In 1996, based on The Declaration of the World Food Summit, it defined food security as ” it exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”.
As ASEAN is progressing towards an integrated society in support of regional projects, they have been working hard on improving and implementing new policies. This regional integration has been threatened by rapid changes in the global landscape. According to certain sources, some people said that real success in regional development projects is absolutely dependent on the ability to overcome obstacles encountered as well as the issue of hunger and poverty in the Asian region. Therefore, ASEAN has considered the issue of food safety as it is considered one of the important issues in the region.
The aim of the study is to highlight the impact of food security on the relation among ASEAN region. It is about the ways on how to improve food security in states members. This study also will address the challenges in achieving food security towards ASEAN. In this case, I also will look forwards the measurements on availability, access, utilization, and stability to analyze the impact on food security on the relation among ASEAN region.
In terms of dimensions of availability, for a country with a growing population, they must always ensure sufficient food supply to be provided to the population. Nowadays, thanks to the combined population of ASEAN, has reached the number of more than 600 million people. The decline in the death rate increased life expectancy, and a younger population are covered population is growing in the ASEAN region.
Based on the decision of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), in 2010-2030, estimates are expected to increase by 18% to the population in Southeast Asia where it means that the population has exceeded 700 million people. The increase in demand for food has a long term impact due to the growing number of people. Therefore, the task of ASEAN leaders is increasingly challenging in feeding the entire population. The issue of food security should be focused not only give food to everyone, but it also involves reducing the rate of people who are undernourished.
Food production has a huge impact on food availability. However, production can also be affected by issues such as soil erosion, logging, and water pollution. Much of the infrastructure of ASEAN countries which tend toward facilities such as roads and buildings that require land clearing, the result of the Southeast Asian economies are growing rapidly. Land available for agricultural purposes has been reduced due to deforestation and also the destruction of land by irresponsible parties.
Severe weather in the ASEAN region has also affected food production apart from unwanted sources. ASEAN is one of the regions with negative effects such as droughts, floods, hurricanes, rising sea levels, as well as long-term heat waves between the effects of highly vulnerable climate change. Most of the food production in the region has been affected by the natural disaster. They have become more frequent and intense as the Southeast Asian food system has been exposed to extreme climatic future as expressed by Lassa and Tian.
The availability of food in the region was also affected by the productivity of farmers. However, they also face difficulties such as the lack of land allocation in the ASEAN region. Climate change in Asia also reduces productivity and also affects crop yields and their land. As a result of those products that do not meet the standards set in the agreement, they also suffer from other problems such as failing to take place in regional and global markets. Therefore, farmers should be given the privilege by governments in every ASEAN region as in Thailand and Vietnam as they have successfully eliminated poverty and food shortages in their countries.
Additionally, due to the lack of nutrient content in food has led to food production in every ASEAN country. Based on the data quoted by the FAO, there are only two countries with a predominantly low nutrient content of less than 5% leading to hunger disasters in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia. In 2005-2007, less nutrition in Indonesia decreased from 18.8% to 7.6% by 2014-2016, over the last 10 years. By 2014-2016, the rate of malnutrition in ASEAN countries such as Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Cambodia, have increased by 14.2% – 18.5%. The international goal of reducing the number of people who lack nutrition has been achieved as a result of progress made by almost all members of the ASEAN region.
Food production is also affecting food security. Food prices are also one of the major determinants of food production. Food prices should be emphasized by governments in the Asian region to ensure that people can buy food. Most ASEAN member countries have experienced a low price fluctuation in 2005-2014. However, in certain years, price fluctuations have been experienced by Cambodia and the Philippines. In 2011, as a result of natural disasters that hit the Philippines, it has experienced the highest rise in prices and reducing food production in the Asian region. Philippines is the country most affected by the disaster that occurred in 2011, resulting from the Citizens’ Disaster Response Center (CDRC).
