In an organization, the person who leads the human resource in a formal manner in order to accomplish the common goals can be termed as a Manager. The responsibilities of a manager not only include how to plan, direct, monitor and evaluate the workforce, but also to deal with the challenges in an optimistic manner by applying the most effective strategies. Moreover, it is crucial for the manager to possess technical and professional competence in order to perform their job effectively.
Employee behaviour refers to how workers respond to particular circumstances/situations in workplace. While there exists umpteen factors that lead to certain employee behaviour, culture plays a major role in the behaviour. In any organization, existence of people from different cultural backgrounds is common. The success of the organization is ensured when the employees are expected to exhibit certain behaviour so that the work environment is positive. Manager plays a huge role in order to achieve this goal and it is his/her responsibility to enable the workforce to deal effectively with the issues that arise in their work life. A wide range of significant issues that the manager faces and the strategies to overcome them are discussed.
CHALLENGES FACED BY MANAGER:
A large number of individuals hailing from various backgrounds work for a particular organization implies that there are bound to be challenges that need to be identified and addressed carefully. In order to achieve this, the manager has to meticulously plan about the strategies and approach of how to go about with the respective challenge. The challenges that are commonplace in any organizational setting and the strategies to overcome these challenges are discussed below:
Diversity of the employees:
The first challenge faced by most of the managers is diversity. An organization is an aggregation of individuals that belong to different: cultures, age groups, ethnicity, nationality and gender. CITATION Wic18 l 2057 (Wicks, 2018)Strategies:
Managers have to move away from treating everyone alike while at the same time valuing every individual employee’s contribution to the growth of the organization so as to maintain its valuable employees. Proper HR training can guarantee that this occurs on all levels of the organization.Cross culture competence Depending on their workshop goals, they may have accomplished one or more of the following outcomes:
• Become more culturally aware: more conscious, observant, appreciative, and even accepting of similarities and differences among cultures Learned how to cultivate cross cultural competence along a continuum of capabilities
Nurtured the evolution of numerous cross cultural skills, such as communication and decision making Discerned the similarities and differences among people living around the globe, readying themselves to anticipate how to successfully lead, manage, and work with colleagues from diverse experiences and backgrounds • Learned the skill and art of cross cultural negotiation and its nuances, uncovering the value of ” win À win ” relationship building to achieve shared outcomes • • • Explored the foundations of national, organizational, and personal values, transmuting the complexity of values into familiar friends Matured as leaders and managers of global or culturally diverse firms or teams Developed or improved relationships within the teams to which they belong
CITATION Dom15 l 2057 (Doman ; Kawamura, 2015)Managers have to move away from treating everyone alike while at the same time valuing every individual employee’s contribution to the growth of the organization so as to maintain its valuable employees. Proper HR training can guarantee that this occurs on all levels of the organization.
It is easy for corporate scandals to reach the public within a short time. Organizations often have policies that facilitate ethical behavior within the workplace.
Some common rationalizations used to justify unethical behavior are easily derived from Gellerman (1986): ** Pretending the behavior is not really unethical or illegal. ** Excusing the behavior by saying it’s really in the organization’s or your best interest. ** Assuming the behavior is okay because no one else would ever be expected to find out about it. ** Expecting your superiors to support and protect you if anything should go wrong. CITATION Gel86 l 2057 (Gellerman, 1986)Strategies: The challenge for managers is to promote an ethical organizational behavior and culture such that employees will not put their individual interests ahead of organizational interests. Personal interest is an aspect of organizational behavior and managers face the task of encouraging group interest over personal interest so as to preserve ethical values.
The philosophies of top managers as well as immediate supervisors represent a critical organizational factor influencing the ethical behavior of employees (Stead et al, 1990). Research over a period of more than twenty-five years clearly supports the conclusion that the ethical philosophies of management have a major impact on the ethical behavior of their followers employees (Arlow and Ulrich, 1980; Baumhart, 1961; Brenner and Molander, 1977; Carroll, 1978; Hegarty and Sims, 1978, 1979; Posner and Schmidt, 1984; Touche Ross, 1988; Vitell and Festervand, 1987; Worrell etal, 1985). Nielsen (1989) has stressed the importance of managerial behavior in contributing to ethical or unethical behavior. According to Nielsen, managers behaving unethically contrary to their ethical philosophies represents a serious limit to ethical reasoning in the firm. Much of the research cited in the above paragraph implicitly and explicitly states that ethical philosophies will have little impact on employees’ ethical behavior unless they are supported by managerial behaviors that are consistent with these philosophies. Managers represent significant others in the organizational lives of employees and as such often have their behavior modeled by employees. One of the most basic of management principles states that if you desire a certain behavior, reinforce it. No doubt, how ethical behavior is perceived by individuals and reinforced by an organization deter mines the kind of ethical behavior exhibited by employees. As a result, if business leaders want to promote ethical behavior they must accept more responsibility for establishing their organization’s reinforcement system. Research in ethical behavior strongly supports the conclusion that if ethical behavior is desired, the performance measurement, appraisal and reward systems must be modified to account for ethical behavior. CITATION Sim92 l 2057 (Sims, 1992)Technology and privacy
Creates a hostile working environment
Unwelcome verbal or physical sexual attention-
Affects an employee’s job condition
Creates a hostile working environment
•Gender harassment -Crude comments or behavior that convey hostility toward a particular gender
•Unwanted sexual attention -Unwanted luring or repeated pressure for dates
•Sexual coercion -Demands for sexual favors through job-related threats or promises
•Distributive justice -Fairness of the outcomes that one receives in an organization
•Procedural justice –
Fairness of the process through which the outcomes are allocated in an organization
Through globalization, organizations that were once local become global. Managers have to manage international personnel with different cultural backgrounds, work ethics and values. As such, managers have the challenge of understanding the organizational behavior of the personnel in the company’s subsidiary organizations. The global manager uses this information to improve those subsidiaries’ organizational behavior to tally with the overall organizational culture of the company. Resistance by the subsidiaries to this improvement is an eminent possibility.
