1.1. Background of the study
Water is the very basis for sustenance of life. It is the most essential necessity of life after oxygen. The importance of water is not only attached to the drinking but also to cooking, bathing, washing and other activities. Anything that disturbs the provision and supply of water, therefore, tends to disturb the very survival of humanity. Where provisions for water and sanitation are inadequate, the diseases that arise from contaminated water, food and hands are among the world’s leading causes of premature death and serious illness (Yewondossen, 2012).
Sufficient potable water supply is one of the basic urban services, which highly affects the economic progress of towns and the health of their people. However, many urban centers around the world are facing serious problem of water supply. The problem in most of third world countries, including Ethiopia, is particularly worst and multidimensional.
Thus, clean potable water is an absolute prerequisite for healthy living. The importance of water in human welfare cannot be over-emphasized in the saying “water is life”. The normal functioning of the human body depends entirely upon an adequate quantity and quality of water. But if the water is from contaminated sources, it causes numerous water-associated diseases (Tesfaye and Zeyede, 2004).
Due to the rapid population growth and uncontrolled residential development witnessed in most developing countries, the global urban environment is seriously being degraded in terms of service delivery (UN-Water 2007). Water supply is the public utilities that have been worst hit by this scenario. These facilities are necessary commodities in household and municipal activities (FAO, 2008). Though continuity of water supply is taken for granted in most developed countries, it is a severe problem in many developing countries, where some times water is only provided for a few hours every day or a few days a week (UN-Water, 2007).
Provision of quality urban infrastructure system has become a major concern in many developed and developing countries. Contrary to this, the quality aspect of providing water has been downplayed by the focus put on access provision to this infrastructure. This is mostly the case of water supply provision and other basic infrastructure. The low quality of urban infrastructure such as water supply and sanitation may be detrimental to the environment leading unhealthy living conditions. The performance of one infrastructure may affect the other due to their interconnection such as water supply and sanitation are highly interrelated. Hence, understanding this integration and interrelation provide a better consideration on the importance of providing quality infrastructure (Salendu, 2010).
2. Statement of the problem
Water is one of the most crucial and non substitutable environmental resources. Adequate, quality, safe and affordable supply of drinking water is a basic need for human life. However many people across the planet do not have access to safe and adequate water supply services which affects their life in various ways (Yibeltal, 2011).
The availability of water sources throughout the world is becoming depleted by the rate at which populations are increasing, especially in developing countries. This has brought into focus the urgent need for planned action to manage water resources effectively for sustainable development (Khatri and Vairavamoorthy, 2007).
Lack of access to safe and clean water is locked in the heart of the poverty. Even though the issue of water is observed as a general problem for both the urban and the rural population, women bear the greatest burden because of their social gender roles including collecting water for their households (Rose, 2009).
Though there is difference on water supply coverage between global and national estimates, all sources confirm that water supply coverage in Ethiopia is on strong upward trajectory (AMCOW, 2010). According to MOWR (2013), the national water access reaches 61.6% (58.71 % rural and 80.72% urban) in 2012/13 fiscal year. ‘The National Wash Inventory’ (NWI) has been conducted in 2010 to provide reliable data about the water supply coverage of the country. As a result of the NWI the combined urban and rural water supply coverage in 2011 is determined to be 54 percent.
Dawit (2015) finding indicates in Addis Ababa, household drinking water quality deteriorates after treated water leaves the treatment plant and enters into the distribution system. A major factor causing this deterioration is the frequent supply interruptions which are common in most areas of Addis Ababa. The main reason for these disruptions is the lack of available water supply. Power cuts are also common and contribute to the disruption of the water supply. During supply disruptions, the pressure inside the pipelines can fall and then allow intrusion of external contaminants from unhygienic areas where water supply pipes have been laid. In Addis Ababa rapid urbanization is taking place. This includes higher population growth, the construction of new apartments and investment in the city. This rapid growth has led to an increasing demand for water from the original water treatment facility. The demand for domestic water is growing at a faster rate than the supply. Even though the Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (AAWSA) is working to increase the supply capacity, it is currently not able to supply enough drinking water to the growing population. This has resulted in water shortages in many areas of the city. As a result, drinking water is now being supplied on a schedule.
Furthermore, the gap between water need and supply has widened steadily in Ethiopia’s urban centers despite continuous efforts by the government in providing water supply to the rapidly growing urban population. Sodo is one of the towns in the SNNPR with rapid urbanization, high population growth; high investment flow due to its investment potential as the capital city of the Wolaita zone. It is also serving as an administrative, business and transport center of the Wolaita Zone. Moreover, the researchers knowledge and also information collected from the office of the water supply and sewerage service and municipal offices indicated that there is majority of the households in shortage of water supply and distribution in the study area. There is no adequate researches have been yet carried out in the study area regarding to problem of water supply. So, this study was emphasized on assessing urban water supply and distribution problems as well as the challenges with possible recommendation that the community of the town and service providers in Sodo town face.
1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 General of objective study
The general of objective the study was to assess urban water supply and distribution
Problems in Sodo town.
1.3.2 Specific objectives of the study
The specific objective of this study is:-
1. To identify the coverage of water supply and distribution in Sodo town.
2. To find out the challenges to water supply and distribution in Sodo town.
3. To scrutinize the coordination and participation of stakeholders in water supply and
1.4. Research Questions
In order to achieve the above mentioned research objectives and to seek answers for the stated problems, the following major research questions were prepared.
1. What is the coverage of existing water supply and distribution in Sodo town?
2. What are the challenges to improvement of water supply and distribution in Sodo town?
3. Are stakeholders coordinating and participating in water supply schemes?
4. What are the effects water supply shortages in the study area?
1.5. Scope of the Study
This research principally focused on urban water supply and distribution problems at domestic level in Sodo town. Furthermore, the study also emphasized on the administrative issues like accessibility, distribution problems, budget, the cause and the consequence of inadequate water supply on the urban communities.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study shows the current water supply condition of urban settlement based on investigating the coverage and distribution of water, causes of water inaccessibility and their impacts on the urban situation. It provides insight to policy makers, NGOs, CBOs and stakeholders who are concerned with urban water supply and distribution problems. The thesis should also append to the literature on urban water supply and distribution issues, which is presently a worldwide challenge. It would also serve as a base line for other researchers who will be interested in the area.
1.7 Justification of the study
As stated by Yewodwossen (2012) water is one of the primary driving forces for sustainable development of any country, where its environmental, social and economic development are to a large extent dependent on improved water supply services. Water is a basic need for human being welfare. Adequate water supply is an entry point to sustainable development. However, limited access associated with poor water supply, hygiene and sanitation is widening the poverty gap. The urban water sector in many developing countries, there are serious constraints to meeting the challenge to provide adequate water for all urban residents. However due to insufficient structures coupled with rapid population growth and urbanization, the gap between demand and supply of water continues to widen.
My personal motivation for this study is, it clear that water is crucial for human survival and economic development. The provision of adequate potable water in addition to drinking, cleaning etc, it also improves health by reducing incidence of water related illnesses. The main reasons for selecting Sodo town as a study area are due to the researcher’s personal acquaintance with the area as his workplace and dweller of the town, he is fully aware of the problems of water supply and distribution facing the people of the town. In addition, I hope this study may provide data for those who need resources on this topic and will also initiate other researchers to study on water supply challenges. The recommendations from the findings could contribute to the preparation of strategies on how the government and other concerned bodies could create favorable environmental conditions to sustainable water supply and distribution.
1.8 Limitation of the study
Some respondents have reservation to express their opinion as could not duly understand the long term outcome of the study and this limited the thorough collection of the required data. It was very difficult to make interviews with some officials as they always made appointment to give information and not available on the appointment. Concerning to documents and secondary data in all the three visited offices there were no adequate documents, which were relevant to this study. The data were fragmented and very difficult to access and get the necessary information. There was no clear explanation on the existing data. Reference books for the study were also rarely available and this influenced study to some extent to review the literatures. Shortage of time and finance were also major challenges to accomplish this paper.
1.9 Organization of the thesis
This thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter is the one section that deals with background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives and research questions, significance, justification, delimitation, limitation and organization of the study. The second chapter of the study includes review of related literatures. The description of the study area and research methodology adopted for the study including sources of data, decisions regarding sample procedures and sample size, and statistical tools used in data analysis would present in chapter three. Then, chapter four contains the data analysis and discussions. Finally, the paper is summarized with conclusions and some recommendations in chapter five to overcome the main problems of water supply and distribution in Sodo town.
1.10 Operational definitions
Water Supply Service: Providing water for domestic, commercial, industrial and social use.
Safe Water: the water protected from contamination.
Household: any unit of habitual residence where some consumption and/or production may be undertaken in common and where some members may recognize culturally defined relationships of kinship and/or affinity where the members are related in some way (asfaw 2006).
Kebele: the smallest administrative unit under city or town administration.
Potable water: water that is safe to drink.
Improved Water Supply: Provision of water in good quality or safe for health, good quantity or the required amount of water is available for use any time through out the year; and collection of water need not take much of your time and effort.
Infrastructure: is defined to denote the hard components that comprise all systems of urban physical structure that are mainly laid underground, surface and overhead to provide public services. Infrastructure in the context of this study includes the sheet network and utilities (electric, water, drainage and telephone, (UNICEF, 2006).
Coverage: refers to the proportion of people served with the adequate levels of water supply.
Urban: Built-up and populated area that includes a municipality and generally, has a population of 2000 or more
Water supply: supplying of clean water for human use.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter deals with the conceptual framework, empirical framework and theoretical overview of urban water supply and distribution. It assesses the urban water supply, sources of water supply, approaches of water supply, urban water supply accessibility, challenges of urban water supply and distribution, urban water supply in developing countries in general and in Ethiopia in particular, benefits of access to safe, reliable, adequate and affordable potable water supply and impacts of inaccessibility of urban water supply and distribution facilities. In addition to these it assesses the Ethiopian government’s water supply policy, institutional arrangement and responsibilities at different levels.
2.1 Urban water supply
Alaci and Alehegn (2009) stated that, water is important in a number of ways; these include domestic and productive uses. Domestic water use takes the form of drinking, washing, cooking and sanitation, while productive water uses includes those for agriculture, beer brewing, brick making etc. Safe drinking water matched with improved water supply contributes to the overall well-being of people; it has significant bearing on infant mortality rate, longevity and productivity. However, the majority of the world’s population in both rural and urban settlements does not have access to safe drinking water.
According to WHO, (2006) cited in Mengistu, (2008), only 16% of people in Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) had access to drinking water through a household connection (an indoor tap or a tap in the yard). Not only their poor access to readily accessible drinking water, even when water is available in these small towns there are risks of contamination due to several factors like inappropriate waste disposal and lack of water supply infrastructure such as pipe line for water.
2.1.1 Sources of water supply
According to Sijbemsa (1989), and Tesfaye and Zeyede (2004) water sources fall in to three categories. These are:
Surface water; It originates from rain water. Surface water is found non-uniformly distributed over the earth’s surface. As the rain reaches the surface of the earth, it becomes surface water or runoff. Surface water includes rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, tanks, manmade reservoirs and sea water. The quantity and quality of surface water depend upon the conditions of the surface or catchment area over which it flows. It is the main source of water supply in many areas. Surface water is prone to contamination from animal and human sources. As such it is not safe for human consumption unless subjected to sanitary protection and purification before use.
