Design of Steel Truss Bridge
Rahaf M. Alkeham 33179
Moudhi A. Alhasawi 35453
Latifa A. Alsumait 34297
American University of The Middle East
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u List of figures: PAGEREF _Toc528327361 h 2Abstract PAGEREF _Toc528327362 h 3Introduction: PAGEREF _Toc528327363 h 4Overview of the computer software: PAGEREF _Toc528327364 h 6References PAGEREF _Toc528327365 h 7
List of figures: TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1 Four examples of sophisticated bridge designs. PAGEREF _Toc528245040 h 3Figure 2 Cable stayed bridges, suspension bridges and also girder bridges. PAGEREF _Toc528245041 h 4Figure 3 Numerous common truss bridges designs. PAGEREF _Toc528245042 h 5Figure 4 screenshot of the West Point Bridge Designer Program. PAGEREF _Toc528245043 h 6
Abstract The criteria for choosing the construction method of a bridge are manifold: from the geometrical characteristics of the superstructure, namely the layout of the bridge (plan and elevations), deck type and its material as well as the height of the piers, the bridge length and of each span and the spans uniformity, to the ground properties, bridge context (deep valleys, crossing a waterway or a road, open field or urban area, ease of access, size of space available), labor costs, logistic issues such as availability of materials and equipment, designer and contractor expertise, pre-design aids for concrete bridges are available. Historians expect people created bridges when they saw how dropped trees could aid them cross shallow streams. Since then, bridges have developed extensively, technically more advanced (see figure 1), and more inspiring, evolving slowly from simple rock arches to elegantly pouncing suspension bridges numerous miles long. Worn by rivers from below, knocked by winds from above, pounded by traffic all day, it’s a miracle that bridges still standing if they do.
Key words: Bridges, Truss bridge, Cable- stayed bridge, Girder, Software
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 Four examples of sophisticated bridge designs.Introduction: The primary auxiliary building that was worked by the human are spans, People have discovered that this ‘basic building’ is vital to move among lifted and bring down grounds and to look for sustenance and havens, by watching the extensive separation between two with just air, water in the middle. So, people began to construct new scaffolds to accomplish their diverse needs. As time passes by extensions turned out to be more created and stronger than toward the start of this evolutional structure. Individuals and autos and even prepare are for the most part exploiting extensions to cross terrains and streets and nations ‘fringes’. It tackled a great deal of battles in transportation means and people on foot’s wellbeing and spared them a ton of sat idle in strolling or driving long separations over water or swamps. Extensions have a few sorts relying upon the reason, condition or the need and the nature of the scaffold additionally relies upon the material that was accessible and the amount it costs.
A cable-stayed bridge (see figure 2) has one or more towers, from which cables support the bridge deck. A unique feature is the stays or cables that run straight from the tower to the beam, generally creating a fan-like shape or a parallel lines series. This bridge is ideal for spans shorter than suspension bridges and longer than cantilever bridges. A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the beam is hung underneath suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The recent models of this kind of bridge were built in the primary 1800s. Modest suspension bridges that lack the upright suspenders posse a very long history in several rocky zones of the globe. These kinds of bridges have cables suspended between towers, plus vertical suspender cables that withstand the load of the deck underneath, upon which traffic passes. A girder bridge is a bridge that uses girders as the method of supporting the beam. A bridge contains three parts: the foundation, the superstructure (girder, truss, or arch), and the deck. A girder bridge is likely the popular design utilized and constructed bridge in the globe. Its main design, in the most basic form, can be equated to a wooden log extending from one direction to the other direction across a creek or river. The two most common shapes are plate girders and box-girders.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 Cable stayed bridges, suspension bridges and girder bridges. Many truss bridges head for to be minor, crossing minor distances inside the networks of transportation. The truss design makes it probable for this sort of bridges to cover nearly any distance. Providing the essential bridge width can be reinforced and pillar placements is not a problem, then the truss bridge can be located nearly anywhere. The truss design of this bridge permits it to support magnificent loads with slight impact on the environment. That permits it to be valuable for railway crossings, high population areas, and other distances that are necessary. We decided to use truss bridge style to design our bridge for the following advantages.
The Pros of Truss Bridges are (They are light, but strong. & their designs are true and tested. & they can be constructed virtually anywhere. & they can be built under extreme conditions. & they allow placement of roadways on the structure itself. & they make good use of materials.).
But the Cons of Truss Bridges are (They take up a lot of space. & they require high costs. & they are quite difficult to maintain. & they require efficient design to really work. & they can lead to wasting of materials. & they are not always the best option.).
The main types of truss bridges are the following (Pratt truss, Howe truss, K truss, Bailey truss, Warren truss, Bowstring truss) (see figure 3).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 Numerous common truss bridges designs.Overview of the computer software: We want to build and simulate a bridge using the West Point Bridge Designer Program. The fantastic thing about this platform is that it provides the materials’ cost and we aim to build an efficient bridge and it gives tension and compression values for each link in our design. This package has two dissimilar means to design. We can either sketch a bridge design or use a template. We can find the pattern options if we select the arch. Arches are effective since they distribute the force. Then we can adjust the arch height. We aim to design an inexpensive bridge, but we want to use the arch hence we will use the default options but join the members in an arch shape. After we select the main design of our bridge we have to select among a few choices. We think that using high strength concrete is better than the medium strength concrete because it is only slightly more expensive. Firstly, make a joint and this can be done by choosing the dot tool and ticking in places where we want to locate a joint. If we are using a pattern, then we will make the dots in the place noted by the unfilled circles. Once we have our joints, then we need to make links. We can use links and joints to build the bridge. After completing our design here comes time to fix it or make it effective as it needed.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4 screenshot of the West Point Bridge Designer Program.ReferencesEXPLAINTHATSTUFF. (2018). Bridges. Retrieved from
https://www.explainthatstuff.com/bridges.htmlSTEEMIT. (2018). Reality of beauty! Nature#10. Retrieved from
https://steemit.com/colourfulphotography/@rizwanmobile/reality-of-beauty-nature-10RESEARCHGATE. (2012). Bridge Construction Equipment: An Overview of the Existing Design Guidance. Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263147228_Bridge_Construction_Equipment_An_Overview_of_the_Existing_Design_GuidanceVITTANA. (n.d.). 13 Significant Truss Bridge Pros and Cons. Retrieved from
https://vittana.org/13-significant-truss-bridge-pros-and-consCONNECTUSFUND. (n.d.). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Truss Bridges. Retrieved from