Importance of Teacher’s Training Program and its core challenges towards Sustainable Development regarding quality education for secondary level in Bangladesh
Very recently Bangladesh achieves its recognition as a developing country by UN; definitely it is a great milestone for Bangladesh. For official recognition Bangladesh must have to keep up its development continuity with economic growth alongside its human development. In Bangladesh context the significance of sustainable development may lie in the providing of quality education for all. One of the important sustainable development goals is quality education but the question can be raised that how quality education may provide for all in Bangladesh. This paper mainly concentrates on the importance of teacher’s training program and its challenges toward sustainable development regarding quality education providing in Bangladesh. There are three question may arise that what is the importance of teacher’s training program and its challenges. Whether teacher’s training program plays significant role for providing quality education in secondary sector or not and what should be the way of this program to which it can contribute for ensuring quality education. This write up is developed based on primary and secondary data for searching the importance and challenges of this program toward future betterment in question of quality education for secondary level. After developing the study it may conclude by focusing some major challenges for teacher’s training program those take great attention for improvement and really the program is playing huge role for providing quality education in every phase of education like secondary level, higher secondary level and tertiary level. Without providing good and quality teaching we can’t expect quality education and for good and quality education teacher’s training program seeks huge role but it may require some improvements in this program to provide quality education at least in secondary level.

Key Words: Teacher’s Training Program, quality education, sustainable development.

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Bangladesh is now considered one of the major uprising countries in terms of both economic growth and human development. The most important worthy of remark is that Bangladesh has been kept its economic growth above 6.5 percent over the 15 years and its result has great impact on human development.

The significant element of human development is quality education producing rather its generalization but the quality education producing mainly depends on some important criteria like teachers training, adequate infrastructure for education, sufficient budget for educational equipments etc. However, the quantitative aspects of education including the proportion of enrollment of students, passing rate and so on has been increased. On the contrary, the qualitative aspects of education have become a concern in both private and public education systems. The government of Bangladesh has taken necessary steps to address educational quality considering larger context of curriculum, teaching method, training and others issues (Hossain and Jahan,n.d.).

A greater portion of national budget is contributed to promote education and make it more accessible. But there are several problems towards the education systems (The Independent, 2016). In order to realize and sketch the present scenario of producing quality education we have retrace the Teachers Training Program in Bangladesh which makes a teacher more productive and efficient in producing quality education to the students. Moreover, according to the National Education Policy-2010, teacher`s training aspects and its importance is precisely mentioned (GoB, 2010).

After the remarkable achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and education for all (EFA) criteria, the government of Bangladesh has started journey towards inclusive and quality of education by 2030 in attaining Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) four. Above all, it is quite difficult to ensure the quality of education without improving the procedure of teachers training and development issues. Moreover, teachers have the responsibility of making the future leaders for which quality of teacher’s education and training programs is inevitable. The achievement of Sustainable development will be incomplete if the quality of education is not properly maintained along with teachers training perspectives. Therefore, significant focus on the education and training of teachers as well as accomplishment of education system come forth in the arena of long term vision of government of Bangladesh. So let’s have a look for that how teachers’ training is provided in Bangladesh.

Research Methodology
The study basically is developed based on qualitative way
For conducting this research data is collected from all the respondents related to Bed program in Bangladesh. Keep pace with my consideration or plan; this write up covered the following:
Sample (teachers, students and including staffs with teacher’s training program )
Whoever is benefited by teacher’s training program.

Data sources and collection techniques
Data has been collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data has been collected from direct respondents and secondary data may have been accumulated from different sources of literature. Data has been gathered through some tools and techniques;
1. Focused group discussion 2.Questionnaire survey 3.Direct observation 4.Personal interview.

Data from sample collected through purposively. Data has been collected from Teachers, students and all staff involved with Bed program during conducting the research.

Focused group discussion
Focused group discussion is a widely used tool social qualitative research. At the simplest level, a focus group is an informal discussion among a group of selected individuals about a particular topic. I have focused to go through focused group discussion to collect information about Bed program in Bangladesh.

In-depth Interview
In-depth interview which is not as quantitative questionnaires, questions tend to be open-ended and allow flexibility in probing perception of individuals, as well as areas of particular interest and relevant. Thus basically is covered to get information easily to understand the context.