Rain water; It refers to rain is that collected from surfaces (by roof or ground catchment) and stored in a container, ponds, tank or cistern until used. This water is the purest water in nature yet
it tends to become impure as it passes through the atmosphere. It picks up suspended impurities from the atmosphere such as dust, soot and microorganisms and gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and ammonia. In regions where rainfall is abundant and frequent, rainwater can be a good source of water supply for individual families and for small communities. The storage of rainwater is particularly important in areas with a long dry season.
Ground water; It may be defined as that portion of the total precipitation which has percolated downward into the porous space in the soil and rock where it remains, or from which it finds its way out to the surface. It is water used by humans comes mainly from land such as wells, springs, etc. It tends to be of higher microbiological quality having undergone natural soil filtration. However, it is relatively difficult to extract. Compared to other water sources more technology and energy is needed to bring water from within the earth up to the surface.
UN-HABITAT (2006) stated that, water service provision options are standpipes, yard and house connections.
Household connection: Household connection, is a water service pipe connected within house plumbing to one or more taps (e.g. in the kitchen and bathroom) or tap placed in the yard or plot outside the house.
Public tap or standpipe: Public tap or standpipe is a public water point from which people can collect water. Many low-income households that are unable to afford a household connection are relying on public water points.
Domestic reseller: Increasingly, households with a private connection are selling water to their neighbors.
In addition to this, UNICEF (2008) stated that, population using improved sources of drinking water are those with any of the following types of water supply: piped water (into dwelling yard or plot), public tap or standpipe, tube well or borehole, protected well, protected spring and rain water collection while unimproved sources are unprotected dug well, unprotected spring, surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation channel), vendor-provided water (cart with small tank or drum, tanker truck), bottled water, tanker truck provided water.
2.1.2 Urban water supply accessibility
Accessibility connotes physical availability of a service or facility. It establishes the extent to which factors like distance, time and cost have decayed. Optimum accessibility in the case of water means effectively over coming access indicators of distance, time and affordability (Alaci and Alehegn, 2009).
According to Adeyemo and Afolabi (2005), accessibility is the balance between the demand for and the supply of consumer services over a geographic space and narrowing or bridging the gap between geographic spaces is the all significance of transport. Accessibility can be seen within the context of the ease with the people can obtain the services of a facility and function. Accessibility increases with decreasing constraints both physical and social.
According to UN-HABITAT (2003) access to safe water is the share of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of safe water. In urban areas the water source may be a public fountain or a stand pipe not more than 200 meters away from households and the adequate amount of water which is needed to satisfy metabolic, hygienic and domestic requirements usually about 20 liters of safe water per person per day. This minimum quantity however vary depending on whether it’s an urban or rural location and whether warm or hot climate.
2.1.3 Water supply accessibility indicators
With regard to water accessibility WHO (2008) stated basic indicators of measuring water accessibility. These indicators show four paramount levels of water accessibility that include optimal access (water supply through taps continuously), intermediate access (water supplied through multiple taps continuously within less than 100m distance travel and within 5 minutes), basic access (between 100m and 1000m distance and 5-30 minutes time) and no access (more than 1000m distance travel and more than 30 minutes time). These are indicators of the level of water availability which is a measure of the quantity available for use. Basically, they reflect the extent to which accessibility challenges time, distance and affordability etc.
126.96.36.199 Time and distance travel to fetch water
Time and distance traveled to fetch water are the key indicators of water accessibility. As WHO (2008) standards if households travel more than 200 meters far away from house in urban areas, there is no access. In relation to time, if the time is within 5 minutes, 5-30 minutes and more than 30 minutes, there is intermediate access, basic access and no access respectively.
The affordability of water has a significant influence on the use of water and selection of water sources. Households with the lowest levels of access to safe water supply frequently pay more for their water than households connected to a piped water system. The high cost of water may force households to use small quantities of water and alternative of poorer quality that represent a greater risk too (Public Health Protection, 2000). Private access to tap water is the cheapest for the consumer. Dependence on a shared standpipe increases prices four times. Private water delivery through tanker service or sachet or bottled water is the most expensive and tanker delivery costs many times the tap water price. Therefore, the consumers paying the most for water are the ones with the lowest income (Alaci and Alehegn, 2009).
2.2 Approaches to Water Supply
2.2.1. Supply oriented approach
As stated by Mani (2000), the supply oriented water supply approach focuses on technical elements and monopolistic public service delivery this had failed to deliver the required levels of services and resulted in the use of several alternatives to substitute and augment the piped water supply. It is now realized that the conventional “supply oriented” planning has aggravated the gaps in service delivery. Moreover, supply orientation is found to be unsustainable for it is economically inefficient, socially inequitable and environmentally hazardous. This is briefly observed as under:-
• Economically inefficient, as low-income countries find it impossible to recover the costs of large-scale piped networks, high costs are incurred in pumping and transferring water over long distances and a growing demand is created for more government subsidies. Moreover, piped services are priced well below the full costs of service provision, thereby subsidizing the affluent, and leading to chronic budget deficits and dependence on external finance.
• Socially inequitable, as certain consumers, generally the poor and low income groups residing in the slums and urban fringe areas are excluded from the use of these services.
• Environmentally hazardous, as supply orientation in the water sector stresses the hydrological limits of the region and inflicts environmental costs.
Water supply and sewerage are customarily planned for large, centrally controlled, technology-intensive piped networks with a greater emphasis on production and distribution of water than on maintenance of the system and analogous construction of sewerage facilities.
2.2.2. Demand oriented approach
Mani (2000), identified that the demand orientation with a focus on service consumers? needs and willingness to pay (WTP) full costs of services, competitive markets, and broader participation of the private sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) is now being incorporated into water supply strategies. Moreover, the demand orientation is potentially more economically efficient as demand oriented infrastructure delivery consists of competitive markets, and broader participation of the private sector, or water surrogates. And then, social responsibility also increases as demand orientation requires greater responsiveness to users? needs and fairness, and participation of the private sector, NGOs and CBOs in service delivery. Environmental degradation is minimized as a demand management in the water sector is valuable in ensuring that a limited supply of water distributed to match the optimal use pattern for the resources. However, in the urban areas, the demand responsive approach has so far been limited to a few programs such as the slum-networking program targeting the poor living in slums and squatter settlements.
2.3. Challenges of urban water supply and distribution
In the provision of sufficient clean water to urban dwellers, the world faced many challenges, which are related to capacity of the nations, (i.e. technological knowhow and institutional), inadequate finance, rapid urbanization and declining of global water resource.
2.3.1. Lack of capacity
According to Wallace et al (2008), capacity is a flexible concept and encompasses the public sector, academia; community based organizations and the private sectors, and ranges from the individual to institutions to society as a whole. Capacity can be described in terms of the human, technological, infrastructural, institutional and managerial resources required at all levels from the individual through to national governance. Not only does capacity have to be built within each of these levels, but it has to be institutionalized and local communities need to be empowered to use it effectively. Additionally, capacity building incorporates the followings.
I. The capacity to engage, educate and train; including community awareness building, adult training and formal education; so as to provide sufficient numbers of competent human resources to develop and apply enabling systems within the local environment.
II. The capacity to measure and understand aquatic systems through monitoring, applied research, technology development and forecasting, so that reliable data are used for analysis and decision making.
III. The capacity to develop policies and programs and to legislate, regulate and achieve compliance through effective governmental, non governmental and private sector institutions and through efficient enforcement and community acceptance.
IV. The capacity to identify and provide appropriate and affordable water technologies, infrastructure services and products through sustained research, investment and management.
2.3.2 Technological capacity
Innovative technologies are essential to overcome barriers to water service provision. Technological capacity includes the development and application of new technologies, the technical skills needed to effectively construct, operate and manage a technical solution; the translation of information regarding technologies to promote informed decision-making when implementing a technical solution; the availability and accessibility of spare parts (Sijbesma, 1989 cited from Challa 2011). However, technology providers need a better understanding of local conditions and policies.
2.3.3. Institutional capacity
There is a need for institutions that bring together many disciplines, such as the natural sciences, public health, engineering and the social sciences. Integration and interaction between institutions and different sectors of the population, at decision-making, executive and participative levels is required to plan and execute actions in a coordinated way. This integration is the basis for multi spectral approaches to ensure that planned goals are achieved and actions converge to solve environmental, water and health problems (Wallace et al, 2008).
2.3.4. Inadequate financing
Historically, water has suffered from severe under financing. These results from inadequate internal financial capacity in the poor countries to achieve water goals; poor political decisions for allocation of development aid; an overall reduction over time in development aid; and the limited cost recovery potential in poverty stricken regions (Wallace et al, 2008).
For example, for 2005 Water Supply Millennium Development Goal-Needs Assessment Report by the government of Ethiopia estimates the investment requirements for water at US$297 million per year for the next ten years (2006-2015). Per capita investment for water in urban and rural areas is US$105 and US$41 respectively. Total government allocation and commitment for WSS over the next seven years has been projected at US$12 million (US$5.4 million for rural, and US$6.6 million for urban). Given the cost recovery policy for capital, operations and maintenances costs, community investment is projected at US$16 million over the next ten years. Projected ODA is US$75 million per year for the next ten years, based on commitments from a variety of donors. Still, this leaves a financing gap of US$197 million per year (Challa, 2011).
In addition, poor targeting of aid and a multiplicity of actors and structures compound the financial shortfall. Prioritization of spending plays a key role, with many developing countries investing only a small fraction of money into water compared with military spending. For instance, military spending in Ethiopia is 10 times greater than that spent on water and sanitation and in Pakistan the discrepancy is even greater 47 times (UNDP, 2006, cited from Challa 2011). Wallace et al (2008) also stated that, to ensure that resources for safe water and sanitation are used effectively at the local level, the local capacities to design, finance and manage improved service delivery must be greatly enhanced.
2.3.5. Population growth and urbanization
Population growth and rapid urbanization will create a severe scarcity of water as well as tremendous impact on the natural environment. According to UNPP (2006) in Challa 2011, in less developed countries, urban population will grow from 1.9 billion in 2000 to 3.9 billion in 2030, averaging 2.3% per year. Besides having less or not invested in urban infrastructure, Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. Between 1990 and 2025, the total urban population is expected to grow from 300 to 700 million; and by 2020, it is expected that over 50% of the population in African countries will reside in urban areas. According to Cleophace (2007), in order to meet the established millennium development goal of ‘halving the unsaved population by 2015’; urban Africa will require 80% increase in the numbers of people served. This objective would require, on average, about 6,000 to 8,000 new connections every day. Political commitment to these goals, backed by resources and action is essential if utilities are to prevent a widening of the gap between ‘saved’ and ‘unsaved’ households.
According to the 1994 Ethiopia population census report showed, the total urban population was 7,323,122 (13.7% of the total population), after ten years (i.e. 2004) the total urban population increased to 17,588,735 (32.89%) and by the year 2015 urban population is going to increase by 22,925,177 (32.26%) Ethiopia Central Statistical Authority (1994, 2004 and 2015 projection). In order to meet the future water demand, cities will need to tap their water supply either from a deep ground or surface sources situating a far distance away from the urban area (Challa, 2011).
