Henry Fayol was born in 29July 1841. He was based in the mining fields in France. He is the one who developed the general theory of Public Administration, which were accompanied by 14 basic principles.
The principles are as follows:
1)Division of work- according to Henry, within the workplace or rather government work can be shared amongst employees solely based on their level of qualifications and expertise. In that case, employees are most likely to perform their best when placed in their suitable position and work can be carried out efficiently.
2)Authority and responsibility- within the workplace there are various positions, which gives the senior management the right and authority to give out orders and rules to workers.
3)Discipline- this is the core principle, it was developed to ensure that workers cooperate, in-order for work to be carried out smoothly. In that case, workers are most likely to communicate correctly and work towards the work at hand.
4)Unity of command- the principle refers to the employee being able to do work according to how the senior has required. It shows the level of respect and responsibility the employee has towards his work and the senior, conflicts and arguments are less likely to occur because a common ground is reached easily and work commences as usual.
5)Unity of direction- there are different types of personalities within the workplace, i.e introverts, extroverts etc, which at times makes it hard for employees to cooperate accordingly due to personality clashes. Employees should reach one common ground work sake and act ethically to work with each other in an acceptable manner. Therefore, employees are required to unite in-order for work to be carried out efficiently.
6)Subordination of individual interest- just like respect, employees interest should be put at heart in-order to initiate different ideas in the workplace.
7)Remuneration- refers to money one gets after exercising their efforts in the workplace. It’s very crucial to rewarded for doing what you love and doing it correctly. Employees should be rewarded to be motivated. In the workplace, employees get compensated according to their different positions.
8)The degree of centralization- since the senior management is responsible for giving out orders, decisions are made and they should be shared amongst the employees. Sharing of ideas allows employees to know what has changed within the workplace, it also affords them the right to also share their thoughts and opinions on the decisions that are to be made. This opens doors for different and good ideas.
9)Scalar chain- refers to communication within the employees, the official and the seniors. If ever the employee encounter they have a right to contact or communicate with the senior management without hesitation.
10)Order- employees should placed in accordance and in certain order to avoid confusion. Everyone should be in his/her required position, where they will perform their best at.
11)Equity- equity is equally important within the workplace. Different race groups, sex , gender etc. Every individual should be treated with respect no matter the position. Work cannot be carried if workers are conflicting over racist remarks of some sort. Employees should reach a common ground, in-order to generate new and innovative ideas.
12)Stability of tenure of personnel- management position should ensure that workers are in their right places.
13)Initiative- employees are urged to also give out their ideas and opinions to generate innovative ideas. With that being said, management should also involve employees in any other form of activity within the workplace in-order for the team to get used to working together without any conflict, but rather work towards building strength.
14)Espirit de corps- gives out employees to work and engage irregardless of their racial groups.
Luther Halsey Gulick, was born in 1892 and died in 1993. He was a political scientist. He played an important role in the development of public administration, and was a big contributor to POSDCORB (planning, organising, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting.
Lyndall Urwick, born in 1891 and died in 1983, he was known as the “Management Pioneer”. Urwick wrote a book called, Elements of business administration. Together with Gulick, they collaborated on an Administrative Science Quarterly. He then invented:
1)Management consulting- helping business to pin point places where they need to improve and how they can also work efficiently.
2)Span of control- this practise allows efficiency in the workplace. It also allows the senior to give out orders with understanding, in that case there is communication within employees and diversity as well.
Max Weber, born in 1864 and died in 1920. He was a German sociologist and political economist. He’s best known for his thesis “Protest ethic”. His principles are as follows:
1)Clearly defined jobs- just like Henry’s theory employees should be placed according to expertise and qualifications.
2)Record keeping- someone should be appointed to keep then records of the business. Whether its finances, sick-leaves etc someone should be able to control such so that the business doesn’t face any financial losses of some sort.
3)Hiring solely based on the qualifications- it within the business right to recruit someone solely based on what he or she is capable of doing.
4)Work-appropriate relationships only- employees and both seniors should maintain a healthy working environment relationship, strictly work-based relationships.
Thomas Wildrow Wilson born in 1856 and died in 1924.
1)WHAT RESOURCES DOES THE SCHOOL HAVE ?-The are insufficient textbooks and loss of stock due to fluctuations in student numbers, therefore funds should be paid in-order for study material to be available. There are also no records of budget for textbooks ,but apparently the budget has been made annually. Workbooks have been delivered instead of textbooks ,prior to that workbooks are not sufficient on their own. Still, some learners don’t have textbooks. According to Luther Gulick, employees should apply the POSDCORB initiative in-order for work to be carried out correctly. There should be someone appointed to do the planning and organising of every activity that happens within the schools .Furthermore, Max Weber stated a person to should appointed for record keeping, in that case the Limpopo district will not have to suffer from textbook shortages and less funds for textbooks. A Management consultancy should also be made according to Lyndall Urwick, so that the Limpopo district can be able to pinpoint that need improvement i.e record-keeping and placing workers according to their qualifications.
2)VERIFICATION REPORT FROM THE AUDIT TEAM
-A quarter of the books that were delivered were incorrect and no proof of delivery was made whatsoever. The employees did not ensure the correct quantity of the textbooks that were delivered. According to Henry Fayol, work should be shared amongst workers so that they do what is required of them, in that case work will be accomplished prior to the deadline. Weber ,then states that workers should be hired solely based on their qualifications, an administrator should be put in place so that the Limpopo district will have the correct number of textbooks.
3)THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHAT WAS EXPECTED AND WHAT WAS DELIVERED.
-There was poor communication regarding challenges faced by the DoE, there were also changes made due to lack of funds. s