginning to search for the genetic variations that contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Scientists use this knowledge to develop effective prevention and treatment approaches that reduce the toll drug abuse takes on individuals, families, and communities. Despite these advances, many people today do not understand why people become addicted to drugs or how drugs change the brain to foster compulsive drug use. This booklet aims to fill that knowledge gap by providing scientific information about the disease of drug addiction, including the many harmful consequences of drug abuse and the basic approaches that have been developed to prevent and treat substance use disorders. At the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), we believe that increased understanding of the basics of addiction will empower people to make informed choices in their own lives, adopt science-based policies and programs that reduce drug abuse and addiction in their communities, and support scientific research that improves the Nation’s well-being.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”National Institute on Drug Abuse”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Nida”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2010″},”title”:”Drug, brains, and behavior. The science of addiction”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5ab7635b-931f-4b27-aaa6-c8542543a7d5″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010).
According to Goldstein (1989), there are three prominent interpretation of the relationship between drugs and violence are: the psycho-pharmacological which traits violence as an effect on behaviour of consuming a substance, for example when and individual becomes agitated, irritable and involves in violence; due to economic where the act of violence results in crimes committed by drug abusers in order to get money to buy drugs for their needs and the systemic where violence is observed as an endemic in the illegal drug market.

It has been discovered that substance abuse disorders rate is one of the most widespread of acute and chronic psychiatric disorders (Eaton, Kramer. Anthony, Drymon, & Locke, 1989). In order to understand the relationship between drugs and aggression or violence, it is vital to grasp the meaning of the terms. Aggression is a form of behaviour which aims to harm or injure an individual who is propelled to avoid such treatments. In the context of law, the term “violence” is used commonly for individuals who have come into contact with drug consumptions, whereas, in researchers or studies, the term “aggression” is used in studies that exploits drug administration and laboratory measures ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.addbeh.2003.08.033″,”ISBN”:”0306-4603″,”ISSN”:”03064603″,”PMID”:”14656544″,”abstract”:”The drug-violence relationship exists for several reasons, some direct (drugs pharmacologically inducing violence) and some indirect (violence occurring in order to attain drugs). Moreover, the nature of that relationship is often complex, with intoxication, neurotoxic, and withdrawal effects often being confused and/or confounded. This paper reviews the existing literature regarding the extent to which various drugs of abuse may be directly associated with heightened interpersonal violence. Alcohol is clearly the drug with the most evidence to support a direct intoxication-violence relationship. The literatures concerning benzodiazepines, opiates, psychostimulants, and phencyclidine (PCP) are idiosyncratic but suggest that personality factors may be as (or more) important than pharmacological ones. Cannabis reduces likelihood of violence during intoxication, but mounting evidence associates withdrawal with aggressivity. The literature on the relationship between steroids and aggression is largely confounded, and between 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and aggression insufficient to draw any reasonable conclusions. Conclusions and policy implications are briefly discussed. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hoaken”,”given”:”Peter N.S.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stewart”,”given”:”Sherry H.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Addictive Behaviors”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”9″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”1533-1554″,”title”:”Drugs of abuse and the elicitation of human aggressive behavior”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”28″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d989de2-b4af-4df9-ae88-7492ff6ebe89″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hoaken & Stewart, 2003)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hoaken & Stewart, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hoaken & Stewart, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Hoaken & Stewart, 2003).