2.3.6. Increasing global water scarcity
UN-HABITAT (2006) stated that, not only is the numbers of those requiring better water supplies very large, water itself is becoming scarcer. The number of people living in water stressed and water scarce over the world is estimated to increase approximately six fold from 1995 to 2025 to reach 2.8 billion. In addition to these challenges, Bereket (2006) states that the single most influential factor related to the sustainable provision of basic water service in turn is that of poverty. The lack of availability of basic services is a primary measure of poverty and poverty is the primary obstacle in the provision of basic services.
2.4 Experience of developing countries
The growing population of most developing countries is disproportional in urban areas. This places considerable pressure on already over burdened budgets to increase the water supply and waste water infrastructure. Moreover, little or no resources are left to supply, let alone, improve water supply. To add to the problems, money is spent on studies that would not be implemented. Projects are constructed, but never been implemented (J.Helweg, 2000). As a result, the water supply in the developing world is still very inadequate. In Africa for example more than 47 per cent of urban households are without access to safe water.
Global Water Assessment Report (2000, cited from Assefa 2006) also estimated that over one-third of the urban water supply in Africa, Latin America and Caribbean and more than that, half of those in Asia, operate intermittently. Intermittent water supply is a significant constraint to the availability of water for hygiene and encourages the low income urban population to turn to alternatives such as water vendors. These water vendors often charge many times more than the formal water tariff for water that often is of doubtful quality and not available in adequate amount.
Mani (2000) identified elements of demand orientation from traditional demand estimations as demand estimations are traditionally based on population levels, current consumption levels, patterns of service consumption, and household characteristics.
According to Munasinghe (cited from Assefa, 2006), demand management can be best achieved through three main mechanisms:
The selection of a system coverage and service expansion plan to provide consumers with a high level of service that discourages the use of alternative services;
The setting of a tariff regime to control consumption, distribute social benefits and raise revenue for the sector.
The education of consumers on water use practices to encourage greater efficiency and productivity in the use of water, and the minimizing of losses (Ibid).
2.5 Benefits of access to water supply and distribution
The importance of water as the most fundamental constituent of life needs no explanation. It was, it is, and it will remain a vital element for the survival of the human race. It is understood that our body is made up of about 70 percent water and that it controls virtually every aspect of our health. The importance of water is not only attached to the drinking but also to cooking, bathing, washing and other activities. Thus, water is the most important of all public services. It is the most essential necessity of life after oxygen. Anything that disturbs the provision and supply of water therefore tends to disturb the very survival of humanity (Wonder, 2007). Today, more than ever, water is both slave and master to people. We use water in our homes for cleaning, cooking, bathing, and carrying away wastes. We use water to irrigate dry farm lands so we can grow more food. Our factories use more water than any other material. We use the water in rushing rivers and thundering water falls to produce electricity (Word Book encyclopedia, vol.21, 2001).
Access to safe, sufficient and affordable water is one of the basic indispensable human right as well as a prerequisite for improving the overall life of a society. The provision of sufficient potable water for peoples within reasonable distances from a reliable and acceptable source is essential for people’s wellbeing and sustainable economic progress (Hofkes, 1986 cited in Yitayh, 2011).
2.5.1 Water supply and development
Water has been vital to the development and survival of civilization. The first great civilizations arose in the valleys of great rivers-in the Nile valley of Egypt, the Tigris-Euphrates valley of Mesopotamia and the Huang Ho valley of China. All these civilizations built large irrigation systems, made the land productive and prospered. Civilizations crumbled when water supplies failed or poorly managed. Many historians believe the Sumerian civilization of ancient Mesopotamia fell because of poor irrigation practice (Word Book encyclopedia, vol.21, 2001).
Water is quite literally a source of life and prosperity and a cause of death and devastation. Aside from the air we breathe, freshwater is our most precious resource, something upon which all life depends. Throughout history humans have tended to take fresh-water for granted, generally assigning little value to it beyond their immediate needs. That is probably because it seemed to be in abundant supply (Caso, 2010). Water has always played, and continues to play, a central role in human societies. It is an input, to a greater or lesser extent, to almost all production (in agriculture, industry, energy, transport, by healthy people in healthy ecosystems. For poor countries it is a key to improving food security and reducing poverty. It is also a force for destruction catastrophically through drought, flood, landslides and epidemic, as well as progressively through erosion, inundation, desertification, pollution and disease (Mwendera et al,
Access to essential resources and services has come to be recognized as positively related to development such that inaccessibility or lack of access is cited as lack of development or symptoms of underdevelopment (Ayeni, 1987 and Moseley 1979 cited Alaci, 2004). To the extents that improved access to essential services has become an accepted part of measure of development and standard of living (Alaci and Alehegn, 2009).
2.5.2 Water supply and convenience
Everybody wants water as close as possible to his home, simply because it is more convenient. Thus, convenience is an important consideration as health benefits. In some societies and situations, convenience is also related to the security of women, which is water supply closer to home can minimize the risk of abduction, rape and assault. Besides, when girls are forced to carry heavy loads of water over long distances, there is a danger of lasting spinal column and pelvis injury and deformations. Thus, closer water sources minimize these problems (UNICEF,
2.5.3 Water supply and energy saved
Studies have shown that women who walk long distances to collect water can burn as much as 600 calories of energy or more per day, which may be one third of their nutritional intake. Closer sources of water can thus improve the nutritional status of women and children and this in turn improves their health and wellbeing. The time saved is used for other productive economic and social activities. (UNICEF, 1999).
2.6 Impacts of water supply inaccessibility
Although water is the primary needs of human being, unimproved water services have many negative impacts on people livelihood. Among which; health, socio-economic, environmental degradation and poor educational performance are the major.
2.6.1. Health impacts
The improvement of water in developing countries is largely driven by the need to reduce the incidence and prevalence of infectious disease caused by pathogenic micro organisms. The majority of pathogens that affect humans are derived from faeces and transmitted by the faecal-oral route. Pathogen transmission may occur through a variety of routes including food, water, poor personal hygiene and flies (Ahmed and Nalubega, 2001).
According to USAID/E Statement of Work (SOW) for the Millennium Water Alliance (MWA) Water, Sanitation & Hygiene (WASH) program evaluation, “approximately 3.1% of deaths worldwide are attributed to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene practices. Africa carries the heaviest burden, with 4 to 8% of all disease in Africa being related to poor water. In Ethiopia, water related diarrhea accounts for approximately 20% of all deaths in children under the age of five, taking the lives of close to 100,000 children annually USAID/E (2008).
2.6.2. Socio-economic impacts
Poor access to water supply limits opportunities to escape poverty and exacerbates the problems of vulnerable and marginalized groups especially those affected by HIV/AIDS and other diseases (Alaci and Alehegn, 2009).
According to Ethiopian Ministry of Health (2005), the well known negative synergy of diarrhoeal disease, malnutrition and opportunistic infections are known to have short-term health impacts and long term debilitating effects. In the long term, child development is impaired resulting in growth retardation and diminished learning abilities. It is estimated that 4 in 10 children will not realise their educational potential which ultimately inhibits socio-economic development. In addition there is a potential productive time lost to illness caring for the sick and attending clinics. There are also the financial costs of treatment for medicines and clinic attendance.
2.6.3. Environmental degradation impacts
Besides being pollutants of surface waters (necessitating higher treatment costs), faeces and urine are a potential (under-exploited) source of compost and fertilizer which could help address decreasing soil fertility and reduce the high cost (both financial and environmental) of chemical fertilizers. They can also be used to produce biogas (a renewable energy source) which as well as safely containing excreta could contribute to reducing deforestation which is a key environmental issue. Biogas digesters can also be ‘fed’ with organic solid waste in urban areas as an efficient treatment and use of ‘waste’ (MoH, 2005).
2.7 Urban water supply and distribution in Ethiopia
The water supply and sanitation sector in Ethiopia is one of the developing countries and is mostly characterized by service deficiency of physical infrastructure as well as by inadequate management capacity to handle policy and regulatory issue and to plan, operate, and maintain the service.
Ethiopia has one of the highest urbanization growth rates in the developing countries. According to data obtained from the Central Statistical Agency, the country’s urban population was growing at 4.8 per cent per annum between the 1995 and 2000. The urban population in Ethiopia in 1984, the first census period, was 4.3 million forming 11 per cent of the total population. In 1994, the second census period, the urban population was 7.4 million. Total urban population had increased by 12per cent from that of 1984. In terms of urban centers, in 1984, Ethiopia had 312 urban centers with population of over 2000. In 1994, the second census period, the urban centers in the country grew to 534 registering an increase of 71 per cent over that of 1984 though the definitions of the two censuses are not the same (Tegegne, 2000).
The rapid growth of urban population has placed tremendous pressure on the management capacity of municipalities for service delivery and local economic development. This phenomenal growth has also burdened many municipalities with the problems of inadequate housing, poverty and unemployment, inadequate water and electricity supply, and poor sanitation systems. Available data also indicate that in the next 25 years (1994-2020), nearly 30 % of Ethiopia population will live in cities. Regarding this, rapid urban population growth will inevitably call for huge investments in housing, urban infrastructure, water and electricity supply, sanitation systems and environmental protection programs and programs to alleviate poverty and unemployment in the cities. This implies that the challenge will require well trained municipal management and resource capacity, responsive urban governance and well trained and motivated personnel and sustaining services such as water, electricity supply, local revenue collection and administration to meet the ever growing demand for better and more quality services and infrastructures of Urban Population Projection for Ethiopia1995-2020 (Tegegne, 2000).
In addition to this, the World Bank Group (2005) mentioned that the demand for differentiated technologies-piped water supply the core, alternative technologies in the fringe areas- and the often rapid unpredictable water demand and spatial growth require planning, design, and management skills that exceed community based management approaches. But unlike larger towns or cities, these smaller towns often lack the financial and human resources to independently plan, finance, manage and operate their WSS systems. This implies that a key challenge for town WSS is to allocate limited government resources amongst a large number of dispersed towns. There are also variations across urban areas.
The aforementioned information indicates that as a result of low level of development a significant proportion of the total urban population of Ethiopia in particular and total population of Ethiopia in general have no access to safe and adequate potable water supply. They still restrict themselves to use what nature has provided them with in the form of springs, rivers, lakes, ponds, traditional hand dug wells and rain water which are often unsafe, cause health hazards and are at considerable distance from households. Among the main reasons given for the slow pace of progress in water supply services in Ethiopia, the following are net worthy: lack of comprehensive legislation; inadequate investment resources; lack of a national water tariff policy and the absence of beneficiary participation and community management (Dessalegn, 1999).
In relation to this, MoWR (2002) stated that issues of poor sector capacity and low level of expenditures for WSS are interlinked and lead to a vicious circle – as low level of investments create low demand for technical and manpower inputs in WSS sector, the capacity remains underdeveloped. The resulting low sector capacity, means low allocations and expenditures are curtailed. The sustainability of water supply facilities mainly depends on a timely and regular maintenance and operation of the system. However, in most developing countries, including Ethiopia, it has been found out that operation and maintenance (O;M) of water supply facilities is in a poor state of condition and the sustainability of the scheme is at stake. Regarding this, MoWR (2002) identified the following underlying problems:
• Inappropriate tariff setting without emphasis on full cost recovery;
• Lack of clear guidelines for urban tariff setting including issues related to fairness, and
• Inappropriate or lack of institutional incentives for urban WSPs to achieve financial
viability and improved operational performance;
• Poor technical and financial capacity among the urban service providers that leads to high
levels of Unaccounted For Water (UFW); and
• Poor or non- existent consumer services and grievance handling system that leads to a lack
of willing to pay user charges.
