Education is a vital means of transforming individual and society that is also seen as a variable tool used in the impartation of relevant skills valve, attitudes and knowledge. The genesis of the word “Discipline” is supposed from the Latin word “Disciplina” which means management, rule, education, practice, teaching and trained condition. The derivation of English word “Discipline” is supposed from the Latin word “Discipulum” which means pupil. This is expected from the pupils that he should obey his teachers respectfully and according to him, he should develop necessary and required qualities in himself for successful life. Janice Beyer and Thomas Lodahl (1976) describes disciplinary fields as providing the structure of knowledge in which faculty members are trained and socialized; carry out tasks of teaching, research, and administration; and produce research and educational output.
Discipline is top essential for every learning Institution and School systems set rules, and if students break these rules they are subject to discipline. These rules may, for example, define the expected standards of clothing, timekeeping, social conduct, and work ethic. The term ‘discipline’ is applied to the punishment that is the consequence of breaking the rules. The aim of discipline is to set limits restricting certain behaviors or attitudes that are seen as harmful or going against school policies, educational norms, school traditions, etc. The focus of discipline is shifting and alternative approaches are emerging due to notably high dropout rates and disproportionate punishment upon minority students. Discipline often has a negative connotation, but discipline can be a positive way of instilling community values upon youth. Discipline is a set of actions determined by the school district to remedy actions taken by a student that are deemed inappropriate. Some scholars think students misbehave because of the lack of engagement and stimulation in typical school settings, a rigid definition of acceptable behaviors and/or a lack of attention and love in a student’s personal life.
It is always necessary for discipline to be instilled in the classroom to get the best out of your students and should ensure safety of staff and students to create an environment conducive to learning. As Madziyire (2012) argues, effective discipline is needed in school for good academic achievement and effective teaching and learning can take place.
Hence, there is need to maintain discipline and according to (Lawis, 1999). That, any form of teaching and learning carried out in a chaotic environment cannot instill in the learners the necessary knowledge, values, and skills that need to function well in the society. However, Aguba (2009) while emphasizing Douglas McGregor’s theory x, maintained that discipline is externally induced in individuals who do not succumb to established rules and regulations out of personal volition but out of fear of punishment or sanction. Rosen (1997) sees discipline as a branch of knowledge, training that develops self-control, character, orderliness or efficiency, strict control to enforce obedience and treatment that controls or punishes and as a system of rules. According to Slee (1995), discipline involves teaching and self-control.
The United States department of Education 1993:1 in Rosen (1997) acknowledges that maintaining a disciplined environment conducive for learning requires ethics of caring that shapes staff student’s relations. Discipline works best when it is self-imposed rather than externally imposed. It ensures progress and advancement in self, families, schools and countries. Discipline is a way of life, where one tries to be on time and live in a systematic way. Discipline is not limited to money, riches or by poverty but it is just a personal orientation towards life. It is a habit and not an adaptation in life. So one can practice discipline for better life. Many successful people attribute their success to discipline. For them more than knowledge, communication or skill, discipline played a key role in their way to success. Discipline in life has many virtues like being focused, staying healthy and avoiding problems. As per the current life style and social trends, a discipline technique seems to be one of the essential life skills. Discipline is one of the factor by which people judge others. Those highly talented and hardworking people cannot be successful if they are not disciplined. Discipline extends to personal life, career, work, study, life style and even social life. So it is good to inculcate student discipline in schools. This school discipline can help children habituate it and can be carried on for life. Bryan Turner (2001) has pointed at the ecclesiastical meaning, which refers to the order maintained in the church, and at the medical meaning of discipline’ as a medical regimen imposed by a doctor on a patient to the patient’s benefit.
It follows that the academic discipline can be seen as a form of specific and rigorous scientific training that will turn out practitioners who have been disciplined by their discipline’ for their own good. In addition, discipline also means policing certain behaviors or ways of thinking. Individuals who have deviated from their discipline can be brought back in line or excluded.
But, indiscipline interrupts school teaching and learning. Factors of indiscipline that lead to low academic achievement are common with a student from socio-economic status families. Another reason is that peer influences on low socio-economic students are often antisocial and delinquency prone, emphasizing early marriage for the girls and gang activities for the boys Conger (1993:13). Blodsoe (2005:28) believes that the quality of interaction among members of the adolescents family influence the degree of discipline and success in school work. According to Agie (1995) in Boyi (2013) stated that, indiscipline is said to exist when members of the organization exhibit disorderly behavior capable of frustrating, jeopardizing, slowing down the attainment of the set objectives of such organization.
According to Ericson (1968), he argued that at adolescence stage, life gets more complex as one attempt to find his own identity, struggles with social interactions and grapples with moral issues. Most of the Secondary schools students are at the stage of human development and may misbehave. Discipline in modern public school is something we are clearly lacking.
2.3 Significance of discipline among students and educators
Discipline is the most useful quality phenomena in school achievement, means to act in an orderly manner, to act strictly according to principle. It is also very important for peace and harmony in any learning environment, peace between students, teachers and administration. It is necessary important to have discipline in the school in order to achieve goals and each school should have positive behavior towards the success and valves that lead to each person in the society. It is the valuable aspect that leads to quality education in the country that contributes toward the economic, social, and political development of the nation. Schools are very important social systems that help training students’ good conduct and acquire knowledge. Silsil (2010) defines discipline as the system of training the mind and character so that the indiscipline is guided to make reasonable decisions in a responsible manner and co-exist with others in society.
