Indian agriculture is considered as one of the largest employers of not only in India but of the world as well. The highest number of people are involved in Indian agriculture and has a great contribution to the economic growth. Indian agriculture is considered as one of the largest producers of wheat, rice, paddy and other cereals in the world, but people engaged in agriculture are mostly living below poverty line and they cannot even produce for their livelihood. Hence government passed food security bill in the year 2013 in parliament and which is also recognized as the right to food act in India. Every year Indian government making a huge budget for agriculture, making policy changes to improve the standard of living of people living in villages but the result shows that the government is unsuccessful to do so. There are many pieces of evidence about the failure of the government in terms of policy making, irrigation facilities, technological advancement, educating farmers and many other uncountable aspects. There is a separate central ministry for agriculture in India which only focus on agriculture, each state as their own agriculture ministry, but still, the same problem continues.
Several types of research have been carried out in the agriculture about providing proper and high yielding seeds, improved irrigation facilities, high valued fertilizers and technological improvement etc. I will review some articles and research carried out focusing on Indian agriculture.
Deshpande, T., (2017), State of agriculture in India, is a research focused on agricultural outputs in terms of contribution to GDP. The research has been supported by evidence and data from government’s various databanks and FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) databank. She has also focused on the employment in the agriculture sector. Main areas of the discussion are the factors which are affecting the agriculture of India such as increasing the trend of small land holding which faces numerous issues such as problems using mechanization and irrigation facilities. Due to which farmers miss several schemes implemented by the government such as credit scheme, crop insurance schemes etc. As there are informal leasing systems are available to farmers, who do not hold formal titles, so they are not legally eligible to get the benefit of agricultural credit and insurance. If they require money to purchase hi-yield crops or fertilizers to improve productivity, they are not able to do so because of the money constraint. She has critically analyzed this issue and explained from the viewpoint of the farmers.
Deshpande has taken into consideration the issue of irrigation and explained that how many percentages of lands or cultivating area is having proper irrigation facilities and how much proportion of cultivable land is dependent on rain. She also suggested that there is a need for efficiency of water use and due to non-efficient use of water resources, a huge amount of water is being wasted every year. In her research, she also mentioned the issue arising from fertilizers to the quality of the soil. Unnecessary use of fertilizers or chemicals may reduce the productivity or fertility of the soil. The government provides subsidy on fertilizers, but they are not making the efforts to educate farmers so that they may be aware that which fertilizer should be used at what time and how much should be the quantity of the fertilizers. Apart from the proper amount of fertilizers, farmers should also have the access to the quality of seeds, because it is necessary to increase the productivity. She has done the evaluation of the machinery used for the improvement of the productivity and after production, storage and trading facilities should also be developed so that it helps the farmers to produce stuffs hazel free and unbiased productivity. Prices of the product should also be set to a minimum level for the interest of the farmers. Minimum support price helps farmers to purchase new machineries and use of sufficient amount of fertilizers which helps them to increase the productivity to the optimum level.
In her research, Deshpande has only focused on generalized issues. As per the title of this article, she has just given the brief of the current situation of Indian agriculture and She couldn’t explain any specific issue in her research which has turned into the limitation of this research. To support the research, she has taken data readily available with the government such as from Agricultural Statistics at Glance 2015, Ministry of agriculture, NITI Aayog etc. In her article, she has mentioned about the employment in agriculture but did not provide any evidence or proof to support her statement. Deshpande has given only a reflective statement about the situation of agriculture, she didn’t explore the results of the policies and their different programs in the agriculture sector.
While reviewing this article, I found a contradictory statement, as she has mentioned that agricultural contribution to GDP has been declined to 15.4% in the year 2015-16 from 50% in the year 1950 and growth of agriculture has been stabilized during that period, but she has not given any specific reason behind this. She also could not be able to explain what are other factors which are responsible for this or the growth in other sectors were so much impressive which undermined the growth of agriculture.
Singh, P. (2014), in her paper “Declining Public Investment in Indian Agriculture after Economic Reforms: An Interstate Analysis” manages the investigation of patterns in interest in Indian agribusiness, with accentuation on the time of financial changes. Investigation of venture arrangement has affirmed deceleration out in the open speculation both at national and state level after the 1980s. The falling open interest in agribusiness was mostly a result of an extensive extent of the asset streams to the farming area going into current consumption on sponsorships for composts, water system, power, credit and other rural sources of info, as opposed to venture. The change procedure in debilitated the basic help through declining open interest in farming and for agribusiness. The extension of rustic credit was captured, and casual segment again caught the poor agriculturists. Over the time of monetary change, farming development rates backed off fundamentally. The spate of rancher’s suicide detailed from a few states mirrors the misery state of agribusiness after 1991. An inversion of neo-liberal arrangements in horticulture has turned out to be basic to resuscitate the occupation frameworks of provincial families in India.
In her article, she has combined various data to support her argument hence it’s a quantitative research. From the investment point of view, she has critically reviewed the potential of investment and the interest of public and private sector towards agribusiness. Investment in terms of infrastructure consisting of transportation, storage facilities, and energy etc. She has explained how investment for agriculture is better than investment in agriculture. In this paper, she manages the examination of the pattern of interest in Indian agribusiness with accentuation on the time of monetary changes and separated into four segments. To start with the paper depicts the pattern in broad daylight and private interest in Indian farming at steady costs with its effect on agrarian GDP. Also, she broadens the exchange by taking a gander at the pattern in the venture by clarification of the quadratic condition. Thirdly, it outlines the state level investigation of the pattern in broad daylight interest in farming. Finally, finishing up comments are depicted in segment four.
According to her, an investigation with venture arrangement has affirmed deceleration out in the open speculation both at national and state level. Amid early stage, the offer of open and private areas in all-out speculation was relatively equivalent, and there has been an enduring ascent in the offer of private venture since the mid-1980s. In her research, she also found that there are obvious confirmations of a decrease in interest in genuine terms after the eighties. Open interest in horticulture started to decrease in the 1980s, however, at first, the decay was balanced by the way that private interest in agribusiness was expanding. Since the mid-1990s private interest in horticulture has stagnated while open venture has kept on declining. After 2000-01, open and private interest in agribusiness moved in the upward course and uncovered expanding patterns. In state level examination, declining pattern of open interest in genuine terms no matter how you look at it in a large portion of the states since the mid-1980s additionally has been accounted for. The offer of GFCF in farming GDP was brought down in the 1990s than in 1980s. The falling open interest in agribusiness amid 1980 was, for the most part, a direct result of a huge extent of the asset streams to the farming area going into current use on endowments for manures, water system, power, credit and other agrarian sources of info, as opposed to venture.
She has reviewed a number of the research paper and used data with available with government agencies to support her research and she concluded that redirection of assets from the water system to hostile to destitution programs and expanding weight on income consumption in installments of compensations and intrigue were the genuine impediments in the development of open capital arrangement.
In Indian farming, which keeps on giving work to the greater part of the populace, star built up nations’ arrangements after 1991 had intense unfavorable impacts. The independence in nourishment generation after green insurgency was worked with government bolster; like value underpins, credit help and advertising offices, which prompted the production of a system of institutional help structures in provincial regions. The change procedure in India essentially debilitated the basic help through declining open venture “in” farming and in addition “for” horticulture. As a component of monetary changes, real info endowments were cut down with respect to the extent of the rural economy. Open capital development in horticulture kept on falling, and the development of open use on research and expansion backed off. The extension of rustic credit was captured, and casual part again caught the poor farmers. The new methodology of agribusiness development and enhancement of farming from conventional harvest development to cultivation and so on would require more speculations on icy stockpiling, rustic streets, correspondence, showcasing system and offices, distribution centers and so forth. At the same time endeavors ought to be made to renew farming through the presentation of bio-innovation and different developments. This would require a significant increment in speculation on explore and improvement for agribusiness.
She has used the satisfactory amount of data to support her exploration, she clinched that over the time of monetary change, horticultural development rates backed off fundamentally. Above all, the rate of development of sustenance grain creation backed off and fell behind the populace development rates out of the blue after freedom. The spate of planters’ suicides revealed from a few states mirrors the pain state of agribusiness after 1991. An inversion of neo-liberal approaches in horticulture has turned out to be significant to restore the employment frameworks of provincial family units in India.
Rao, N.C., Pray, C.E., ; Herring, R.J. (2015), in their article “Biotechnology for a second Green Revolution in India: Socioeconomic, political, and public policy issues” have critically reviewed the requirement of technologies in each sector of Indian agriculture and other closely related sectors to agriculture. Here I will be reviewing some of their arguments and highlight their point of view for implementation or investment in biotechnology for the benefits to the agriculture. They argued even if the CPB techniques that were key to the GR, the devices of biotechnology are altogether plaguing in that they have been utilized to deliver an extensive variety of new pharmaceuticals and mechanical items, for example, biofuel and enhance crops, domesticated animals, fisheries, and ranger service, and a few different applications that are probably going to be known in the future. Biotechnology envelops a scope of innovations that incorporate quality control and quality exchange, DNA writing and cloning of plants and creatures, genomics and bioinformatics, marker-helped choice, symptomatic strategies, miniaturized scale engendering, tissue culture, cloning, manual sperm injection, incipient organism exchange, and other technologies. CRISPR (grouped consistently interspaced short palindromic rehash) is the most recent diversion changing innovation among new biotechnologies. They also explained how the Bt Cotton experience and its impact the instruments of present-day biotechnology have changed the examination condition in the agribusiness area with numerous players in the private space putting resources into creating need-based advances for cultivating groups in creating nations.
The discussions surrounding the passage into WTO strengthened the concern for an upgraded part of states in strategy definition for farming, which is a state subject under the constitution. Returning to the instance of rural biotechnology, the ban on Bt eggplant in 2010 was trailed by official directions making it required to acquire authorization from state governments to permit handle trials of transgenic crops. The more grounded property-rights administration has additionally urged the area to develop to a phase where most significant advancements in the seed part are presented in the space of the private division, rather than the GR innovations that were the result of research in general society segment investigate foundations of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and national agrarian research frameworks (NARS) of created and creating nations. While the revelations in science have had the colossal effect to the accessible stock of advancements in the circle of biotechnology, the administrative instruments have not kept pace with the adjustments in innovation and the requests of society, and along these lines pressures have emerged out of this disjuncture. There can be an ocean change if the new Biotechnology Regulatory Authority of India (BRAI) happen with adequate labor to evaluate the dangers and with the ability to settle on choices regarding commercialization of biotech items.
In the EU’s words, “the fundamental conclusion to be drawn from the endeavors of in excess of 130 research ventures, covering a time of over 25 years of research, and including in excess of 500 free research gatherings, is that biotechnology, and specifically GMOs, are not, in essence, more hazardous than e.g., CPB advancements.” The discussions on wellbeing keep on persisting to a limited extent since bunches with individual, financial, or ideological restriction to the innovation effectively battle against utilizing them. new innovations like biotechnology are life savers for the battered horticulture division, as supported by the administration in its twelfth five-year-design record: “… since noteworthy leaps forward underway advances are required to adapt to expanding pressure, especially for rainfed crops, it is important to stay side by side with most recent advances in biotechnology. Science and innovation arrangements that impact the advancement and appropriation of farming biotechnologies incorporate open financing of product inborn research, licensed innovation securities, and biosafety endorsements of directed harvests.
In their article, they explained by one article by Nagarajan, Pray, and Naseem and explained that they investigate the effect of private-division innovative work (R&D) and biotechnology on cotton profitability by utilizing a major dataset of homestead families to figure inward rates of profits to firms and in addition the monetary rates of coming back to society. They contend that biotechnology can assume a noteworthy part in supportability of Indian horticulture through higher profitability with powerful bug and weed administration, which generally drag down yields in the nation to a much lower level in respect to a few different nations and the world normal. Long-term stagnation in complete factor profitability of real yields in Indian agribusiness combined with a value motivation-based increase of speed in late development has overseen the inversion of a mainstream decrease in sustenance costs accomplished in before decades with the achievement of the Green Revolution.
The horticultural innovations are no special case to this reality, as GR encounter has plentifully demonstrated. The administration framed a few establishments in the mid-1960s—parastatals for compost and seed generation, Agricultural Prices Commission, acquisition offices like the Food Corporation of India, cradle stock administration associations like the Central Warehousing Corporation—notwithstanding venturing up endeavors in the formation of water system offices. This article follows the requests for innovation in the nation’s agribusiness, looks at the guarantee of biotechnology and explains debates encompassing these advancements, outlines the articles in this unique issue, and after that breaks down the difficulties of mainstreaming biotechnology in approach making. Herring solicits particularly: why is the science from farming biotechnology so helpless against legislative issues? There is incredible political debate encompassing appraisal of ‘execution, potential, and worries’ in biotechnology in India; any examination of need starts with Bt cotton and works through the congruities and division of Bt brinjal.