2.7.1. Water sector policy, goals and strategies
The overall goals of the Federal Water Resources Management Policy (1999) and the Water Sector Strategy (2001) are to promote national efforts towards efficient, equitable and optimum utilization of the available water resources of Ethiopia in order to achieve significant socio-economic development on sustainable bases of the country. Some of the major principles of the policy are: – a) devolving ownership to lower tiers and enhancing management autonomy to the lowest possible level; b) promoting involvement of all stakeholders, including the private sector; c) moving towards full cost recovery for urban water supply systems and recovery of operational and maintenance costs for rural schemes; and, d) enhancing urban water supply and distribution through autonomous bodies (Assefa, 2009).
A five-year Water Sector Development Program (WSDP) is in place. The Universal Access Program (UAP) for Water Supply and Sanitation Services (WSSS), 2006-2012) was developed by the Ministry of Water Resources in consultation with the regions. The UAP to achieve 97% coverage of water supply in the rural areas and full sanitation coverage by (2012). In terms of the urban areas the coverage is expected to increase from 80 percent water supply and 51 percent sanitation to 100 % at the end of the planned year for both water supply and sanitation. The government has planned to provide the stated water supply through 1181 deep wall, 224 shallow well, 1143 streams and 1468 harassing rivers (UAP, 2005).
Besides, the federal democratic republic of Ethiopia has adopted a national water resources management policy, a water supply and sanitation strategy and water sector development program, setting sub sectoral objectives on water supply and sanitation, irrigation and hydropower. The overall objective of water supply and sanitation policy is to enhance the well-being and productivity of the Ethiopia people through provision of adequate, reliable and clean water supply and sanitation services and to foster its tangible contribution to the economy by providing water supply services that meet the livestock, industry and other water users? demand (Meron, 2012).
Therefore, according to this policy, all water supply institutional setups have legal right to implement the integrated water supply and sanitation policy. In addition to these, since the establishment of a Ministry for a water sector in 1995/96, a strategic and participatory approach has been introduced by bringing into place key sector reform initiatives. The National Water Resources Management Policy also requires urban centers to cover their investment, operation and maintenance costs, while rural water supply service is required to cover operation and maintenance costs, with some cost sharing (up to 10%) for initial investment cost. (MoWR, 2003).
Furthermore, as stressed to this the policy (MoWR, 2002) for increasing the coverage as the proper use and sustainability of the service requires implementation of a cost recovery system, which can be either full or partial cost recovery. That is, in order to implement the existing policy for the provision of water supply in urban areas of the country fairness of the tariff, willingness to pay for the service and efficient management of the resources of the utility office need to be examined. In related to this, within the decentralization framework in Ethiopia, different responsibilities are emerging for different levels of government: policy and strategy development, project implementation and monitoring and evaluation.
2.8 Theoretical Framework
According to the theory of planning and building cities, urban planning is governed by social structure, level of development of productive forces, science and culture, natural and climatic conditions, and a country’s national characteristics. This theory has been developed by planners based on Theoretical schools of urban planning, such as de-urbanism (related to the late 19th-century concept of the garden city) and urbanism (the designs of Le Cor-busier, the leader of the school in the 19th century). Urban planning encompasses a complex network of socioeconomic, architectural and decorative, water and sanitation problems. The general rule for urban planning involved to some degree the influence of private ownership of real estate and land. The inequality of property distribution was reflected in the methods of planning and construction and in the organization of public services of urban territory. Ruling-class districts, created on the basis of the best contemporary urban planning achievements were drastically different from the overcrowded working-class areas, which lacked essential public amenities such as water and sanitation. There are presently two social orders in the world—socialism and capitalism—which determine two ways of developing urban planning. Under capitalism the interests of landowners, industrialists, and financiers usually lead to the haphazard construction of population centers that contradict the goals of urban planning. Under socialism the state planning of the national economy creates all the conditions needed for the systematic, scientifically based development of the kinds of cities most suitable for the work, daily life, and relaxation of the entire population (Beriha, 2013).
The theory and practice of urban planning accomplishes two tasks: the reconstruction and development of old cities and the construction of new cities. It proposes zoning of urban territory to be carried out in order to create the most beneficial living conditions for the population and to facilitate the functioning of the city as a whole. Urban planning decisions should be made with due regard for the development of industrial, residential, and recreation areas and for satisfying the requirements of sanitary engineering (for example, in water and air purity, and soundproofing). These proposals can be applied to as well solve the challenges of water supply and distribution problems in Sodo town.
2.2.1 Coupled Human and Natural Systems Theory
Human and natural system dynamics are tightly coupled in the urban environment, as human behaviors and resource demands act as both drivers and constraints of natural ecosystem function. Urban water demand represents a coupled human and natural system, characterized by complex interactions between human and natural system variables at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In urban environments, scale mismatches can be particularly pronounced because the scales of social organization and governance structures are often not correctly aligned with the scales of ecological dynamics. In the context of water resource management, human and natural scale mismatches can impose substantial unanticipated costs to water utilities if demand is incorrectly estimated. Stochastic events, such as drought or flood, can have dire consequences for communities if local governance is unprepared or under resourced to respond to larger-scale climate processes. Local-scale processes in both human and natural systems are significant drivers of change, contributing to large-scale patterns of water demand. The amount of water used at the household scale, for example, is influenced by several factors: the norms and values of the individual users, the household’s ownership of water-consuming appliances, individual lawn and garden preferences, and their personal investment in conservation (Wentz and Gober,2007).
Governance structures exist at multiple scales, from the neighborhood to the city to the region, and can influence water consumption decisions. The direction of change, however, depends on the policy and institutional systems. For example, at the neighborhood scale, the presence of a homeowner association has been positively correlated to an increase in water consumption because of mandatory lawn maintenance policies (Harlan, 2009). However, municipal-scale incentives can be offered to assist in reducing residential and business sector water consumption, for example, to assist in replacing outdated appliances and installing low-flow faucets and showerheads and efficient lawn irrigation technologies (Hilaire etal, 2008). These small shifts in individual household behavior can cumulate into large changes, either increases or decreases, in city-scale water demand. However, such multi scale analysis of water consumption using a framework of coupled social and ecological systems has not yet been carried out.
2.9 Conceptual Framework
Water is the indispensable resource for life. It is also a scarce resource both in quantity and quality, and when available it is often of poor quality depending on location. Lack of potable water and basic sanitation services remains one of the world’s most urgent health issues. It is estimated that 1.1 billion people in developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water and 2.6 billion people lack access to basic sanitation (UNDP, 2006; SIDA, 2004; UNICEF and WHO, 2005). In a broader sense, water resource management as a concept may outline a framework for numerous water related decisions. Given the fact that socio-economic development processes relate to the water resource, owing to interact with water and human activities.
Water supply challenges can be viewed in terms of policy relevant questions for instance; how much resources are available and who needs it? Who gets how much? (IDRC, 2002). In connection to this more pressing questions need to be addressed: who decides? By what procedures? What features of governance will most likely produce management decisions that are fair, equitable and environmentally sustainable? The aim of my this conceptual framework is to address issues of urban water supply and access challenges, inaccessibility of some areas in provision of water services, demographic pressure on water management, infrastructure problems among others. This informs the conceptual frame below.
urban water supply and distribution problems
irregular water service and distribution
Growing water demand
-No enough of water supply for dwellers
Urban expansion and population growth
Figure 3.1 Conceptual frame works of urban water supply and distribution problems
(Source: Author, 2017)
2.10. Empirical Literature Review
The study conducted by Chala (2011) indicates the Ambo town has a total of 42 kilometers length water supply networks, which includes both primary and secondary distribution pipe lines and 21 public taps, which are distributed in the town and managed by the users’ villages. Concerning water connection, only 33.42% of the total urban households have private connection. The remaining 66.58% of the urban dwellers yard connection depend on public taps and vendors for water source. These sources are used due to lack of money, shortage of water supply and unavailability of distribution lines in the nearby and too complicated procedures set by to get connection.
Kebede (2015) finding concerning the source of water is access to the water supply from chose sources, 98 (73.7%) of the respondents have no access to the pipelined water connection and 99 (74.4%) of the respondents have not accessed developed daily taped water for their supply of water consumption. The average water demands of respondents have demand is greater than supply of water in the town.
The study conducted by Wonduante (2013) indicates water supply of adequate quantity and acceptable quality is one of the basic needs of human beings, but the provision of potable water in Gondar town is inefficient. The situation is getting worse due to the population growth and spatial expansion of the town which outstripped its ability to supply sufficient water for its inhabitants. The existing sources of potable water are both surface and ground water which reach the customers or end users through Private meter connection and public water points. However, since the sources decrease in amount, especially during peak dry season, the amount of production is not adequate even for those who have access to it. The amount of production is also further reduced by less well working hours, limited number of boreholes and through losses including mechanical, frictional and head losses and leakage. Moreover, the state of water supply in the town in terms of coverage both in spatial and population, reliability, accessibility, and sustainability is not at the required standard. The major constraints of distribution systems identified are low density of pipeline networks, limited number of public water points and their unfair distribution, inadequate pressure in the pipe and the absence of well prepared maps for distribution pipelines. As a result, water consumption is affected in the town due to these physical factors and socioeconomic factors such as population growth, household income and size that affected their waters consumption.
Chala (2011) study recognizes potable water supply coverage to urban dwellers is the main concern of government in these days and also major issue in the achievement of MDGs. Hence, Ethiopian Government 2010 MDGs report stated that national urban water coverage was 91.5 percent. In the same year, Oromia Water Resource Management Bureau reported that, regional urban water coverage reached 84.2 percent. However, the study result indicated that, the existing water supply coverage of Ambo town is 40.9 percent, which is below half of both the national and regional reports.
Meseret (2012) study indicates the per capita water consumption has a negative relationship with household size both from urban and rural areas. Besides that queuing time negatively correlate with per capita consumption in urban areas. There is a positive relationship between waiting time, distance, adequacy and quality of water source for the consumption of households from unimproved sources in rural areas. In contrast queuing time and income were the main factors resulting households reluctance to collect water from improved sources in the urban areas. This leads to vulnerability of the households to water borne diseases. As a result of this it is better to reduce the queuing time by installing additional water supply points. Because the time devoted for water collection losses the possibility of spending on other productive activities. To understand the people’s perception on the quality of their water sources of both improved and unimproved, it is evident that people have the capacity to identify the quality of their water through test, odor and color. Furthermore test was the main indicator of water quality in the study area in which 64% of the respondents measure the quality of the source.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Description of the Study Area
3.1.1. Location of the Study Area
Sodo town is the capital city of Wolaita zone. It is found 383 km away from Addis Ababa (via-Shashemene), 328 km (via-Hossaina) and 156 km far from Hawassa, SNNPR’s capital. Five major transport routes connect Sodo with the neighboring zones and regions. These are Shashemene -Alaba (via- Boditi), Addis Ababa -Butajira- Hossaina (via- Areka), Mizan Aman- Bonga- Jima- Taracha- Waka- (via- Bele), Jinka-Arbaminch (via- Tebela) and Goffa Sawula (via-Gesuba). Astronomically, Sodo town is located 6°51’36”N latitude and 37°46’51” E longitude (WZFEMD, 2010).
