Embryonic stem cells(human pluripotent stem cells) are cells that are self-replicating and are found in the blastocyst. They are developed from the earlier stages of embryos which can differentiate into any body cell type. They are able to differentiate into any type of body cell because in the embryo they are used for the same purpose. As the embryo grows and divides, cells which are less specialized become more specific in form and function as they divide. This process then creates different organs, tissues and systems of an organism. Most embryonic stem cells used for research come from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in a fertilization clinic. They are then donated for research with informed permission of the donors.
With the correct combination of signals, embryonic stem cells develop into mature cells that can function as muscles, bones, blood or other needed cell types. We call them “pluripotent” because they have this type of flexibility meaning they have a high chance of differentiating into a variety of cell types. There’s no limit to the diseases that could be treated with embryonic stem cells. Researchers have the potential to make breakthroughs in any disease if they study all cell types with embryonic stem cells. Treatment with stem cells could be used to replace neurons damaged by spinal cord injuries, strokes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease or even other neurological problems, meaning that many lives would be saved. People with diabetes could be treated and these stem cells could make heart muscle cells that could possibly repair the damage done by a heart attack.
Embryonic stem cell research is identified all around the world and funded in the UK. California has already obligated more than $200 million to human embryonic stem cell research on its own, making it the largest stem cells funder in the world. Stem cells in South Africa have become close to a consumer item, and private stem cell banks have been made. The banks then store tissue and stem cell rich blood which can be used by donors to treat illnesses that they might later have. There are three stem cell banks in Africa, and all of them are located in South Africa.
There are many debates on embryonic stem cells being used for research because these stem cells are found in a human blastula which is one of the earliest stages of human life means that by taking these cells they are actually taking away life and is like destroying an unborn baby. Although these stem cells can save many lives they can also make another life. There are many initiatives towards embryonic stem cell research and there are still more things scientists are going to discover with embryonic stem cell research.