Schools are very important social systems that help to train students in good conduct and acquisition of knowledge. Eshiwani G, S (1993) coincides that; proper learning to take place, this must be observed. Discipline must be therefore, be maintained at all times because it is only where there is discipline that proper learning can be expected to take place and where peaceful conclusive environment for learning. Discipline is very important because we can’t be well educated without discipline, it helps us to achieve our goals, guides /direct the students in school life to the right direction so that they grow up to become socially, scientifically, and morally educated. It involves the ability to obey and follow simple ask, order, or request that something you acquire through years of being taught from young to old and discipline should be a huge factor of your life. Discipline bridge between goals and achievements, it forms the core of virtues such as success, manner, and honesty. It lays the foundation for achieving better results, outshining in class and more importantly, and gaining higher goal in life. Discipline is very important to all students, teachers, parents and education stakeholders to strengthen guidance and counseling development especially in the school to provide law that guides students. Every member should play a role allocated to do in their area of authority. The quality of students’ discipline is an important factor in determines the intellectual outcome of student and school (Rynolds, 1989). This is because, discipline provides sense of direction among learners and hence commitment to school valves. Moreover, a discipline student body has likelihood of increasing teacher’s job satisfaction, which is critical correlate of commitment to institutional goals (Imber & Neida, 1990). Discipline is important in every aspect of life in order to be successful and free, and it allows one to have power and control in life. A disciplined person is free of the chaos that people without that skill experience and adheres to and abides by certain rules and norms. A part of becoming successful is becoming disciplined. Nature, governments, schools and individuals need a level of discipline in order to function successfully. A disciplined person expresses this skill through perseverance, tenacity, self-control and resistance to temptations and distractions. Discipline allows one to act according to thoughts rather than feelings. A disciplined person lists personal goals and works until those goals are accomplished, despite failures and setbacks. Discipline allows one to sacrifice instant gratification in favor of long-term goals. The discipline to work hard or complete boring tasks allows one to reach goals. Discipline is necessary to balance work and play. Discipline creates self-confidence and self-esteem, which leads to satisfaction and happiness. Lack of self-discipline can cause failure, health issues, relationship problems and other problems. Using discipline can help one overcome addictions, negative habits, laziness and procrastination.
One needs discipline to do most activities in life such as reading, studying, exercising, developing new skills, waking up early in the morning, fulfilling promises and working on projects, Discipline helps one avoid acting impulsively. New skills acquired as a result of discipline lead to the freedom to do more. For instance, learning a new language creates the freedom to travel to countries where that language is spoken. Being disciplined is a way to gain many advantages and benefits in life helps one to stay focused towards his work, activities or goals. People with strong goals are more focused and keep up to work in time in everyday life. Vice-verse any one with discipline has to keep his mind focused on his work or goals avoiding mental disturbances. If not he cannot complete his work in time and also be undisciplined. Discipline helps command respect from others. Many struggle to gain respect from others in the school and workplace. But the easiest way to get respect is to be disciplined. People around and also the sub-ordinates respect a person who is disciplined.
Disciplined life includes regular habits like taking food, medicine, having bath, exercise, waking and sleeping at right time. Exercise and other regular habits will tune the body and mind so well that always the person remains healthy. Discipline in education is very important for better education. Education is incomplete without learning discipline. Classroom discipline helps students to listen to teachings well and also cover the entire syllabus. While coming to school in time helps them awake early, attend nature calls, have bath and breakfast in time. Hence discipline in schools helps students to stay healthy which is good for growth of both body and mind. Hence, being disciplined helps get things done faster and in right time. Though some things happen late due to other factors, still one with discipline gets them done faster than others due to his self-discipline like being on time. So this leads to peace of mine and keeps one happier. One has tension during exam or daily routine work. This is an internal anxiety or unknown fear about the outcome of the work. Staying disciplined helps one study well in advance and not just before exams so he remains tension free.
Lastly, indiscipline cases can reduce the school morals and performance as well as the students” results. According to Katherine Lee from About.com, children without discipline lack self-control, do not respect authority figures, including parents, have no understanding of appropriate behavior, are selfish, unpleasant, and unhappy, and lack empathy, patience, and the ability to share and make friends. They are also more likely to harm themselves and others through negative behavior. Indiscipline has been an ongoing problem in most schools for many years.
2.4 Types of indiscipline cases
In South Sudan indiscipline issues have overwhelmed the organization of secondary schools for many years and had contributed to the low performance of the schools.
The cases of students’ indiscipline regard to the disobedience of students to school administration are assault and insult on teachers, non-teaching staff and school prefects, Stealing of school equipment such as books from the library. Sexual immorality among students and teacher/staff, examinations malpractice including parents and teachers, negligence from students for not taking care of school property, late coming and leaving early in the school and refusing to do homework had been observed by the school heads.
In addition to that, rejecting any king of authority, unnecessary shouting in the class, cultism, influence from the peer group, sewing gam in the class, wearing non uniform, bulling the new and young fellows, confronting teachers and prefects is another issue today from our students.
Lastly, rioting, possessing offensive weapons in the school compound, drug abuse among students and drinking alcohol, speaking of Pidgin English vandalism of school facilities and others. Indiscipline is a behavioral disorder that is classified as an act of irresponsibility (kipropo, 2012). Just like lying, stealing and playing truant or running away from home, it is often the cause of a lot of mental emotional and also physical damage (MacDaniel, 2005). Zubaida (2009) identifies various forms of indiscipline among the secondary school students such as truancy, lateness to school, cultism, drug abuse, insulting, stealing, rioting, and many other social vices. According to Kounin (2008) indiscipline among students manifests mainly in various unruly behaviors exhibited by students in and outside the school like violence, street fighting and hooliganism, truancy at school, improper dressing even when they wear their uniforms moral carelessness, gambling and other immoral acts. Indiscipline in schools can be blamed on the parents who have neglected the discipline of their children at home. There are some students who influence others to cause chaos and this happen when students meet with other students with different behavior that negatively influence them.