Sodo town is part of south western high lands. The town is established at the foot of mount Damota, 2,200 meters above sea level and from this mountain, its altitude descends to all directions. The topographic feature of Sodo town contains plain lands, plateaus, gorges, and rugged terrain system. The relief of the town is mainly characterized by gorges and plain lands especially towards southern direction. The highest ; lowest altitude of the town ranges from 1600 – 1900 meters above sea level. Accordingly, the average altitude of the town is 1,800 meters above sea level. The western, eastern, and north eastern parts of the town have undulating topography affecting the flow directions of surface and ground water. The sloppy nature of the town also aggravates erosion of surface soil (SRUPI, 2007).
Sodo town is characterized by a bimodal rainfall distribution pattern with annual rainfall of 1,250mm and short rainy season occurs during the months of March and April and the main rain starts in the middle of June and extends to September. Very high concentration of rainfall is observed in the months of July and August. The mean annual temperature of the town is 20oc (Solomon, 2009).
3.1.4 Socio-economic condition
The socio-economic development of the town is hopeful for the development of the town. The education sector boosted to 52 schools, 1 university, 1 Agricultural College, 1 TVET and 4 Private Colleges in town. Out of the 52 schools, 40 of them have Pre-school/Kindergarten, 31 of them have Primary, 4 of them have Secondary, 5 of them have Secondary ; Preparatory, and 1 of them has preparatory grades. Health institutions in the town include there were 23 health institution giving health services to the town. Looking at the type of health institution, there were 1 General Hospital, 1 Health Center, 4 Medium Clinics, 14 Pharmacies and 1 Drug Store in town and 2 Health Posts from expansion area. The town also has 14 private, 3 governmental banks. Because of its centrality, the town has many formal and informal trade activities. According to a survey conducted by Sodo town trade and industry office, there are 6,100 registered business activities and about 4,000 operators engaged in informal sector. There are 1015 service providing, 1916 retailer, 429 light industries of manufacturing, 253 whole sales, 150 transport sector and 61 urban agriculture business are operating in the town (STA, 2015).
3.2. Research Design
The study was employed descriptive survey research design. The descriptive research design was used because; it is suitable to describe the degree and nature of urban water supply and distribution problems encountered in the study area. According to Hall (1996), using both strategies is due to gradually agreed realization by social scientists to compensate the problems associated with both strategies by the strength of the other. The mixed research approach is useful to capture the best of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thus, the study was employed both quantitative and qualitative research approach of data collection and analysis to keep its validity and reliability.
Quantitative research design is highly structures and produces data that are amenable to statistical analysis. It presents findings in numeral form. Qualitative research design studies about experiences, behaviors and attitudes from the respondents. Thus, for the quantitative method, semi-structured questionnaires were used. Whereas for the qualitative data collection methods such as filed observation and document analysis was used. To this end, the required qualitative data was collected from 12 purposely selected key-informants in depth interview. On the other hand, the quantitative data was gathered from 147 randomly selected survey respondents using random sampling techniques. Moreover, observation were hold in the overall process of field work to substantiate data obtain from other research methods.
3.3. Sources of Data
Both primary and secondary sources of data were used to generate appropriate information for this investigation. Primary data were collected from the study area using questionnaire, organizing interview and conducting field observations. The secondary data were collected from published and unpublished sources viz. publications, reports, academic dissertations, government organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community based organizations (CBO) and university, etc.
3.4. Sampling Technique and Sample Size
It is beyond the scope of the study to gather data from the total populations. Hence, sampling techniques were used; both systematic random sampling and purposive sampling was employed. In Sodo town, there are three sub-towns i.e. Arada, Mehal and Merkato. Out of these three sub-towns for this study two sub-towns are selected. Mehal and Arada sub-town is purposively selected for this study because the kebeles under these sub-towns selected for the study are newly developed parts of the town and faced with scarcity of water.
In two sub-towns there are eleven kebeles. Data was collected from five kebeles (Damota and Ofa Gendeba Kebels from Mehal and Waja kero, Dil Betigil, Selam kebels from Arada sub towns) by employing systematic random sampling. The total population of the five kebeles is 11,267 and there are 1,485 total households (CSA, 2014). Out of these, 147 households were used for the collection of sample data. Therefore, for this study the sample size is 10% of the total households (with the following formula as given on page number 15). In order to determine sample households the investigator selected every item on the list of households.
The sample size taken from each sample kebeles is comparative to their total number of households. The total households selected for this study was 147 households residing in the town. There were 310, 290, 285, 295 and 305 total households in kebeles Damota, Ofa Gendeba, Waja kero, Dil Betigil and Selam respectively. From these 30, 29, 28, 29 and 30 households respectively selected. The sample size for this research is determined by using the formula, as indicated in Burt et al, (2003). This study used the following formula to calculate sample size as follows:
µ=n/N x µ¡
Where, µ = sampled sizes of each kebeles
n = sample size
N = total household size of sampled kebeles
µ¡ = number of households in each sampled kebele
3.5. Methods of Data Collection
3.5.1. Procedures of data collection
In order to have general understanding of the specific locality, the investigator first organized a general survey of the study area. The data gathering tools was intended on the bases of objectives, research questions and review of related literatures. During the initial stage of questionnaires administration, the investigator was prepared the objectives of the study clear to the respondents in order to avoid any confusion. Before distributing questionnaires, the time convenience for the respondents was considered in order to maximize the rate of return of the questionnaires. In addition, taking into consideration the non response rate of questionnaires, the investigator added some extra questionnaires were distributed.
3.5.2. Instruments of data collection
Collecting data through different tools leads to the accurate research findings. Having this in mind, the investigator used the following data gathering instruments: questionnaire, semi- structured interview and observation.
Questionnaire was used as the major tool for collection of data from the randomly selected sample respondents. Due to resource and time constraint, the research could not entertain large number of people in case studies, in depth interviews and wider focus group discussions. Therefore, questionnaires were used to fill the gap and support the representative sample to address as many individuals as possible to help gather relevant first hand information. Two different sets of questions were prepared: close-ended and open-ended questions.
For those respondents who could not understand English, the questionnaires were prepared and translate in to Amharic, so that the respondents were easily understood.
188.8.131.52. Key informants interview
The purpose of interview was to collect supplementary information, so as to stabilize the questionnaire response. Semi-structured interview were conducted to a purposively selected group of informants. The interview was conducted face to face. The interview were used to dig out information on issues like water supply, health condition that is related with water particularly accessibility, consistency, and adequacy to assess water supply and distribution condition in the town. The reason behind using a semi-structured interview is the advantages of flexibility in which new questions can be forwarded during the interview based on the responses of the interviews.
Moreover, the tool also has been instrumental in generating recommendations. Accordingly, key informant interview were used to gather more of qualitative data explains and narrates the study population rather than expressing it in terms of numbers. The recorded data were categorized based on similarities of response and then translate into English language during the transcription. This assisted the researcher to collect relevant and more reliable information to this study.
184.108.40.206. Field Observation
Among the primary data collection techniques, observation is crucial to understand peoples’ activity in the basis of how, what and why they are doing something. This allowed the investigator to develop confidence to speak and analyze what is being said and what is really going on the actual setting. Further, this participatory observation has the benefit of becoming part of the selected group and observes how they get; fetch water and asking clarification on their actions. The field observation was used by the researcher to get additional information to validate the information received from other sources. A checklist was prepared for systematic observation.
3.6. Methods of Data Analysis
After the completion of data gathering, the data was coded, tabulated, analyzed, described, interpreted, and descriptive statistical technique (percentages, ratio, average, using table, frequency distribution charts etc.) were employed as methods of data presentation. The data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), v.20 software and MS-EXCEL was used to process the data. Moreover, qualitative data was collected through questionnaires, interview, and observation was rationally interpreted and analyzed to strengthen the quantitative data.
3.7 Ethical considerations
Ethical issues in research are concerned mainly in balancing the right of people for privacy, safety, confidentiality and protection from dishonesty with the pursuit of scientific endeavour (Pilot and Hungler, 1998). The Sodo City Administration was engaged from beginning as the current water services provider of the city of sodo. In addition consent was sought for each household before the interview and the purpose of the interview was clearly explained beforehand.
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Socio-economic Characteristics of Sample Respondents
The socio-economic characteristics of sample respondents in this study include age, sex category, occupation, educational level and income.
4.1.1. Sex ad Age of Respondents
Table 4.1: Age-sex Composition of Respondents
Number Age-sex composition Categories Frequency Percentage
Age 20-30 21 14.3
31-40 58 39.4
41-50 24 16.8
51-60 30 20.5
>60 14 9
2 Sex Male 96 65.9
Female 51 34.1
Total 147 100
Source: Field Survey, 2017
The sample households of the study were 147 respondents, out of which 96 (65.9percent) were males and the remaining 51 (34.1 percent) were females. Thus, the analysis of the sex of the respondents show that majority of households in the study area are males. With regard to the age structure of the respondents 21 (14.3%), 58 (39.4%), 24 (16.8%), 30 (20.5%) and 14(9%) were in age between 20 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 60 and 61 and above year respectively. The greater part of the respondents? age is between 31 and 40. This indicates that they are mature to provide well organized response concerning the current provision of water supply.
4.1.2 Educational Status
Table 4.2 Educational Status of respondents
Educational status Frequency Percent
Illiterate or uneducated
Degree holders 12
Total 147 100
Source: field survey, 2017.
Education is one of the significant factors that create educated citizens who work for the socio-economic development of the countries. As Table 4.2 shows that, out of the total sample population, 12(8.2%) of respondents were illiterate, 23(15.7%) household finished their elementary education, 27(18.4%) of the respondents were high school complete, where as the number of diploma holders was 32 (21.7%). Majorities of the households 53 (36%) were the first degree holder and above. As the investigation result clearly shows most of the respondents in the study were qualified enough with respect to the educational status they possess and few were not yet finished high school education.
4.1.3 Monthly Income of Sample Household
Table 4.3 Distributions of respondents by monthly income
Monthly income Frequency Percent
less than 600 13 8.8
601-1200 17 11.6
1201-1800 22 15.0
1201-2400 24 16.3
2401-3000 44 29.9
above 3001 27 18.4
Total 147 100.0
Source: Field Survey, 2017
Household income is one of the most determinant factors of individuals’ living standard in general and consumption in particular. According to Table 4.3, out of the total sample households 13(8.8%) earns less than 600 Birr per month, 17 (11.6%) of the respondents monthly income was 601-1200 birr, 22(15.0%) earn about 1201-1800 birr per month, 24(16.3%) earn about 1801-2400 birr per month, majority of the respondents 44 (29.9%) monthly income that they earn from their current job was 2401-3000 birr, 27 (18.4%) of the respondents monthly income was ;3000 birr. As the survey result shows that from the limited amount of monthly income, expenditure on basic necessities like food, cloth and other social services take greater share.
