GROUNG BEETLES

IMPORTANCE :The ground beetles are a large group of predatory insects in the family Carabidae. Adults and larvae are considered beneficial and will eat almost any type of insect, including: caterpillars, root maggots, snails and other soil dwelling insects. The ground beetles are a large group of predatory insects in the family Carabidae. Adults and larvae are considered beneficial and will eat almost any type of insect, including: caterpillars, root maggots, snails and other soil dwelling insects.

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BENEFICIAL GROUND BEETLES :ROVE BEETLES:

Another large group of predatory insects is rove beetles. The larvae and adult of rove beetle is predator of other insectsthey also eaty the dead decaying vegetation . They can easilty differentiated from other beetles due to their short forewings. They have exposed abdominal ends .they can fly easily and can run on ground . rove beetles can be seen under rocks or wood, or around mushrooms or other decaying vegetation. . Some rove beetles display a defensive behavior, similar to scorpions when disturbed of raising the abdomen in a defensive posture.

BLISTER BEETLE:

Blister beetles belong to the family Meloidae, and more than 300 species are found in the U.S. A common species Utah is the spotted blister beetle, Epicauta maculata. Usually Blister Beetle Adults will have obvious “shoulders”that are wider than the head. Adults are relatively soft bodied and long legged compared to other beetles . Blister beetle adults range from 12-19 mm in length. Larvae are considered the beneficial stage often eating grasshopper eggs. Unfortunately, larvae and adults secrete Cantharidin, a poisonous chemical that can blister skin or cause painful swelling Blister. Beetles are of economic importance when they feed in alfalfa hay. Consumption of blister beetle larvae by cattle or horses can cause serious illness or death. Hay and forage fields that have significant blister beetle populations should be cut pre-bloom and/or avoid conditioning prior to baling.

TIGER BEETLE:

Another group of predatory insects khnown as the tiger beetles belong to the family Cicindelidae. There are Almost 200 species of tiger beetles in North America and they are closely resembled to the ground beetles. Adults and larvae are predatory and will consume almost any type of insect. Tiger beetle adults ofteusually show brightl colored like metallic blue, green, or orange,). Adults are quick runners due to long legs . Tiger beetles are considered ambush feeders and will seize prey with powerful sickle-like mandibles.The S-shaped larvae construct vertical burrows in dry soil and wait for prey to fall inside. Tiger beetles have one generation per year and commonly hunt during the day in gardens, stream edges, forests and deserts.

TORTOISE BEETLE:

Tortoise beetles are a common group of leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. Adults are metallic and very colorful, ranging from gold to green to yellow. The larval and adult stages feed on common weeds, such as bindweed, thistle, horse nettle, and burdock. As they also eat sweet potato, tomato, eggplant and a variety of hardwood trees so they also look like pests.. Two tortoise beetles are used for biological control of weeds one is golden tortoise beetle, Metriona bicolor, on bindweed; and thistle tortoise beetle, Cassida rubiginosa, on musk thistle.

OTHER BENEFICIAL BEETLES

TWO-SPOTTED MELYRID, Collops bipunctatus, is commonly khnown as a softwinged flower beetle in the family Melyridae .The adult body is widest at the rear and the forewings are relatively soft compared to other beetles. The possess slender legs along with antennae are saw toothed. These beetle voraciously feed on aphids. Adults show orange body with a dark green head and metallic green forewings.The orange”shoulders”have two dark spots.

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SALTCEDAR LEAF BEETLE:

Saltcedar leaf beetle, Diorhabda elongata, is a leaf beetle belong to the the family Chrysomelidae.. This beetle is more common in China. To control saltcedar vegetation and tamarisk, it was introduced in Utah. Adults have alternating black and greenish stripes on the forewingsand are usually 5-7 mm long .Both the adults and larvae are beneficial,eating saltceda rvegetation.

THISTLE HEAD WEAVLE :
Thistle-head weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus, is a weevil in the family Curculionidae . This beetle is most commonly present in to Europe, Asia and Africa . For the biological control of musk (nodding) thistle these beetles, was introduced into North America . Adults have 10-15 mm length and are have yellowish brown color, possess a pronounced snout. Mated females lay eggs on the bracts of musk thistle flower buds. Larvae are the beneficial life stage, eating the developing thistle seeds.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:
Many beetles are considered as the as major pests of agricultural plants and stored products.  They attack all parts of living plants as well as processed fibers, grains, and wood products.  Beetles are Scavengers and especially the wood boring beetles are useful as decomposers and recyclers of organic nutrients.  Predatory species, such as lady beetles, are important biological control agents of aphids and scale insects.

Lady beetle Metallic wood bearing
Bombadier beetles, is one more group of ground beetles . They possess an incredible defensive mechanism. In case of any danger , they raise the end of their body and fire a chemical gas with popping sound and smoke like puffs. The gas is irritating to enemies such as toads and would-be collectors. 
Ground beetle larvae, like adults, are important predators. The larvae live below ground, where they use their large pincher-like mandibles to devour soil-dwelling insects.

DETRIMENTS OF BEETLES: 
A small amount of beetles of beetles is khnown to be harmful to human as well as their products . Each year thousands of trees were killed by bark beetles in the wetern forest . The united states is in a greater risk of agriculture damage by the beetle pests. the most common examples include the cotton boll weevil and the many other species of rootworms. Following products incvluding meats, dairy products, flour, meal, cereals, stored grain, nuts, and fruits are being destroyed by beetle pests.

Rootworm beetle cotton boll weevil
Beneficial Insects: Beetles – [email protected] – Utah State …..

digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2726&context=extension.

Ground Beetles | Entomologyhttps://entomology.ca.uky.edu/ef104
ENTFACT-104: Ground Beetles | Download PDF. by Stephanie Bailey, Extension Entomologist University of Kentucky College of Agriculture. Ground Beetle
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Dillon, E. S. & Dillon, L. S. 1961. A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern North America. Row, Peterson and Co., Evanston, Illinois.

Downie, R. H. & Arnett, R. H. 1996. The Beetles of Northeastern North America, Volumes 1 and 2. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Florida.Evans, A. & Bellamy, C. 1997. An Inordinate Fondness for Beetles. H. Holt & Co., New York.

White, R. E. 1983. A Field Guide to the Beetles of North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston