is just one of the many applications that exists which marketers not only use to surveil
consumers but which actually violate their privacy.
In today’s mobile environment, due to the powerful technological surveillance means to
track and profile a mobile user, the notion of personal space has expanded to incorporate
realms of both physical and informational space. Solove (2006) defines intrusion as
“invasive acts that disturb one’s tranquility or solitude” (p.491) and “involves the unwanted
general incursion of another’s presence or activities” (p.555). It has been argued that
intrusion interrupts the victim’s activities or routines, destroys his or her solitude, and often
makes the victim feel uncomfortable (Solove 2006). Malware is an especially growing
problem for smartphones (Dignan 2011). A plethora of data is accessible by malware
developers, including browser history, usage patterns of apps, keyboard keystroke cache,
phone numbers, contacts, current and past geographic location, etc.
As it is highly possible to have malware even from mobile app stores (Dignan 2011), users
may resist mobile apps for the fear that the malicious apps may interrupt their activities
through the unwanted presence. The major point that emerges is that intrusion can create
discomfort and harm and therefore, the flow of personal information across boundaries
requires users’ efforts to restore their comfort levels. Technology has permitted companies
to explore immensely improved and exciting new applications such as data mining, data
warehousing, target marketing, and self-service.
The mobile phone has heightened a diversity of consumer concerns about privacy (Dignan
2011; Child ; Petronio, 2010). Particularly, consumer apprehension and trepidations
include the explosion of databases among mobile service providers, the enormous volume
of personal data that is being collected, and the possibility of privacy violations and loss of
control in the process of collecting, accessing, and utilizing this information (European
Data Protection Surveyor, 2015).
Faced with these concerns, consumers sometimes undertake actions such as supplying false
or fictitious information to a web site, setting up their computers to reject cookies, or
refusing to purchase from particular web sites (Dignan 2011; Child ; Petronio, 2010).
These potentially negative reactions that arise from threats to consumer privacy would
eventually have a significant impact on a firm’s marketing performance (European Data
Protection Surveyor, 2015; Dignan 2011; Child & Petronio, 2010).