4.1.4 Occupational profiles
Table 4.4 Occupational profiles of respondents
Occupational profiles Frequency Percent
Commercial/trade 39 26.5
Daily laborer 18 12.2
Farming 25 17.0
Employee 51 34.7
Others 14 9.5
Total 147 100.0
Source: field survey, 2017
Regarding the occupation of the sample households in the study area were diverse employment backgrounds. The greater part of the respondents was engaged in employee and commercial/trade 51 (34.7%) and 39(26.5%) respectively, 18 (12.2%) daily laborer. Farming and others were 25 (17%) and 14 (9.5) respectively. In addition, the income basis are both agriculture and daily labor this varieties resulted the water supply situation inferior as further suggestion collected by instigator from sampled respondents.
4.2 Water supply and distribution in Sodo town
4.2.1 Access to water supply and Status of provision
As stated by WHO, basic access can be defined as the availability of water at least 25 liters per day per person, a distance of not more than 1 km from the source to the house and the maximum time taken to complete round trip should not be more than 30 minutes. The UNDP (2008) stated the minimum absolute daily water need per person per day is 50 liters (13.2 gallons) which include: 5 liters for drinking, 20 for sanitation and hygiene, 15 for bathing and 10 for preparing food. However, because of lack of water supply, millions of people try to exist on 10 liters (2.6 gallons) a day (ADF, 2005). In densely populated areas, a water transportation trip of 30 minutes or less, including get in line time was a more appropriate indicator of access. So, inadequate access of water supply and distribution in the study area related with different type of problems that again influence demand of water as shown the next table.
Table 4.5 Status of water supply and distribution
Description Frequency Percentage
1 Are you satisfied at the existing water supply and distribution of the town? Yes
The cause of dissatisfaction
Water is unsafe for human consumption
The per unit cost of water is high
Source: field survey, 2017
Regarding to item 1 of Table 6, out of the sample respondents 59 (40.1%) indicated satisfaction with the provision and 88 (59.9%) of respondents have not been satisfied with the situation of water supply and distribution. As item 2 of Table 6, the study result shows that causes of dissatisfaction, 19 (12.9%) indicated water supply is scarce or inadequate, 12 (8.2%) described water is unsafe for human consumption, 18 (12.2%) stated per unit cost of water supply is high and 39 (26.5%) stated the existing water interruptions. Related to per unit cost the sample households indicated during in field observation that, when they fetch water from the public taps and neighbors’ tap they are paying 1 and 2 birr per 20 liters of water. Also, the majority of the community indicated during interview they travelled long distance which is more than 1 kilometers to fetch water from their house and the average use of water for daily consumption indicated 10-15 liter per person in the study area. Whereas, above mentioned the majority of the respondents (59.9%) were not happy at the present drinking water supply service of the town. As a result, there is dissatisfaction among the sample household respondents concerning the water supply and distribution of the town.
Table 4.6: Households access to potable water
1 Do you have access to tap potable water? Yes
Total 147 100
2 Where from you collect drinking water Tap inside the house
Tap outside compound
Tap inside neighbors’
Source: field survey, 2017
According to Item 1 of table 5, 115 (77.6%) of the sampled respondents had access to the tap potable water and 32 (22.4%) of the respondents have no access tap potable supply of water their residence. As Item 2 of Table 5, regarding to the drinking water collection 40 (27.2%) respondents have access to tap inside house, 27 (18.4%) have tap outside compound, 25 (17%) have tap inside neighbors’ compound, 23 (15.6%) have accessed from public tap or fountain. In this case, the respondents said that they used another water supply for their house consumption. Furthermore, in order to narrow the gap between supply and demand that is caused by water supply and distribution related problem in field observation the sampled respondents indicated they are used an options of like, individual vendors, neighbor’s home pipeline due to its effectiveness for time and money as viewed by investigator. This almost reveals large number of community indicated that the provision of water supply did not cover the demands of the inhabitants. As a result, the concerned body attention is not enough to improve the water supply and distribution problems in the area as similar idea raised by sampled households. Additionally, the information is collected from respondents who have no access of the water as a result of the various problems, they supposed that the main reason of water cost is high, the water system is challenges due to the line old, frequent breakdown of pipeline and the high expansion of the town.
Table 4.7. Access to private pipeline connection
Description Frequency Percentage
Do you have private pipe connection of water to your home? Yes
Source: field survey, 2017
Regarding to the private pipeline water connection of the households the response from sample respondents indicated, 61 (41.5%) of the respondents are using pipeline water connection, 86 (58.5%) of the households have not private pipeline water connection in the residence. Households not using pipeline water connection illustrated their problems of the water supply services like management condition, lack of money capacity, lack of pipeline, and lack of immediate response from the bureau.
4.3. Challenges of urban water supply and Distribution
Urban water supply and distribution services are the mainly significant infrastructures among the several and needs high investment to meet the demand of fast urbanization. Thus, as per the interview made with officials, such as general managers of STWSS, experts from health office and expert persons from water service, indicated improvement have been made in the provision of water supply in the town from time to time. But, there is still a huge gap between the supplies and demands of these services. This is due to inadequate finance, inadequate skilled man power, lack of community participation, lack of other organization, which engage in the provision of water supply service and fast population growth were the main challenges in the study area.
According to Rose (2009), there is lack of access to safe and clean water supply in the developing countries. Even though the issue of water was observed as a general problem for both the urban and the rural population. Mostly, poor people exist in urban areas to achieve a better economic growth rate and productivity, priority have to be given to the health of the people, for which provision of public utilities like water supply and distribution was crucial. Provision of safe and adequate water supply with sufficient sanitation service in urban areas were an important investment protections health and safety of the people living in urban areas, and safety, management and promotion of the environment, particularly in developing countries this was like with study area.
Table 4. 8: Challenges of water and supply distribution
Variables Frequency Percent
Lack of community participation 39 26.5
High Population growth and urbanization 42 28.6
Insufficient financial resource 34 23.1
Lack of institutional capacity 26 17.7
Insufficient water sources 6 4.1
Total 147 100.0
Source: field survey, 2017
Concerning to this as indicated above table8, 39(26.5%) sample respondents were described lack of community participation, 42(28.6%) high population growth and urbanization, 34 (23.1%) insufficient financial resource, 26(17.7%) lack of institutional capacity and 6(4.1%) insufficient water resources. As it mentioned above from respondents high urban population increase and urbanization is becoming a global challenge to proved urban infrastructure particularly in the developing world like Ethiopia. In the similar way, the rate at which urban infrastructure is provided and urban population growing is still a challenge for water shortages in the Town.
The increasing number of people living in urban areas is associated with increasing water demand and difficulties for many people to access adequate supply of clean water and sanitation (Post, 2002). In addition, the participants of interview were revealed this issue during in field observation by indicating as ”the town is mainly facing water scarcity due to increasing water demand and insufficient actions to meet the demand. This particular condition is arising because of raise in urban population and urbanization from time to time.” Thus, it shows that immediate actions of supplying water service should be taken to meet the demands of rapid population growth and urbanization.
According to Sodo town administration census of 2015, the population of the town was 105,263 in 2010, 113,242 in 2012, and 131,514 in 2015. This indicates that unless immediate harmonizing actions are taken in the provision of urban infrastructures, especially water to meet the demands of fast growing population, the situation may be found worsening from time to time if keep on going at prevailing rate. Hence, strategy makers should give due notice to the issues and develop strategies and plan on how the rate of service provision should be increased to cope up with high population growth and urbanization rate.
As Montegomery et al (2007) pointed out that in many developing countries lack of financial resources and low prioritization of water supply constrain both the maintenance and expansion of water supply services. The larger part of sample respondents also indicated that, highly growing demands for urban water supply and distribution services has been constrained by inadequate investment. Additionally, to this during field observation also community indicated that, there is small portion of money provide to water supply and distribution service compared to other infrastructures.
According to the table 8, indicated that, community participation in the condition of water supply and distribution is insufficient in the study area. The public involvement is the core part in the provision of urban infrastructures, particularly in water service, by contributing to the building activities through provision of labor, material and cash.
4.3.1 Interruption of water supply
According to World Health Organization (WHO, 2010), interruptions to water supply either through frequent sources or resulting from engineering inefficiencies is a major factor of the access to water. Daily or weekly interruption results in low water supply pressure and a risk of in-pipe contamination. Additional consequences include reduced availability and lower volume of water supply, which poorly affect hygiene. Further, in addition to the clear reduction in quality and quantity of water supply, time is wasted in water collection. Water interruption in town is becoming a huge challenge for the long years and influences the life of the resident in many ways.
According to Vairavamoorthy and Mansoor (2006) in Kharti and Vairavamoorthy (2007) intermittent water supply (daily or weekly discontinuity) leads to many problems including severe supply pressure losses, great inequalities in the distribution of water, lower volume use and in-pipe contamination. Thus, households’ water storage may be necessary, and this may lead to an increase in the risk of contamination during such storage and associated handling. Seasonal discontinuity often forces users to obtain water from inferior and distant sources.
Table 4.9. Interruption of water supply
Description Frequency Percentage
1 Is there any water supply interruption in your village? Yes
Total 147 100
What do you think the reason for the interruption?
Scarcity of water at source
3 What is the average duration of water supply interruption?
2 to 3 days
4 to 5 days
6 to 7 days
Above 7 days 36
Total 118 80.3
Source: field survey, 2017
Regarding to item 1 of table 9, the water supply interruption in Sodo town is now a huge challenge and it affects the life of the residents in various ways. The frequency of water supply interruption revealed how much the water supply interruption is a very serious problem in the study area. The study result in above table 9 shows that, 118(80.2%) sampled respondents stated there is interruptions and 29(19.8%) respondents were indicated no interruptions. The study result indicated that the major portion of the respondents have been faced high interruption water supply services.
Concerning to item 2 of table 9, related to the reasons of interruption, 27 (18.4%) respondents indicated that interruption of water supply occurred due to scarcity of water source, 41 (27.9%) stated that interruption occurred as a result of technical problem, 30 (20.4%) revealed that the causes of interruption were the power problem, and 20 (13.6%) of the respondents described the other causes of continuous water supply interruptions like insufficient discharge, weak sector management, urban population growth and high raise of water demand, large number of residence using the single water point, poor maintenance and less water line protection. The majority of the sample respondents showed the causes of water supply interruption typically as a result of technical and power problem.
The average duration of water supply interruption in table 9 shows that, 36 (24.5%) sample households indicated interruption occurred two to three days per week, 30 (20.4%) described interruption occurred four to five days per week, 29 (19.7%) respondents stated that interruption experienced six to seven days per week and 23 (15.6 %) households showed they have faced above seven days water interruption. According to study result there is great problem of water supply interruptions in the town.
In the line with this, interview made with head of water and mine office suggests that the continuous water interruptions affect water supply and distribution in the town. Besides, technical problems affected the provision systems through unequal distribution. The researcher’s personal field observations also approved that, there is water interruptions in the town due to water shortages in the current water supply and distribution.
4.3.2 Impacts of water supply and distribution shortages
Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is important as a health and development issue at national, regional and local levels. In some regions, it has been shown that investments in water supply and distribution can yield a net economic benefit, since the reductions in adverse health effects and health care costs outweigh the costs of undertaking the interventions. Experience has also shown that interventions in improving access to safe water favour the poor in particular, whether in rural or urban areas, and can be an effective part of poverty alleviation strategies
Figure 1. water related health problem
Source: field survey, 2017
Lack of improved drinking water services influences everybody’s health, education, life expectancy, well-being and social development. According to figure 1, out of the sample households 83(56.5) indicated that they have not encountered any water born diseases and 64(43.5%) described they were suffered by disease like typhoid, typhus, malaria, Ameba, Guardia are the main.