A study showed that in cases of intoxication, researches have conceived the idea of four physiological effects of drugs on and individual that should increase the likelihood of violence (Pihl & Peterson, 1995; Pihl & Hoaken, 2002; Hoaken & Stewart, 2003). First is the purported explanatory pharmacological effects is the modification of the psychomotor system in a way that excites and enhances rewards. These psychomotor stimulants increases the potency of the motor behaviour such as approach, sensation seeking and/or violent force behaviours which would not be usually obvious. The second effect is the alteration of the anxiety and/or threat system. Individuals learn young that elevated aggression is connected with increased likelihood of punishment. In merit of this, an action or event that signals the need to become aggressive naturally evokes anxiety, which in return reduces the likelihood of aggression. However, certain drugs depresses these internal inhibiting mechanisms leading to the increment in the probability of the aggressive response. The third mechanism is the alteration of the pain system. This mechanism is peculiar as it has been debated that drugs that increase and drugs that decrease pain sensitivity may increase the likelihood of aggression. Defensive aggression is an unconditioned response which means that drugs that elevates pain sensitivity therefore increases the likelihood of defensive aggression. The last mechanism is the modification of the certain higher order mental capacities. Some drugs may disturb the mental capacities which liable to the formulation of behavioural strategies, and the beginning and maintenance of goal-directed behaviour in response to external and internal regulatory actions ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1016/j.addbeh.2003.08.033″,”ISBN”:”0306-4603″,”ISSN”:”03064603″,”PMID”:”14656544″,”abstract”:”The drug-violence relationship exists for several reasons, some direct (drugs pharmacologically inducing violence) and some indirect (violence occurring in order to attain drugs). Moreover, the nature of that relationship is often complex, with intoxication, neurotoxic, and withdrawal effects often being confused and/or confounded. This paper reviews the existing literature regarding the extent to which various drugs of abuse may be directly associated with heightened interpersonal violence. Alcohol is clearly the drug with the most evidence to support a direct intoxication-violence relationship. The literatures concerning benzodiazepines, opiates, psychostimulants, and phencyclidine (PCP) are idiosyncratic but suggest that personality factors may be as (or more) important than pharmacological ones. Cannabis reduces likelihood of violence during intoxication, but mounting evidence associates withdrawal with aggressivity. The literature on the relationship between steroids and aggression is largely confounded, and between 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and aggression insufficient to draw any reasonable conclusions. Conclusions and policy implications are briefly discussed. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hoaken”,”given”:”Peter N.S.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Stewart”,”given”:”Sherry H.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Addictive Behaviors”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”9″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2003″},”page”:”1533-1554″,”title”:”Drugs of abuse and the elicitation of human aggressive behavior”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”28″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d989de2-b4af-4df9-ae88-7492ff6ebe89″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hoaken & Stewart, 2003)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hoaken & Stewart, 2003)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hoaken & Stewart, 2003)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Hoaken & Stewart, 2003).
2.7 QUALITY OF LIFE (QOL)
According to Skevington (1999), the measurement of psychosocial issues with biomedical measures is vital in providing a positive results from the perspectives of the clinician and the patient as well as providing the outcomes when assessing a treatment. There has been studied that argued on the subjective nature of an individual’s “quality of life” as it is a challenging theory define and measure but it may be perceived an intricate concept accentuating the individual’s impression on the present state of mind (Bonomi, Patrick, Bushnell, & Martin, 2000). Quality of life (QOL) is defined as the individual’s interpretation of their status or rank in life in the settings of the culture and value systems that they live in and in association with their achievements, expectations, principle and welfares (WHOQOL Group, 1996).

The most commonly used questionnaire validated by type 2 diabetes which is to study the quality of life is the World Health Organisation Quality of Life – Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) (Rose, Fliege, Hildebrandt, Shirop, ; Klapp, 2002; ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5964/ejop.v9i1.337″,”abstract”:”Quality of life (QoL) can be defined in many ways, making its measurement and incorporation into scientific study difficult. This is a theoretical paper regarding the definition and measuring of quality of life. The search strategy included a combination of key words ‘quality of life’, ‘definition of QoL’ as well as ‘measuring QoL’ in titles using Medline and Google Scholar databases. Quality of life is a complex, multifaceted construct that requires multiple approaches from different theoretical angles. Scientists from the various disciplines of social science are encouraged to exploit the strengths of other’s contributions in a collaborative effort. A thorough understanding of subjective well-being requires knowledge of how objective conditions influence people’s evaluations of their lives. Similarly, a complete understanding of objective indicators and how to select them requires that we understand people’s values, and have knowledge about how objective indicators influence people’s experience of well-being.