This paper sets out as a contribution to the current discourse on the interaction of globalization and the business performance especially with a flavor of the challenges from the perspectives of Vietnam. This paper presents a framework for employee engagement as a response to prepare organizations for the challenges of globalization. If the propositions outlined above are supported, then the real challenge for organizations in the era of globalization is to pay particular emphasis to strengthening their employee engagement by upgrading the relevant competencies. The Vietnamese government and business organizations in Vietnam should brace up and have no choice but to develop and continuously upgrade the employee engagement and business competencies of their workforce. Addressing these issues is a necessary step towards facing the challenges of globalization in the next millennium.
Technology and Innovation
Information technology plays an integral role in workplace communication. Additionally, workplace communication also influences how people and groups behave in the organization. Although technology brings with it efficiency in collating and disseminating knowledge, it can also alienate individuals such as the elderly within the organization. The challenge here is in finding ways in which technology promotes organizational communication and inclusion rather than exclusion and discrimination.
In conclusion, even though ethical problems in organizations continue to greatly concern
Society, organizations, and individuals, the potential impact that organizational culture can
have on ethical behavior has not really been explored (Hellreigel et al., 1989). The challenge of
ethical behavior must be met by organizations if they are truly concerned about survival and
competitiveness. What is needed in today’s complicated times is for more organizations to step
forward and operate with strong, positive, and ethical cultures.
result, when the ethical climate is clear and positive, everyone will know what is expected of
them when inevitable ethical dilemmas occur. This can give employees the confidence to be on
the lookout for unethical behavior and act with the understanding that what they are doing is
considered correct and will be supported by top management and the entire organization.
Managers can also use their
knowledge from the field of organizational behavior to better understand their own behaviors
and feelings. For example, understanding personal needs and motives, how to improve
decision-making capabilities, how to respond to and control stress, how to better communicate
with others, and the way in which career dynamics unfold can all be of enormous benefit to
individual managers. Organizational behavior once again provides useful insights into these
concepts and processes. Managers must also interact with a variety of colleagues, peers, and
coworkers inside the organization. Understanding attitudinal processes, individual differences,
group dynamics, intergroup dynamics, organization culture, and power and political behavior
can help managers handle such interactions more effectively. Many useful ideas from the field
of organizational behavior have provided a variety of practical insights into these processes.
Finally, managers also interact with various individuals from outside the organization,
including suppliers, customers, competitors, and government officials, representatives of
citizens’ groups, union officials, and potential joint venture partners. Virtually all of the
behavioral processes already noted can be relevant. In addition, special understanding of the
environment, technology, and, increasingly, international issues is also of value. Here again,
the field of organizational behavior offers managers many different insights into how and why
As organizational behavior deals with understanding and managing
people in the workplace, it is important to note that a successful organization makes use of the
various kinds of expertise it possesses in order to enhance performance and pursues goals in a
changing environment by adapting its behavior according to its knowledge about itself and the
world it operates in. Moreover, it is skilled at creating, acquiring, organizing, and sharing
knowledge, and at applying this knowledge to create its workplace culture. Human behavior
influences key areas of management and is a means to an end for an organization to achieve its
goals. The challenge of organizational behavior is to establish a mechanism for broad-scale
performance improvement (quantity, quality, customer satisfaction, and systems analysis) and
organizational change so that the employees will be more productive and happy, and as a result
organizations will be more effective and efficient in achieving their goals by producing
significant and measurable outcomes. CITATION Ann15 l 2057 (Ann, 2015)Manager plays a vital role regarding workforce motivation and keeping their morale high. Employee’s motivation is the key factor which effect organisation performance. The manager should know the aptitude of employees because every individual has different personality. The manager is to involve all the staff members in the decision making process and create friendly environment.
The organisation must provide the opportunity to its work force to develop their knowledge and skills. They must be involved in different task in order to build confidence in their respective area. The employees must be provided with complete information about how to perform a task in a given time frame. They must be allowed to work independently, be capable of making decision. Their goal directed behaviour indicates task management with higher level of responsibility. Giving confidence to the employees to attend in higher level meetings provide more access to important and desirable meetings and projects. Employee might be added in specific mailing lists, in company briefings keep them aware regarding company matters. They should be provided opportunity to impact department or company goals, priorities, and measurements.CITATION Ess15 l 2057 (Essays,UK, 2015)REFERENCES:
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