Framework of the Study JAYRIELThe health belief model (HBM) is based on the theory of expectation-value, which suggests that the principles and perceptions of an individual drive motivation. HBM has been devised to explain and foresee health-related patterns of behavior and is among the most widely used designs for research on health behavior. It indicates that involvement in health – promoting behavior could be anticipated by perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, perceived self-efficacy, and cues to action, about smoking, the HBM anticipate that the use of tobacco is defined by the perceptions of an individual regarding: Tobacco – related disease susceptibility; expenses, advantages, and obstacles to smoking or stopping attitudes; and triggers behavior change. A survey of high school students in Iran found similar knowledge differences, presumed sensitivity, advantages, self – efficacy and indications of intervention between smokers and non-smokers, implying that HBM can be helpful in smoking prediction. A study of Chinese college students included higher perceived smoking benefits and higher presumed non – smoking costs connected with being a past or current smoker. In terms of giving up smoking, a high presumed predisposition to illness and a high degree of self-efficacy has shown that smoking is reduced
The HBM is among the most widely used health behavior model for the organization of preventive health predictors. The HBM method is used to assess and explain individual differences in preventive health behaviour, and it was shown to be a useful smoking predictor. The current study is therefore designed to measure the knowledge and assess the connection between the HBM structures and cigarette smoking. (https://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/7-13-methods-services-and-products-for-quitting-co http://www.jehp.net/article.asp?issn=2277-9531;year=2014;volume=3;issue=1;spage=23;epage=23;aulast=Reisi)
This chapter presents the description of the research design, research respondents, research locale, research instrument, research instrument reliability, data collection procedure, treatment of data, and research ethics protocol.
The researchers will use a researcher made questionnaire with a grand tour question of “What is your perception of the pictorial display of diseases on cigarette packs?”.
Data gathering procedure
An interview of smokers will be conducted in Tubod Lanao Del Norte and Pagadian City. The method of sampling will be a purposive sampling or a snowball sampling wherein the research participants recruit other participants for a test or study. It will be used where potential participants are hard to find. A type of purpose sampling where existing participants recruits future subjects from among their acquaintances.
The letter was secured and signed by the adviser and the dean of the College of Nursing (CON) with the approval of Research Director. The researchers will ask for the permission of the barangay captain by giving a letter. The researchers will bring a sample of cigarette pack and will be shown to the respondents. To determine the respondents smoking perceptions towards the disease display on cigarette packs, the participants will be asked the question with our grand tour question “What is your perception of the pictorial disease display on cigarette packs”. The participants will respond with a statement from their experience and the researchers will broaden their answers by asking open ended questions like “then? why?, can you tell us more?, and the like. Also, participants who had smoked before, still smoking and trying to quit will be part of the study. The interview will be recorded using a phone recorder. The data that will be collected will be given and interpreted by the statistician.
The research design that will be used in our research would be a qualitative design. Qualitative interview with smokers’ groups and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with continuing smokers and smokers who have quit. Our research design is mainly focused on an interview survey, with one grand question that will be followed by an open-ended question. The researchers find it best to do this type of research design for it would attract more answers and better results for our study. Participants will be recruited from Tubod, Lanao del Norte and Pagadian City Recruitment will be aimed to continue until theoretical saturation will be reached, i.e. no new meaningful data were being obtained. Advertising posters inviting smokers to discuss their opinions about smoking, with wording aiming to recruit both ‘happy’ smokers and those ‘wanting to quit’, were placed in community centres, public houses, libraries, supermarkets, and post offices. A snowballing approach will also be used to support recruitment.
A purposive approach will be used to recruit a community sample of smokers with no age limit who were not currently engaged in quit attempts but had varying levels of motivation to quit in the future. Smokers are being chosen mainly in this study because majority of the people who purchase cigarette packs are the smokers.
This study will be conducted at Tubod, Lanao Del Norte and Pagadian City, the selected places are chosen because it has no smoking banned policy, therefore it will be convenient for us researchers to select our respondents.
Since this study will be focused on the smokers perceived effects of cigarette packs and their experiences, the researchers will respect the values and beliefs of the participants. Before interacting with the participants, they will obtain consent from the Barangay Captain of the province first. After the consent will be given, the researchers will obtain consent from the participants themselves. We will also ask the participants for their willingness to be involved in the research study. These participants will not be bribed or forced to be in the study. Finally, the researchers will maintain the confidentiality of the collected information.