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Theofilou”,”given”:”Paraskevi”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Europe’s Journal of Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”page”:”150-162″,”title”:”Theoretical Contributions Quality of Life: Definition and Measurement”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”9″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b357aa36-cec0-37fe-b10c-16bf074948d8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Theofilou, 2013)”,”manualFormatting”:”Theofilou, 2013″,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Theofilou, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Theofilou, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}Theofilou, 2013). The WHOQOL-BREF is a multinational project which is based on a cross-culturally sensitive concept (Skevington, Lotfy, ; O’Conell, 2004) which targets subjective aspects of the quality of life (WHOQOL Group, 1994; WHOQOL, 1998). The four domains used to measure are physical, psychological, social and environment with a self-administered set of 2 items which comes in a range of a 5-point Likert scale inquiring how the individuals feel in relation to the domain investigated ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5964/ejop.v9i1.337″,”abstract”:”Quality of life (QoL) can be defined in many ways, making its measurement and incorporation into scientific study difficult. This is a theoretical paper regarding the definition and measuring of quality of life. The search strategy included a combination of key words ‘quality of life’, ‘definition of QoL’ as well as ‘measuring QoL’ in titles using Medline and Google Scholar databases. Quality of life is a complex, multifaceted construct that requires multiple approaches from different theoretical angles. Scientists from the various disciplines of social science are encouraged to exploit the strengths of other’s contributions in a collaborative effort. A thorough understanding of subjective well-being requires knowledge of how objective conditions influence people’s evaluations of their lives. Similarly, a complete understanding of objective indicators and how to select them requires that we understand people’s values, and have knowledge about how objective indicators influence people’s experience of well-being.”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Theofilou”,”given”:”Paraskevi”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”Europe’s Journal of Psychology”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2013″},”page”:”150-162″,”title”:”Theoretical Contributions Quality of Life: Definition and Measurement”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”9″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b357aa36-cec0-37fe-b10c-16bf074948d8″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Theofilou, 2013)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Theofilou, 2013)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Theofilou, 2013)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Theofilou, 2013). The reliability and validity of the psychometric properties is excellent in the WHOQOL-BREF (Skevington et al., 2004). The raw domain scores of the WHOQOL-BREF were converted to a 4-20 score according to the guidelines ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Gholami”,”given”:”Ali”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jahromi”,”given”:”Leila Moosavi”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Zarei”,”given”:”Esmail”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Dehghan”,”given”:”Azizallah”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”7″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”809-817″,”title”:”Application of WHOQOL-BREF in Measuring Quality of Life in Health-Care Staff Background : Methods : Results : Conclusions :”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7f979d62-6fd0-496a-a05c-a4e223826a73″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Gholami, Jahromi, Zarei, ; Dehghan, 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Gholami, Jahromi, Zarei, ; Dehghan, 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Gholami, Jahromi, Zarei, ; Dehghan, 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Gholami, Jahromi, Zarei, & Dehghan, 2018). The domain scores are rated in a positive direction, for example, higher scores indicates good quality of life. The domain score is calculated by using the mean score from each domain where after computing will generate a linearly to a 0-100 scale (Skevington & Tucker, 1999; Harper & Power, 1999). The WHOQOL-BREF is a derived simpler version of the WHOQOL-100 ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Gholami”,”given”:”Ali”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Jahromi”,”given”:”Leila Moosavi”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Zarei”,”given”:”Esmail”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Dehghan”,”given”:”Azizallah”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”7″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2018″},”page”:”809-817″,”title”:”Application of WHOQOL-BREF in Measuring Quality of Life in Health-Care Staff Background : Methods : Results : Conclusions :”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”4″},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7f979d62-6fd0-496a-a05c-a4e223826a73″},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Gholami et al., 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Gholami et al., 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Gholami et al., 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(Gholami et al., 2018). The WHOQOL group with fifteen international field centres developed the WHOQOL-100 that can be used cross-culturally ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5205/reuol.4767-42136-1-ED.0712esp201313″,”ISBN”:”1678-4170 (Electronic) 0066-782X (Linking)”,”ISSN”:”1678-4170 (Electronic)”,”PMID”:”18392385″,”abstract”:”(tel: +41 22 791 2476; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: [email protected]). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications—whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution—should be addressed to Publications, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: [email protected]).”,”author”:{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”WHO”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Organization”,”given”:”World Health”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},”container-title”:”World Health Organization”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:”2004″},”page”:”5″,”title”:”The world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL)-bref”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:”http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dd46c34e-a2f2-4a99-bee1-1126ab7d518b”},”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(WHO ; Organization, 2004)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(WHO ; Organization, 2004)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(WHO ; Organization, 2004)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:”https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json”}(WHO & Organization, 2004). 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2.8 BUSS PERRY AGGRESSION QUESTIONNAIRE (BPAQ)
It is important to determine the aggression level among Malaysians criminals especially drug abusers in this study to better understand the type or form of rehabilitation needed to reduce the aggression level of the drug abusers to the average level of aggression among non-criminal Malaysians (Zaihairul, Hafizah & Geshina, 2012). The Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire (1992) was used to compare the levels of aggression which are divided into 4; physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility. This questionnaire has been widely used to assess the aggression level in teenagers, adult, normal and criminal populations. According to Sabry (2007), the Aggression Questionnaire has been used by researchers in United States, Italy, Germany, Netherland, Japan, Canada and Greece.
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