In 2007/2008, the ASEAN countries have been affected by the food crisis that swept across the world. It thus has caused food prices in the ASEAN region increased dramatically and are experiencing food shortages. Therefore, the daily food intake by the population in the ASEAN region cannot be met in a short period. The increase in food prices will only burden the poor from the poor because the food is a major need of their budget.
To ensure that everyone can order food, adequate infrastructure is also an important impact on food security in the ASEAN region other than food prices. The highest road density has shown that Singapore is among the Asian countries with the highest market in terms of food security. However, with an area of 4-6 km per 100 square km of land, Myanmar is a country with the lowest food safety height and has made it difficult for people to get food. Access to food is also important as well as infrastructure development that has affected the reduction of land provided for agricultural purposes. So that, the government should control the trade-off thoroughly.
Food utilization is also important as well as food availability and food safety. Adequate intake of nutrients has to be taken seriously by everyone to ensure their health. Absorption of nutrients and food intake with water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) should be remembered as closely related to nutrient absorption. Lack of safe drinking water and inadequate sanitation provides a negative impact on nutritional access as it will lead to large drainage and increased diarrhea which also prevents nutrient absorption and leads to nutrient deficiencies. Finally, without considering WASH, food security is unlikely to be fully realized.
In 2007-2008, this food crisis has led to demands for action and problem solving from their rulers. Among the key factors that led to social conflict and political violence were caused by lack of food supply as well as social instability. Regional stability is also very important impact on food safety.
The theoretical framework has been applied throughout the study. The scope of the theoretical framework was to emphasize the relationship between the impacts of food security on the relation among ASEAN region. There were several theories has been highlighted in order to discuss the relationship between those elements. On this study, the approach of the methodology analysis used was the classical approach which has included the adaptation some of the relevant concepts in order to understand the impact of food security on the relation among ASEAN region. Moreover, the data instruments used to support these measurements were based on the quantitative and qualitative data, the historical facts analysis and contemporary resources.
This study is to explain the impact of food security on the relation among ASEAN region. This assumption is made that the transnational nature of the reasons that affect food security. Therefore, the success of food security is not achieved in the absence of international cooperation. In the context of ASEAN, the goal is to identify opportunities and constraints to regional security in Asia.
There are three conclusions that can be summarized. First, the food security of Asia has a steady transition to the regional level in Asia. Arrangements are considered as additional and not substitutes for the state.
Secondly, the effective impact on food security in the Asian region is the key to achieving international food security. The creation of a single market and the completion of the ASEAN Economic Community Initiative have provided answers to the interests of a country in Asia.
Finally, food security in the Asian region has been identified through the impact of existing opportunities and constraints. The impact can be seen on the potential of food production, the lack of food distribution channels and the same exposure as climate change in Asian countries. Progressive food safety must be emphasized and should resemble the existential nature of the countries equivalent to admission and food distribution went smoothly throughout the ASEAN region.
In the past few years, many good improvements have been made by the ASEAN member states in achieving food security. In the process of improving food security, there are many challenges and obstacles that lead to disadvantages and negativity along with more complication towards the development of the ASEAN region. Accordingly, the governments can consider the recommendations given in order to achieve food security in the ASEAN region.
Firstly, the more flexibility and stronger agriculture sector need to be built by every ASEAN country. With the establishment of research and development support, it is possible to create more innovative ways to minimize the negative impact on climate change. The industry will also be assisted by agricultural research and department in addressing the shortage of food sources after the harvest season.
Secondly, productivity for farms and farmers should be further enhanced by each ASEAN country as an initiative that produces higher productivity with the technique of getting more effective means of financial resources and also being introduced through a more holistic market. Furthermore, to help they improve the efficiency of production; the use of biotechnology should be introduced and promoted by the government to farmers in the ASEAN region.
Lastly, coordination and cooperation policy should be strengthened at regional and global levels by the ASEAN region. Cooperation among other stakeholders such as the international organizations (FAO, the Fund for Agricultural Development, and the World Food Program), the private sector, and farmers need to be further enhanced by the ASEAN region.