The interview conducted with key informants of Sodo town water service office and health office officials also indicated the occurrence of health problems caused by waterborne disease. Furthermore, the health office experts confirmed that water related health problems are the main health problems in the town. According to the sample respondents and the key informants’ description these diseases occurred when they use impure water for drinking during long periods of water shortage and interruptions. Concerning to these respondents stated during field observation when they use stream, spring and other water option for drinking especially during long period water supply interruption is occurred in the town. Thus, to prevent the incident of such waterborne diseases, water treatment is extremely important. Thus, huge efforts should be made by the town water service office and responsible bodies to increase water supply and distribution in the town.
4.4 Coordination and participation of stakeholders to improve water supply and distribution
Yitayh 2011) stated that if due consideration is not paid to social aspects while planning, the risk is high and the water supply system either will not be used or will be misused. Therefore, full participation of the community is needed in all phases of water supply projects and existences of an alternative traditional water sources.
Table4.10. Responsible for water supply and distribution in the town
Responsible for water supply and distribution in the town Frequency Percent
Government 37 25.2
Community based organization 12 8.2
NGOs 23 15.6
NGOs and Government 44 29.9
All 31 21.1
Total 147 100.0
Source: field survey, 2017
In line with Table 10, as concerning the responsible bodies for providing water supply and distribution services, 37 (25.2%) of the sampled households believed agreed on government, 12 (8.2%) indicated that society based organization participation, 23 (15.6%) of the household respondents described NGOs, 42 (28.5%) stated that both NGOs and government, 33 (22.4%) of respondents indicated that all are the responsible body to provide water supply and distribution in town. The greater part of the sampled respondents indicated both government and NGOs were responsible bodies to supply water. During field observation community indicated there are contributions from both the government and NGOs it is not satisfactory to maintain the service. Therefore, the public participation is crucial part in the provision of urban water supply and distribution.
Figure 4.2. Provision of sufficient and equal distribution of water for all dwellers
Source: field survey, 2017
Regarding figure 4.2, the provision of sufficient and equal distribution of drinking water for all dwellers, 34 (23.1%) of the households selected “Yes” and 113 (76.9%) sample respondents are selected “No” concerning adequate and equal water supply distribution to residents. The community was stated during field observation even if the existing water resource in the town is did not distributed equally some part of the town get continuous time while, the other parts of the did not get in the similar way. Beside the lines of above result, STWSS technician interview confirmed the water distribution problem mostly related technical problem, insufficient management, participation, and discussion on the issues with stakeholders to improve the water supply.
Wonduante (2013) Frequent interruptions in production coupled with the unfair distribution of water points on one hand and the growing need of water on the other hand are ever widening the existing unbridgeable gap between the demand for and supply of water.
Table 4. 11. The reason for the unequal distribution
Reason for the unequal distribution Frequency Percent
Low participation of stakeholders 47 32.0
Lack of coordination among concerning bodies 59 40.1
Lack of attention to this service 41 27.9
Total 147 100.0
Source: field survey, 2017
According to the Table 11, sample respondent were mentioned the reason of unequal distributions, 47 (32%) described the low participation of stakeholders, 59 (40.1%) lack of coordination among the concerned bodies caused unfair provision and 41 (27.9%) showed that lack of attention influence the service. The more part of households indicated that lack of coordination among the concerned bodies and low participation of stakeholders was influenced the provision.
Table4. 12. Participation of households’ in water supply activities
Description Frequency Percentage
1 Have you been involved in the provision of the water supply and distribution schemes Yes
At what stage of the development practice did you participate?
After construction in the management aspect In all phases
Leakage and theft prevention
3 How do you assess your over all participation in water supply and distribution activities? very high
Total 147 100
Source: field survey, 2017
Regarding the survey result shown item 1 of table 12, out of the total sample households 112(76.1%) of the households were involved in the provision of the water supply and distribution schemes and 35(23.9%) of the households were not involved in the provision water supply schemes. According to findings the item 2 of table 12, of the stage of community participation in the water supply development practice, 18(12.2%) of the household respondents revealed they were participated in planning stage, 52(35.4%) sample households described they are participated during the construction phase, whereas 14(9.5%) participated in after construction in the management aspect, 22(14.5%) indicated they are involved in the leakage and theft prevention and 6(4%) participated in all phase development process. The study result reveals that the majority number of society participated during the construction stage. However, greater part of the community was not participated sufficiently through planning stage. During field observation the participants stated that in building process they are supported development practice in different ways by contributing money support, local materials (such as stone, sand, wood), labor and information provision in site selection.
According to the table 12 item 3, the level of overall participation of the households in water supply and distribution service, 19(12.9%) respondents stated that their level of participation were very high, 27(18.4%) indicated their level of participation were high, 78 (53%) household described medium and rest 24(16.3%) indicated that their level of participation is low. The sample respondents revealed that active local society participation is the main part to provide urban infrastructure. Additionally, they indicated that, the town’s water service sector should give due notice to the problem and plan to enhance service provision and create knowledge on the urban residents to increase the level of contribution and this helps to progress the provisions of water service.
Regarding to this issue both the sample respondents and the field observation participants also indicated that society role in water provide scheme is significant. Moreover, the participants also described that, inadequate contribution of other institution (like civil society organization, NGO) in water provision activities in the town. Hence, government and other concerning bodies should produce knowledge, organize and enhance well community participation in resource donation and design developing in the provision of water supply services.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This study is aimed to assess urban water supply and distribution problems in Sodo town. Particularly, to identify the coverage of water supply and distribution, challenges to water supply and distribution, the coordination and participation of stakeholders in water supply distribution schemes and effects water supply shortages in the study area. The study indicates the current water supply condition of urban settlement based on investigating the coverage and distribution of water, causes of water inaccessibility and their impacts on the urban situation. It provides insight to policy makers, NGOs, CBOs and stakeholders who are concerned with urban water supply and distribution problems. It would also serve as a base line for other researchers who will be interested in the area.
The investigator used descriptive survey research design to achieve the study because it is suitable to describe the degree and nature of urban water supply and distribution problems encountered in the study area. Hence, the study was employed both quantitative and qualitative research approach of data collection and analysis to keep its validity and reliability. For the qualitative data collection methods such as filed observation and document analysis was used. The required qualitative data was collected from 12 purposely selected key-informants in depth interview from three offices. The quantitative data was gathered from 147 randomly selected survey respondents using random sampling techniques. Moreover, observation were hold in the overall process of field work to substantiate data obtain from other research methods. The investigator used the following data gathering instruments like: questionnaire, semi- structured interview and observation.
Concerning the satisfaction at the existing condition of water supply service 59 (40.1%) of the respondents indicated satisfaction with the provision and 88 (59.9%) of respondents have not been satisfied with the situation of water supply and distribution due to shortage, unsafe for human consumption, per unit cost of water supply is high and water interruptions. Concerning to challenges of water supply and distribution the study indicated that lack of community participation, high population growth and urbanization, insufficient financial resource, lack of institutional capacity and insufficient water resources. The water demands of respondents are greater than supply of water in the town.
Regarding to the water supply interruption in Sodo Town is now a huge challenge and it affects the life of the residents in various ways. The frequency of water supply interruption revealed 118(80.2%) respondents stated there is interruptions and only 29(19.8%) respondents were indicated no interruptions. The reasons of interruption was scarcity of water source, technical problem, the power problem, weak sector management, urban population growth and successive raise of water demand, large number of residence using the single water point, poor maintenance and less water line protection.
Community participation is a crucial concern in the provision of infrastructure. However, the study indicated that, community participation is inadequate due weakness of responsible bodies to coordinate and mobilize the people for development activities. Regarding to community participation, there is most of community participation during the construction phase; generally level of society participation in the town is medium in all stages. The greater part of the households did not participate effectively during planning phases, which is the more significant phase. In other words communities’ knowledge through their experiences is not considered in the planning phases which can have impacts on sustainability.
The water supply and distribution is one of the vital needs of human beings, but the provision of potable water and distribution in Sodo town were insufficient. The existing condition of water supply service was do not satisfied more part of inhabitants due to shortage, unsafe for human consumption, per unit cost of water supply is high and water interruptions. Regarding to the private pipeline water connection of the households the study result indicated most households have not private pipeline water connection in the residence due to management condition, lack of money capacity, lack of pipeline in their compound , and lack of immediate response from the bureau.
The main challenges of water supply and distribution is population growth and urbanization, lack of technological capacity; insufficient financial resource, insufficient water resources and lack of institutional capacity were the major ones. Interruption of water supply is also another issue that causes water supply scarcity in the town. According to the findings of the study the reasons of interruption was scarcity of water source, technical problem, the power problem, urban population growth and successive raise of water demand, large number of residence using the single water point, poor maintenance and less water line protection. Regarding to the average duration of water supply interruption the study result shows interruption occurred four to five days per week, six to seven days per week and above seven days water interruption. According to study result there is great problem of water supply interruptions in the town.
The organized community participation in any socio economic development process had great contribution for the success and sustainability of the infrastructure. Concerning to this, the participation of stakeholders to improve water supply and distribution in the Sodo town government, society based organization participation, NGOs and other responsible body was participated to provide water service. Regarding to the provision of sufficient and equal distribution of drinking water for all dwellers the larger part of the households were revealed there no adequate and equal water supply and distribution to residents due to lack coordination among the concerned bodies, low participation of stakeholders, unfair provision, lack of attention influence the service. The more part of households stated that lack of coordination among the concerned bodies and low participation of stakeholders was influenced the provision.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are drawn.
The study result indicated that, the existing levels of water supply and distribution in Sodo town is town is inefficient. Hence, of all others STWSS should increase water supply and distribution to bring the system close to the households’ inhabitants. And these support the community to get connection at nearby and fair fee. The criteria located by the enterprise to get private water connection should be revised and the dweller gets water without exposed to more cost.
Community involvement should be encouraged in all phases like resource contribution, decision making and post implementation management. The STWSS has to intend strategies for a coordinated and organized intervention to involve stakeholders such as the government, community based organizations, NGOs, religious organizations and society at large to improve of the water provision. The helps of method for water supply and distribution assist budget and engaging different concerned bodies, the people at large, NGOs and other stakeholders in the town to progress the sector services.
Based on the result of the study the STWSS office should give great attention to progress the supply and distribution of private pipe line water and offer the residents with standard water supply by extending the services. This helps to rapid economic and social development progression by increasing the economic condition of community.
Water is the most significant of all community services and it is the most vital necessity of life after oxygen, the responsible bodies should improve unequal distribution and interruptions of water service and have to be evenly distributed in order to address the provision problem. In addition, installation of extra communal water points would slight down the gap between demands and supply of the consumption and to save money, time and energy and should apply more pressure for the division of excess water throughout the town. This helps to raise living standards and levels of income, employment, education and attention to cultural and human values.
Adeyemo A.M and Afolabi, S.B, (2005). Inequality in the service provision between the Costal and Hinterland areas in the Niger Delta region; being a paper presented at the 47th annual Conference of association of Nigerian geographers held at the University.
