Jan 2018
Part A
Q1: Differences between speech convergent and divergent.

Speech Convergence: Adapting a speech style that attempts to reduce social distance by using forms that are similar to those used by the person we are talking to.

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It is a polite speech strategy
The speakers like one another, where one speaker has a vested interest in pleasing the other or putting them at ease
How do speakers accommodate?
Downward convergence: towards the lesser linguistic proficiency of their addressed who are often of a lower status
Upward convergence: towards the more sophisticated linguistic proficiency of their addresses who are often of a higher status
Speech Divergence: Deliberately choosing a different language style not used by the addressee to increase social distance.

It is considered an uncooperative speech behaviour
Tends to happen when a person wants to show his cultural distinctiveness, social status, ethnic identity
How do speakers diverge?
Downward Divergence: emphasized the nonstandard features of their speech
Upward Divergence: emphasize the standard features if their speech
Accent Divergence: to disassociate from listener the speaker may emphasize pronunciation dissimilarities
Speech divergence doesn’t always indicate the speaker’s negative attitudes towards the addressees. It can also benefit the diverger, where the divergent forms are admired.

Q2: Accent vs. Dialect
Concepts Meaning
Accent A distinctive mode of pronunciation of a language, especially one associated with a particular nation, locality, or social class.

Regional Dialect Language variation in monolingual communities of different region
Dialect Chain The varieties of language spoken in the border towns & villages that have more common with the next village rather than the same capital city.

Language Sentence Spoken In
Standard Malaysian Kamu mahu pergi ke mana dengan basikal itu?Bolehkah saya ikut? Malaysia
Kedah Malay Hang nak pi mana naik gerek tu?Aku ikut buleh dak? Northern States of Peninsular Malaysia, Western part of Southern Thailand
Kelantan-Pattani Malay Demo nok gi mano naik gerek tuh?Buleh kawe ikuk? Kelantan (Malaysia), Eastern part of Southern Thailand, Northern Terengganu
Terengganu Malay Mung nok gi mane naik basika tu?Buleh dok ambe ikok? Terengganu (Malaysia), Easternmost part of Pahang, Northeast Johor, Riau Islands (Indonesia)
Minangkabau Pai kama jo kareta angin tu?Bulih indak den ikuik? West Sumatra, the western part of Riau and Jambi, the western coast of Aceh and North Sumatra, the northern part of Bengkulu (Indonesia), Negeri Sembilan and Kuang, Selangor (Malaysia)
Negeri Sembilan Malay Ekau nak poie mano naik basika tu?Boleh den ikut? Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia)

Q3: 2 ways of language spread
From group to group From style to style From word to word (lexical diffusion)
Any particular change spreads simultaneously in different directions though not necessarily at the same rate in all directions.
Social factors such as age, status, gender and region affect the rates of change and directions.

A change may spread along any of these dimensions and into another group.

Infiltrate groups from the speech of people on the margins between social or regional groups – via middle people. Suggests the change spreads from one style to one another.(From more formal speech to more casual speech)
Also spreads from one individual to another within a social group and the from one social group to another.

E.g : Most formal style of the young people in the most socially statusful group
Less formal style
Most formal style of other groups. Usually spread through different words one by one; lexical diffusion.

Some words remain with the original pronunciation.

Trough and Tough
Though and Bough
New Zealand : The merging of vowels in word pairs. E.g : Beer and Bear (lexical diffusion)
Distinction dissapeared in Really and Rarely
Still distinct : Fear and Fair
Part B
Q1: 4 reason of women’s linguistic behaviour
As a social status Women’s role as guardian of society’s values Subordinate grp must be polite Vernacular forms express machismo
Woman use more standard speech form than man because they are more status conscious than man.

Aware that the way they speak, signals their social class background/social status in the community.

Standard speech is associated with high status so it is as a way to claim such status.
To increase their value or marketability in some contexts
As social resource for constructing a professional identity
The fact that women use more standard forms than men points to the way society tends to expect ‘better’ behaviour from women than from men
Society expects women to speak more correctly and standardly than men, especially when they are serving as models for children’s speech.
Standard forms are typically associated with more formal and less personal interactions.

Interactions between a mother and her child are likely to be very relaxed and informal, and it is in relaxed informal contexts that vernacular forms occur most often in everyone’s speech.

Women as a subordinate group, it is argued, must avoid offending men – and so they must speak carefully and politely.
On the other hand, the suggestion that women’s greater use of standard forms may relate to their own face-protection needs, also to those of the people they are talking to, is more promising.

“Why don’t men use more standard form?”
Men prefer vernacular forms because they carry macho connotations or masculinity and toughness.

