INTRODUCTION
Emergency department crowding can have serious consequences for the patients and the staff, such as increased wait time, ambulance diversion, reduced staff morale, adverse patient outcomes such as increased mortality, and cancellation of elective procedures. Earlier research has shown EDs crowding is the international problem, making it crucial that steps are taken to make to address this problem. There are many possible causes for EDs crowding such as increased ED attendance, inappropriate attendance, a lack of alternative treatment options, a lack of inpatient beds, ED staffing shortage, and closure of other local ED departments. The most significant of these causes is the inability to transfer patients to inpatient bed, making it critical for hospital to manage patient flow and understand capacity and demand for inpatient beds.