Personal Interview
Interviews are taken from Principals, students and stuffs of different teachers training college and it is tried to cover all the relevant questions related with research topic.

Literature Review
The meaning of teacher education
Teacher education has been defined widely from different perspective regarding the several level of education system. In order to acquire the accurate knowledge about this issue, literature reviews assist from the numerous cornerstones in that definite ideas and philosophies. Education and training process is defined from different perspectives. Among them, Rao (2004) in Akhter and Alam (2016) Views that:
“Education as a process emphasizing the development of knowledge and moral values required in all walks of life whereas training emphasizes knowledge, skills and behavior patterns required to perform a particular job.”
Teachers’ training mainly refers to a process by which teaching strategies, methodologies, academic knowledge, education management, guidance, ethics as well as administrative management can be acquired within a systematic arena in a certain time.

The Objectives Teacher Training and Professional Development
Recently teacher training and professional development are intertwined with the core mechanisms in relation to the improvement of teachers’ content knowledge and their teaching skills and practices in case of high educational standards (Darling-Hammond ; McLaughlin, 1995 in Bourdesa, 2016). To meet the academic standards, quality in teaching and learning has to be increased alongside need attention to the provision of effective professional development on the part of teachers, researchers, educational institutions, and so forth. Therefore, the objective of teachers training as follows: a) knowledge about teaching strategies, psychology, guidance b) promoting the skill of pedagogy creativity, and innovation c) techniques and skill of research, assessment and evaluation in education.
Teachers Training and Education in Bangladesh
Teachers training provided by various institutes in Bangladesh. There are three universal learning phases in Bangladesh.

Primary level
Secondary Level
Tertiary level
Figure 1: The Phases of Education in Bangladesh

Source: National Education Policy 2010
In those levels of education system, the quality of education is not somehow ensured properly. In that case, deficient teachers training along with faulty selection process is recognized as one of the key issue contributing to the low level of learning achievement especially in primary and secondary level of education. As a result, teachers’ training is recently a significant point of discussion in the arena of education system in Bangladesh (GroundWork Inc., 2002).

The Institutions Responsible for Providing Teacher Training in Secondary Level Education
Since 1909 the Teachers training in secondary level of Education is ongoing by the establishment of Dhaka Teachers Training College at the same year. Now 14 Govt. Teachers Training colleges and 85 private Teachers Training Colleges are established.  More over IER of Dhaka University has been conducting Teachers Training program since 1960, Bangladesh Open University have been also conduction BED and MED courses through distance education since 1993. The following institutions provide several training for teacher’s quality education as follows:
Table 1: Types of secondary teacher training institutes
Type of Institute Number of Institutes
Government Teacher Training College (TTC) 14
Private Teacher Training College 104
Higher Secondary Teacher Training Institutions (HSTTI) 05
Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute (BMTTI) 01
National Academy of Educational Management (NAEM) 01
Bangladesh Open University (BOU) 01
Institutes of Education and Research (IER), Dhaka University 01
Source: BANBEIS, 2014
Among all of the institutions, there are some significant teachers training colleges is running to provide quality education of teachers as follows.

Government Teachers Training (TT) colleges: Generally The government Teachers Training college offer the following courses for the certain period:
        (i)      BEd     (4Years hons) regular
          (ii)     MEd    (day shift) 1 Years, regular
          (iii)    BEd    (1 year professional)
IER of Dhaka University: Institute of Education and research of Dhaka University has made remarkable progress in providing different training program for the teacher’s education and professional development aspects as follows.

          (ii)     MEd    (day shift) 1 Years
          (iii)    MEd    (evening shift) 1 or 2 Years
The problems of this institution are i) the lack of residential facilities of MEd. (evening shift) students ii) Poor quality of students in Med. (evening shift) as they are service holder students.

Bangladesh Open University :Bangladesh Open University also provides the following degrees for the teachers of secondary education –
          (i) BEd            2 Years       duration
          (ii)  MEd           2 Years       duration
          (iii) BETL        2 Years       duration
According to primary sources of data in 2018, besides these government institutions, there are some private teacher’s training colleges. The numbers of total TT colleges are 90 regarding fourteen government TT colleges and seventy six private TT colleges of whom seventy two are running at present.