It has been suggested that vernacular forms have ‘covert prestige’ by contrast with the overt prestige of the standard forms which are cited as models of correctness.

The converse of this claim is that standard forms tend to be associated with female values and feminity.

Q2: 5 functions of speech
Directive utterances attempt to get someone to do something
“clear the table”
Referential utterances provide information
“at the third stroke it will be three o’clock precisely”
Phatic Utterances express solidarity and empathy with others
“Hi, how are you, lovely day isn’t it!”
Metalinguistic Utterances comment on language itself
‘Hegemony’ is not a common word
Poetic Utterances focus on aesthetic features of language
e.g : a poem, an ear-catching motto or a rhyme
Expressive utterances express the speaker’s feeling
“I’m feeling great today”

dec 2016
Q1a: Define
“social class”
Social class refers to a grp of ppl with similar levels of wealth, influence and status. Can be divided into four; lower class, working class, middle class and upper class.

Lower -poverty
Working -minimally educated (manual labour eg maid, cashiers, cleaner)
Middle -white collar class (lwr middle – lwr income (small biz owners) ; upper middle – educated biz, professional ppl, docs, lawyers)
Upper -those who have been rich for generations
“caste system”
Caste system is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often include occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction and exclusion.

Q1b: How her lifestyle would affect her lg use?
Her lg use will change
Change in vocab, pronunciation and grammatical patterns
Vocabulary Pronunciation Grammatical Patterns
U speakers (Upper-class English people ) vs. Non-U speakers (the rest)
Sitting room vs Lounge
Vocabulary distinguished social groups on a categorical basis. Different pronunciation
H-dropping
Pronunciation of -ing
Present r Standard vs Vernacular Grammatical Pattern:
Past tense verb forms
‘I finished that book yesterday.’
‘I finish that book yesterday.’
Present tense verb forms
‘Rose walks to school every day.’
‘Rose walk to school every day.’
Negative forms
‘Nobody wants any chips.’
‘Nobody don’t want no chips.’
Ain’t’Jim isn’t stupid’
‘Jim ain’t stupid’
Q2a: Define “social network”
In sociolinguistics
Refers to the pattern of informal relationship people are involved in on a regular basis
People’s speech reflects the type of social networks they belong to
Q2b: Explain
core members
the member of a social network who knows each other and are involved directly
peripheral (secondary) members
the members whom we know from the person we are involved directly. We may not be involved directly with the peripheral members.

Q2c: loose and dense social network
Dense network
If someone and relations know and interact regularly with each other, as well as with him/her
Siti Aisyah and friends from her secondary school
Less dense network
If someone and relations do not know and interact regularly with each other, as well as with him/her
Siti Aisyah and new friends in foreign lg class
Q3a: Definition of speech function
Speech function refers to the affective (social) and referential (informative) function when conveying a message through speech.

Q3b: Example
Expressive Express sadness
Express happiness
Express angriness Metalinguistic Directive Tell a person to clear table
Tell a person to close the door
Tell a person to wash the toilet Poetic Recite a poem
Sing a rhyme
Sing a song
Referential Tell a person the time
Tell a person the colour of a dress
Tell a person a fact about a place Phatic Express about the weather
Express about the food they’re eating
Express about the beauty of the place they went

July 2017
Part A
Q1: Difference between pidgin and creole
Pidgin Creole
A language which has no native speakers
Develop as a means of communication
Likely to arise when two groups of people with different languages are communicating in a situation where there is also a 3rd dominant language
Initially, pidgins develop with a narrow range of functions.

Those who use them speak other languages, so the pidgin is an addition to linguistic repertoire
Caribbean slave plantation, 17th-18th centuries (pg 85)
Used for referential functions rather than affective functions
Ex: Buying and selling grain, animal hides
Pidgins also developed as languages of trade between the traders
Ex: Colonial language such as Portuguese, or Spanish or English. A pidgin which has acquired native speakers
Develop ways of systemically signalling meanings such as verb tenses
may develop into inflections or affixes
The substrate is another source of structural complexity
Pidgins become more structurally regular as they undergone creolisation
Once a creole has developed, it can be used for all the functions of any language
Q2: factors of contributing to language shift
Economic Social Political Demographic
For work purposes
(people learn English to get good job)
(i) The community doesn’t take action on maintaining their ethnic language
(ii)The pressure of institutional domains such as schools and the media.
The authority usually chooses one language as the lingua franca to unify various kinds of ethnic groups Are those relating to personal characteristics such as gender, age, social class, level of education, family and race/ethnicity
Q3: Features of women lgLakoff suggested that women’s speech was characterised by linguistic features such as the following. (indicates rising intonation)
Lexical hedges or fillers – you know, sort of , well, you see
Tag questions – She’s very nice, isn’t she?
Rising intonation on declaratives, also called HRT and uptalk – It’s really good’Empty’ adjectives – divine, charming, cute
Precise colour terms – magenta, aquamarine
Intersifier such as just and so – I like him so much
‘Hypercorrect’ grammar – consistent use of standard verb forms
‘Superpolite’ forms – indirect requests, euphemisms
Avoidance of strong swear words – Fudge, my goodness
Emphatic stress – It was a BRILLIANT performance
Part B
Q1a: why need to differentiate standard vs. vernacular lg?
Non standard forms are associated with less prestigious people = negative connotations on the social group.
Q1b: 4 differences btwn standard and vernacular lgStandard lgVernacular lgSpoken with many different accents.

