Abortion is the ending of pregnancy due to removal of the embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus on its own. The National Center for Health Statistics defines an “abortus” as “a fetus or embryo removed or expelled from the uterus during the first half of gestation—20 weeks or less, or in the absence of accurate dating criteria, born weighing less than 500 g.”.
It is also a safe and legal way to end pregnancy.

History and background of Abortion
The history and background of abortion can be traced back to the 1800`s when laws forbid the act after 16 weeks of conception.

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By 1900`s the act was completely outlawed but even at that, women were still aborting.
The act became legal in 1973 through a well known supreme court ruling, the ruling took precedence over state laws that banned abortion.

Abortion and Christianity
Christianity and abortion has a long complex history and there are different position taken by contemporary Christians concerning the issue.

Historically there does not exist any direct prohibition of abortion in the Bible either in the Old Testament or the New Testament.

Some writers argue that early Christian held different beliefs at different times about abortion.

According to Benjamin Wiker,” the prohibition of abortion in later Christian societies with the availability of abortion that was present in earlier Roman societies, it reflects a wider condemnation of pagan practices”.

Most Christians view abortion as the ending of God`s creation and some view it as murder.

Biblically God`s view on abortion has not changed, the bible tells us that” Jesus Christ (is) the same yesterday, today and for ever”(Hebrews 13:8). In the ten commandments given to Moses on mount Sinai by God, “you shall not murder”(Exodus 20:13).

The early Christian work called the Didache (before 100 AD) says: “do not murder a child by abortion or kill a new-born infant.”
In this topic of discussion ill look into types of abortion, methods of abortion, reasons or causes of abortion, effects of abortion and resolutions or recommendations.

Induced Abortion
This is where deliberate steps are taken to end a pregnancy. It is done mostly when there are heath complications that could endanger the life of the mother or the fetus. Dr. Evelyn Fisher wrote of how women living in a mining town in Wales during the 1920s used candles intended for Roman Catholic ceremonies to dilate the cervix in an effort to self-induce abortion.

Most induced abortions are as a result of unintended pregnancies.

It is done to:
Prevent harm to the mother`s physical or mental health.

To terminate a pregnancy where indications are that the child will have higher chances of mortality at birth.

Spontaneous Abortion
It`s also known as a miscarriage.

It is the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or a fetus before the 24th week of gestation.

Main causes of spontaneous abortion are:
Chromosomal abnormalities of the fetus.

Infections and abnormalities of the uterus.

Unexpected accidents
Trauma and stress.

Medical method
This is abortion that is induced medically by qualified and trained professionals.

Surgical Method
Suction aspiration or vacuum aspiration is the most common surgical methods of induced abortion.

Vacuum aspiration consists of removing the embryo or fetus and membranes by suction using a manual syringe or an electric pump.

In 1971, Lorraine Rothman and Carol Downer, founding members of the feminist self-help movement, invented the Del-Em, a safe, cheap suction device that made it possible for people with minimal training to perform early abortions called menstrual extraction manual syringe or an electric pump.

Other Methods
A number of herbs have been used traditionally to perform abortion. Abortion is also sometimes attempted by causing trauma to the abdomen.

Other methods include:
Self induced abortion.

Insertion of non-surgical implements such as knitting needles into the uterus.

Women seeking to end their pregnancies sometimes result to very unsafe methods particularly where legal abortion is restricted. They may rely on persons who are not qualified with proper medical training or access to proper facilities. This leads to very severe complications.

Countries with restricted access to legal abortion have high rates of unsafe abortion.

Personal Reasons
This reason`s vary from one aspect to another and also from one individual to another.

The most common reasons are:
To postpone childbearing to a more suitable time or to focus energies and resources on existing children.

Being unable to afford a child either in terms if the direct cost of raisin a child or the los of income while caring for the child.

Lack of support from the father.

Inability to afford additional children.

Desire to provide schooling for existing children and also continuation of education by he mother.


Societal Reasons
They are external factors that could lead to one resulting to an abortion. They are commonly pressures from surrounding people such as families, friends and the community at large. They include:
Preference for a child of a specific race or sex by the society.

Disapproval of single or early motherhood by the society.

Insufficient economic support from family.

Societal population control measures.

Health Reasons
This reason`s concerns the life and health of both the mother and the fetus.

They include:
If the life of the mother is endangered by the fetus continuing to be in the uterus.

When the chances of fetus mortality are high.