National Academy for Educational Management (NAEM): NAEM provides government BEd. Training for the teachers of 12th class and course duration is 4 month. Besides, private college teachers are to pass 8 month Bed course from HTSTI (Higher Secondary Teachers Training Institute).Furthermore, NAEM organizes several training and learning facilities for secondary school teachers as follows.

“NAEM provides some in-service training course for teachers’ and other educational personnel. Moreover, NAEM also prepared an ‘Educational Administration and Management Course’ for heads of Secondary Schools and Madrasahs. This course has been arranged for enhancing institutional capacity to ensure efficient management of secondary and higher education levels of secondary school heads. Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) organized some teacher training and other educational personnel training courses” (GoB, 2013).

Findings and Discussion
Present Condition of Secondary Education and Teachers training in Bangladesh
Secondary Education in Bangladesh consists of two stages such as the secondary stage (or grades 6-10) and higher secondary stage (or grades 11-12). The government or public institutions are maintained by government and fully funded by the government of Bangladesh. The private institutions are directed by independently and somehow funded by government subsidy or any other private sources. The Ministry of Education (MoE) is responsible for the secondary education as well as the tertiary education (Asadullah, 2016).

Among the three level of education system in Bangladesh, Secondary level is very significant in making human resource and therefore contributes to country’s socio-economic development. But the actual reality is contrast to the education system that is linked with the worst situation. The quality of education alongside quality of teacher’s education cannot be ensured due to several problems such as lack of books in library, untrained teacher, insufficient administrative management, technological backwardness and so forth.
Table 2: The number of enrollment in training colleges
Year Number of Enrollment
Public colleges Private College
2003 5500 7327
2004 5506 7335
2005 6518 11638
Source: Bangladesh Educational Statistics 2006. Page 81, Table 8.2
According to Bangladesh Educational statistics, the number of enrollment of training colleges is very low in comparison to the total number of teachers in Secondary schools is 238158. That means trained teachers are about 53.53% and non trained teachers are 46.47% for which
It is difficult to ensure quality education in secondary level of education in Bangladesh. It is great regret now-a-days that the teacher training and education program in the secondary level lies in faulty practice or inadequate capacity of service provision of government and even of private institutions. As a result, it will be barrier towards the journey of sustainable development in Bangladesh.

Bachelor of Education (BEd.) Program in Bangladesh
Bed course is necessary for every secondary teacher in Bangladesh .if someone does BEd. Before joining they don’t need to take participation again. It is must for who have joint as a secondary teacher without BEd degree .TT colleges have same curriculum and syllabus for both public and private owner TT colleges.

Existing Shortcomings of Quality Education of Teachers
The government of Bangladesh urgently emphasizes on the progress of the stairs of the quality of education alongside equitable access to secondary education. The issues of access, equity and quality however being intertwined within an integrated manner that have to be resolved entirely. In addition, more budgetary allocation is needed in this sector and proper strategies have to be utilized to make it accurately accessible although there are a number of inadequacies, hindrances and a scarcity of financial resources (Rahman, et. al, 2010). The following figures present the reasons behind poor quality of education teachers as following as.

Figure 2: the problems in ensuring teachers education in secondary level of education in Bangladesh

Source: Developed by primary data
Inadequate Resources: In Bangladesh, the shortage of resources is a key factor hindering the quality of education found from the research findings about 30%. Moreover, the budgetary allocation in the education sector is very low compared to others countries like Srilanka, India etc. The progress of teacher’s education remains standstill due to the lack of resources and proper utilization.

Insufficient and Unqualified Teachers: The teachers who are typically unqualified cannot provide proper service and guidance of education in secondary level. That issue is unpacked from the findings denote 25% including the insufficiency of teachers due to the vacant post in secondary level education.

Lack of Stakeholder Involvement in policy process: In policy formulation process, there is no participation of stakeholder for whom the policy measures is made the study shows almost 15%. Therefore, the policy taken by government cannot be succeeded at all and the cost of development project is increasing or lengthy process of implementation. In that case, the quality of education as well as the teachers training programs and policies is ineffectively working to some extent.