They also narrated and clarified what number of promising innovations would have been marketed however for the restricting idea of the biosafety administration; this is a noteworthy issue for innovation advancement and appropriation at present, not the private players essentially. In the nonappearance of achievements in agrarian innovation, the administration has taken the responsibility to utilizing accessible advancements and expanding input utilize with the goal that sustenance security isn’t endangered amid the eleventh five-year-plan period (Government of India GOI, 2013). They also compared the growth of Indian agricultural biotechnological with the world agriculture and concluded that worldwide sustenance costs have been declining recently, the viewpoint for the following 10 years—as indicated by the Organization for Economic Co-task and Development (OECD)/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024—figures the costs to stay at larger amounts than in the previous years of the 2007-08 value point.
Agriculture no longer considered central to national development, the real issue now is that agrarian improvement itself isn’t integral to the worries of the policymakers, as the changing ideal models of advancement theory at the universal level and certain improvements in India consign agribusiness to an issue of auxiliary significance.
Clarke, D.J., Olivier M., Rao, K.N., and Verma, N., (2012) in their article ‘Weather Based Crop Insurance in India’ tried to give a critical overview of the crop insurance market. They reviewed and suggested from their review to the government about some policy changes or implementation regarding crop insurance.
In their research, they found that in the 2010-11 horticultural year more than 9 million Indian agriculturists held WBCIS approaches with a premium volume of over US $ 258 million and aggregate total protected over the US $ 3.17 billion. The execution of these extensive scale programs has fortified a program of specialized work on supply side parts of climate filed protection, for example, how to methodically outline and value items in a vigorous, factually effective way.
They alleged that implementation of these large-scale programs has stimulated a program of technical work on supply-side aspects of weather-indexed insurance, such as how to systematically design and price products in a robust, statistically efficient manner. While products were designed and priced on a standalone approach in early pilots, as is common in markets for weather derivatives, these approaches have matured into portfolio-based approaches that are more appropriate for insurers with large, well-diversified portfolios. This paper outlines the Indian experience of scaling up a national weather-indexed insurance program and suggests a roadmap for future research on the supply of weather-indexed insurance policies.
Not at all like early pilots, the scaling up of climate list protection in India has gotten little consideration by scholastic financial specialists. In this paper, they have done the review of the market and proposals for future research and advancements.
They begin their analysis exploring that states may wish to help the long-haul advancement of enhanced items that plan to limit premise hazard. A similar factual examination of various items would be profitable and ought to be conceivable in India given the accessibility of long-haul yield and climate information. This could prompt further institutionalization of items, considering agronomic and factual standards, which would thus bolster powerful actuarial outline and assessing. Notwithstanding this investigation, the present market structure, under which safety net providers propose the two items and costs, may not offer suitable motivating forces to guarantors to put resources into creating enhanced items since advancements can be replicated by equal back up plans. Rather, states may wish to consider offering in two stages, first with a different year contract to plan items and second with a one-season contract to offer items or to focus on numerous year contracts with protection suppliers.
They suggested that governments may need to upgrade buyer assurance enactment for ordered protection items, for instance, by requiring that any agreement states notable consumer costs for in any event the most recent ten years. This could enable agriculturists to choose whether a specific item is a great esteem and whether it could be depended on to pay out in awful years.
They also explained the WBCIS offers generous chances to see how to expand request, especially from the most defenseless farmers. A thorough observing and assessment could be coordinated into these projects to guarantee that toward the finish of the pilot timeframe government and states have the data they must settle on choices about the eventual fate of horticultural protection in India.
In this paper, they have concentrated on climate ordered protection contracts, there is just in additional research to better see how best to join the data from various files with the goal that agriculturists can depend on auspicious claim installments in terrible years. For instance, an early part-settlement considering a climate file could be joined with the vast change in view of a territory yield file (Rao 2011), with climate and satellite information utilized in the background by protection suppliers to target and screen the harvest cutting trials that shape the reason for the yield list.
At long last, outlining, assessing and managing listed protection items is an exceedingly specialized region and there might be a part for a central government Technical Support Unit to give objective, specialized help to states, central government, and controllers. At any rate, such a unit could give target examination of the cost of and level of premise chance in items to help states in picking between various projects and protection suppliers. Be that as it may, the unit could likewise have a more extensive logical and research work, with an order to consider the rural protection advertise crosswise over India and grow best practice rules on zones, for example, item plan, acquirement, and techniques for expanding take-up.