Many fear that without animal experimentation medical progress will be put on hold, that we might not have a way to test biological processes and risks to the human body. Fortunately, the increased development of new viable alternatives can be both ethical and equally or more effective. One of these found alternatives are “organ-on-chips” engineered by Harvard’s Wyss Institute. These are human cells grown in an advanced system to mimic the structure and function of human organs and organ systems. “These microchips, called ‘organs-on-chips’, offer a potential alternative to traditional animal testing. Each individual organ-on-chip is composed of a clear flexible polymer about the size of a computer memory stick that contains hollow microfluidic channels lined by living human cells.”(