Ahmed K. and Nalubega M, (2001). Guidelines for assessing the risk to groundwater from onsite sanitation, British Geological Survey Commissioned Report CR/01/142, 97pp, U K.
Alebel Bayrau. 2004. Affordability and Willingness to Pay Improved Water Supply in Urban Areas of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Alaci A. and Alehegn, E, (2009). Infrastructure Provision and the Attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in Decentralized Systems of Africa; Experiences from Ethiopia and
Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria.
Assefa Delesho. 2006. Urban Water Supply; The Case of Assosa Town. M.A. Thesis, in Regional and Local Development Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Bereket Belayhun (2006): Evaluation of water supply systems in selected urban poor areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft,
Beriha Tsegaye.2013. Effects of Access to potable Water and Sanitation on Rural Health: The case of Tigray National Region.
Chala Deyessa. 2011. An assessment of urban water supply and sanitation: The Case of Ambo town, Oromia Region.
Cutler, D., ; Miller, G. (2005). The Role of Public Health Improvements in Health Advances: The Twentieth-Century United States. Demography, 42 (1), 1-22.
Dawit Kidane. 2015. The Effect Of Distribution Systems On Household Drinking Water Quality In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Christchurch, New Zealand.
Esrey, S., Potash, J., Roberts, L., ;Shiff, C. (1991).Effects of Improved Water Supply and Sanitation on Ascariasis, Diarrhoea, Dracunculiasis, Hookworm Infection, Schistosomiasis, and Trachoma. Bulletin of the World Health Organization,69 (5)
Fewtrell (2005). Water Sanitation and Hygiene Intervetnions to Reduce Diarrhoea in Developed Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases.
FAO (2008) Hot issues: water scarcity. FAO. Retrieved March 9, 2013 http://www.fao.org/nr/water/issues/scarcity
Grey, D., and Sadoff, C. 2006. Water for Growth and Development. Theme One in Tematic Document of the IV World Water Forum Comison National dl Agua: Mexico City, Mexico.
Henry,W. 2007. The Assessing the Challenges of Water Supply in Urban Ghana: Stockholm, Sweden.
Helweg, Otto (ed) (2000): Water for a Growing Population, Water Supply and Ground Water Issues in Developing Countries, International Water Resources Association, Water International, Volume 25, No.1.
Isabel Günther and Günther Fink,(2010). Water, Sanitation and Children’s Healths
Kebede Kabiso. 2015. Urban Water supply in Hosana Town of Hadiya Zone SNNPR, Ethiopia.
Khatri, K. and Vairavamoorthy, K. 2007. Challenges for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in the Developing Countries; Discussion Draft Paper for the Session on Urbanization. Delft, The Netherlands.
Mani Devyani ed. (2000): Investigating a Demand Orientation in Water and Sanitation Delivery, an Annual Journal of The United Nations Center for Regional Development. Nagoya, Japan.
Meseret Belachew, 2012 Assessment of Drinking quality water and Determinants of Household potable water consumption in sidamo District, Ethiopia.
MoH, (2005). Health Sector Development Plan III, 2005/06-2009/10, planning and program
department, Ethiopia Addis Ababa. Program (WSP).
Public Health Protection,(2000).Safe water supply Vital to your Health, Sweden.
Rose, A.D. (2009). Domestic water supply an evaluation of the impacts challenges and prospect on women in rural house hold, Uganda. LUMES, Lund University.
Rehfuess, Mehta, and Pruss-ustun, (2006) Envirnmental health and child survival , Epidemiology, Economics, Experiences.
Salendu B.(2010).Quality assessment and interrelations of water supply and Sanitation: a case study of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia.
Smith, Mehta, and Maeusezahl- Feuz (2004).Indoor air pollution and household energy.
Tesfaye Gobena and ZeyedeKebede (2004).Water supply; produced in collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Initiative, The Carter Center, The Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education. Alemaya University
UNICEF,(1999).Towards better programming a water handbook. Water, Environment and
sanitation Technical Guidelines Series – No. 2.
UNICEF (United Nations Children?s Emergency Fund). 2008. Call to Achieve Universal Access to Sanitation in Ethiopia, 2008. Water and Sanitation Program, Ethiopia. Christian Relief and Development Association. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
UN-HABITAT,(2003).United Nations Human Settlements Program; improving the lives of 100
million slum dwellers, towards the millennium Development Goals, Nairobi, Kenya.
UN-HABITAT, (2006). Options for Small Urban Centers in Developing Countries’ (or nearly a
third of the world’s population).
UN- Water (2007) Coping with water scarcity: Challenges of the twenty first Century.
USAID/E,(2008). External Program Evaluation Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Program in Ethiopia Final Report. Addis Ababa.
FAO, Accessed from http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtmlUNEP& UN-
Waddington, H., Snilstveit, B., White, H., &Fewtrell, L. (2009).Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to combat childhood diarrhoea in developing countries. International Initiative for Impact Evaluation.Synthetic Review 001.
Wallace S,Grover and et al (2008): Safe Water as the Key to Global Health. United Nations University International Network on Water, Environment and Health (UNUINWEH).
Watson, T. (2006). Public Health Investments and the Infant Mortality Gap: Evidence from Federal Sanitation Interventions on U.S. Indian Reservations. Journal of Public Economics, 90 (8), 1537-1560.
Wonder H. Doe (2007).Assessing the Challenges of Water Supply in Urban Ghana: The case of
North Teshie. Master thesis, stockholm, Sweden.
Wonduante Shemelash .2013 Assessing the challenges of sustainable water supply in Gonder Town, Ethiopia.
WHO and UNICEF, (2008).A Snapshot of Drinking Water and Sanitation in Africa, A regional perspective based on new data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.
Yewondwossen Tesfaye. 2012. A Comparative Study on Woreda Managed and Community Managed Rural Water supply Projects, with Respect to their Planning, Implementation, Functionality and Utilization; Amhara National Regional States, Ethiopia.
Yibeltal Bantie (2011): The value of improved water supply in Eastern Gojjam. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
YitayhLeul (2011); Assessment of problems to sustainability of rural water supply and management systems in MachakelWoreda, Amhara region, M.A. thesis, Addis Ababa University.
WOLAITA SODO UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF GRAGUATE STUDIES
COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Dear respondents, this questionnaire is organized as an instrument to conduct an academic research for the fulfillment of Masters of Art Degree (M A) Socio economic development planning in Wolaita Sodo University, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies. The objective of the research is to assess urban water supply and distribution problems in Sodo town Wolaita Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Regional State.
Therefore, your honest response will be crucial for the success of the study. Therefore, you are requested to fill in the questionnaire according to the instruction given.
Section I. Respondent’s Background
Note- You are required to encircle on the appropriate option
1. Sex – a) Male: b) Female:
2. Kebele – a) Ofa Gendeba c) Damota e) Selam
b) Waja kero d) Dil-betigil
3. Age –
a) 20 -30: b) 31-40
c) 41-50: d) 51- 60 e) 61 and above
4. Marital status of household –
a) Single b) Married c) Divorced d) Widowed
5. Education level of household–
A. Illiterate B. Elementary
C. High school D. Diploma
E. BA/BSc Degree F. If other, please specify
6. Occupation of household
a) Commercial/Trade b) Daily laborer
c) Farming d) Government employee e) f) others
7. How much is your monthly income (in birr)?
a) a week
13. Based on Question No “10” above, what do you think the reason for the interruption?
a) Scarcity of water at source c) Power problem
b) Technical problem d) If others, please specify
14. When drinking water supply is interrupted which water source do you use?———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
15. Do you have private pipe connection of water to your home?
A. Yes B. no
16. If your response for question 14 is no, what is the reason?
17. Are you satisfied at the existing water supply of the town?
A. yes B. no
18. If your answer for question number “16” is no, what is your reason? It is
A. Scarce (shortage) B. Water is unsafe for human consumption
C. Interruption D. the per unit cost of water is high
E. If other, please specify
19. How do you perceive the current provision of piped water is an issue public worth discussion?
A. extremely serious B. very serious
C. Serious D. not serious
20. Have you and your family been faced any water related health problem?
A. yes B. no
21. If your answer for Question No “19” is yes, what are they? —————————————-
22. What do you say about the overall supply and distribution progress of pipe water to satisfy the demand of the population at the present time and for the future?—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————–
23. What do you recommend to alleviate the problems of water supply and distribution in your town?———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-
24. Who is responsible for water supply in the town?
a) Government b) Community based organization
c) NGOs d) a and b e) All
25.Is the provision of drinking water sufficiently and equally distribution for all dwellers in the town?
a) Yes b) No
26. If your answer for Question 24 is „No?, what is the reason for the unequal distribution?
a) Low participation of stakeholders
b) Lack of coordination among concerning bodies
c) Lack of attention to this service
27. Have you been involved in the provision of the water supply schemes?
A. Yes B. No
28. If your response to question number “26” is yes, at what stage of the development process did you participate?
A. Planning B. Construction
C. After construction in the management aspect D. In all phases
E. Leakage and theft prevention F. If other specify
29. What was your contribution in development of the water supply schemes?
A. Labor B. Money
C. local materials (stone, sand, wood) D. Labor, money and local material
E. Information provision in site selection and money contribution
F. Labor, money local material and information provision in site selection G. If other, please specify
30. Who have participated in the development of water supply schemes?
A. Husbands B. Adult males’
C. Women D. Adult females
E. All with the collaboration F. If other, please specify————
32. How do you evaluate your over all participation in water supply activities?
A. very high B. high
C. medium D. low
32. What do you think should be done by the community to improve the problems related to the provisions of water supply and distribution of the existing schemes————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
Semi-structured questionnaires for interview of key informants
Name of Responding Officers———————————————-
Positions in organization—————————————–
Guiding questions for Interview to sodo town water service office and health office officials
1. What is the coverage of water to urban dwellers in sodo town?
2. What is the status of existing water supply and distribution situation of the town?
3. Do you think that, the sources of water have a reasonable access and adequacy to urban dwellers of town?
4. Is it enough to meet the current and future water demand of the town?
5. What are the challenges in providing improved water services to the urban dwellers?
6. What measures should be taken to overcome the problems?
7. Is there any water related health problem on the life of urban dwellers?
8. If your answer is yes for question number 7, what are they?
9. Is there water supply interruption in the town?
10. If your answer for question number 9 is yes, how often and how long?
11. What do you think the causes of water supply interruption and what solutions do you have on
12. Is there community participation in water supply activities in the town?
13. Is there any other institution (NGO, civil society organization, community organization etc)
which participates in water provision activities in the town?
14. If your answer for question number 12 and 13 is yes, how do you evaluate the overall participation?
15. What do you say about the overall supply and distribution progress of pipe water to satisfy the demand of the population at the present time and for the future?
16. What strategy is set by your office to provide improved water supply and distribution facilities to the urban dwellers?
Field Observation Checklist
1. Is there water supply and distribution is enough to meet the current and future water demand of the town?
2. What is the current status of water supply and distribution in the town?
2. What are the sources of water for you?
3. Is there water supply interruption in the town? How often and how long?
4. What do you think are the causes of the water supply and distribution problem in your town?
5. What round trip distance and time they spend to fetch water from alternative sources?
6. How much water does your family use in daily consume?
8. What looks like of waiting turns for water fetching?
9. How it is transported?
10. Is there community participation in water supply activities in the town?