Infrastructural problems: In education sector, infrastructural problem is a great barrier to achieve the inclusive and equitable education for students as well as teachers. Specifically in teachers training colleges, there are problems of residence of teachers, poor quality of classrooms and lack of technological up-gradation etc. that covers 15% of problems from the findings.
Enrollment and Dropout: The enrollment in the teachers training colleges is increasing at a decreasing rate due to several problems. Even, the government is to some extent indifferent for the improvement of teachers’ quality of education. Many of them also drop out due to the lack of proper facilities especially for Med. (evening shift) students.
Lack of transparency in teacher recruitment in school and college: In teacher’s recruitment process, there is lack of transparency and political influence found out about 7% from the study for which the merit based requirement is completely absence. The teachers who are somehow recruited in this profession without fulfilling the requirement make the teaching process worse. Besides, they are not worthy of completing their training due to lack of proper skills and knowledge even before that.

Above those reasons, the training of teachers is in front of difficulties and thus the education system is in great threat as depends on them. As a result, the future nation cannot be made as human resources in contributing to socio-economic progress and that will be challenge for the sustainable development of Bangladesh.

The prospects of Teachers Training in Secondary level of Education in Bangladesh
Human Resource Development
Bangladesh has bright prospects of teachers training in Secondary level of Education for which it assist in the context of human resource development. According to the data of BANBIES, it is noticeable that the numbers of trained teachers in Bangladesh are gradually increasing and it is expected that percentage of training will be about 80% by the following year (Akhter and Alam, 2016).A trained teacher can be able to do the followings issues.

Proper teaching method
Accurate technique of lecture presentation
Create attention of learning
Ensuring proper assessment of learners
Making learners innovative and creative
By the reformation and modernization of teachers training institutions of secondary level of education in our country, it will helpful to develop our human resources.

National Development
The national goals and target can be acquired in a sustainable way by the development of teachers training programs as well as quality of education in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is far behind than other neighboring countries like India in case of progress of education system in secondary level alongside standards of teacher. For that reason, the recognition of the importance of teaching and teacher quality has to be prioritized rigorously to make more progressive in the arena of education sector. (Rowe, 2004).Development of Leadership Quality
Teachers can play vital role for developing leadership qualities as they are the social reformers. The systematic approach to developing the requisite skills for leadership roles may be helpful. Moreover, the acquisition of these skills may serve to enhance performance in the classroom and thus the training of teacher can develop the skill of leadership (Gehrke, 1991). 
At Present, the Bangladesh government confronts the challenges of quality education and training for the teachers who mainly contribute to make the nation educated. To achieve sustainable development regarding quality education, more emphasis has to be given on the following challenges.

Resource Constraint and Inadequate Budgetary Allocation
Insufficient Presence of inclusive education information in teacher education programs
Mismatch between the Ratio of Teachers and Students
Lack of Proper monitoring and supervision
Gap in inter-ministerial collaboration
Administrative barriers
Lack of research initiative
Poor infrastructural
Lack of ICT based Knowledge of Teachers
Overlapping contents in Teachers Education Curriculum
Business Centric Private teachers Training College not providing qualitative educational training for teacher.

The education and professional development training programs and curriculum should be improved by the special consideration of government as well as private institutions. There are several ways to make more efficiency in the context of teachers’ quality of education as follows.

Infrastructural development
Utilization of resources and more budgetary allocation
Fair and transparent Recruitment of teacher
Proper monitoring and supervision
Fulfillment of the vacant post of the teachers immediately
Maintenance of standard of private institutions.

Technological up-gradation
Opportunity for higher education of the teachers of Teachers Training Colleges in home and abroad
Increasing participation in case of policy formulation process
Proper collaboration among the responsible institutions and ministry
Reformation of the content of teachers education and training curriculum
Regular evaluation and monitoring
Quality Education is the demand of SDG so there are no alternative of quality education for the development of the nation. And teacher’s training is the main factor in ensuring quality education. Teachers training and professional development aspects is interrelated with the portrait of the citizen’s educations. Moreover, the development of education system in Bangladesh mostly depends on the quality, capability and competency of the teachers providing good teaching and sharing knowledge for ensuring quality education. Even, educations directly contribute to the socio-economic development of the country. The teachers build the nation as human resources and thus the importance must be given to improve the quality education for the teachers especially in secondary level who have spontaneously responsibilities of teaching the students in attaining the definite goal of multidimensional development in a sustainable way.

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