Standard English:
British, US, South African, Australian. Used by some sociologists as an alternative to non-standard to avoid implication that non-standard forms are inadequate deviations from the standard dialect.
Learned at home, used in informal contexts, lack public or overt prestige
They are valued by their users, especially as means of expressing solidarity and affective meaning.

Q2a: Why need an official language?
A language which may be used for government business. Many countries have regarded the development of a single national language as a way of symbolizing the unity of a nation. ‘One nation, one language’ has been popular and effective slogan.

Q2b: 4 stages of planning for the official national languages
Selection
Choosing the variety or code to be developed
Codification
Standardising its structural or linguistic features
This kind of ‘linguistic processing is known as corpus planning.

Elaboration
Extending its functions for use in new domains
This involves developing the necessary linguistic resources for handling new concepts and contexts.
Acceptance
Steps may be needed to enhance its prestige, and to encourage people to develop pride in the language or loyalty towards it.
It is known as status planning or prestige planning.

Dec 2015
Part A
Q1a: Define language change
Language change is the phenomenon by which permanent alterations are made in the features and the use of a language over time.

Q1b: Ways language changes spread
From group to group From style to style From word to word (lexical diffusion)
Any particular change spreads simultaneously in different directions though not necessarily at the same rate in all directions.
Social factors such as age, status, gender and region affect the rates of change and directions.

A change may spread along any of these dimensions and into another group.

Infiltrate groups from the speech of people on the margins between social or regional groups – via middle people. Suggests the change spreads from one style to one another.(From more formal speech to more casual speech)
Also spreads from one individual to another within a social group and the from one social group to another.

E.g : Most formal style of the young people in the most socially statusful group
Less formal style
Most formal style of other groups. Usually spread through different words one by one; lexical diffusion.

Some words remain with the original pronunciation.

Trough and Tough
Though and Bough
New Zealand : The merging of vowels in word pairs.

E.g : Beer and Bear (lexical diffusion)
Distinction dissapeared in Really and Rarely
Still distinct : Fear and Fair
Q2a: Define positive politeness strategies
strategies seek to minimize the threat to the hearer’s positive face
make the hearer feel good about themselves, their interest and usually used in situation where audience know each other fairly wellQ2b: Define negative politeness
strategies oriented towards the hearer’s negative face and emphasize avoidance of imposition on the hearer
avoid imposition from the speaker, the risk of face-threat to the hearer is reduced
Q2c: examples of positive and negative politeness
Positive politeness Negative politeness
Solidarity oriented Pays people respect and avoid intruding on them
Emphasises shared attitudes and values Using indirect directives
Minimising status difference Respecting status difference
E.g. : A boss suggests a subordinate to use first name (FN) to her E.g. : Addressing a boss using her title + last name (TLN)
Q3a: Define language choice
Language choices are the lexical and structural choices that you make every time you use a language.

Q3b: Factors determining language choice
Social factors affecting code choice:
who you are talking to
Social content of the talk
Function & topic of the discussion
Other social factors affecting code choice :
Leakage – Using the variety of a particular domain in another domain for simplicity.
Social distance – How well the participants know each other may affect the usage of code choice.

Status – Status relationship between people may be relevant in selecting the appropriate code.

Formality – Features of the setting and the dimension of formality may be important in selecting an appropriate code.

Function – Goals of the interaction.

Part B
Q1: 5 ways to use sociolinguistics knowledge in teaching
Q2a: Define World Englishes’World Englishes’ & ‘New Englishes’ are the terms used to emphasise the range of different varieties of English that have developed since the nineteenth century.
Q2b: 3 reason teachers need to be aware of this concept of lg teaching
Explain on inner circle – English is first language
Explain on outer circle – English is second language. In contexts where multilingualism is the norm, formal Malaysia English, is influenced by local languages. Manglish, an informal and conversational variety of Malaysia English, is a decent example.
Explain on expanding circle – English as foreign language. Used during trade or official matters with another country