On the 14th of August, 1947, the sub-continent was divided into two parts, Pakistan and India. Being the two largest countries of South Asia, India and Pakistan are connected with several political, geographic, cultural, and economic links. However, diplomatic relations between the two states are defined by numerous military conflicts and territorial disputes. The war between Pakistan and India in 1971 resulted in another partition of Pakistan. The eastern wing was separated and emerged as a new country named Bangladesh, while the western wing continued as Pakistan.
India and Pakistan are neighbors with a history of tensions between one another. Since the independence of Pakistan, and then India, these two states have been at odds over issues that include the Kashmir conflict. The conflict has not intensified recently, but given that both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons, any heightened conflict between these two countries is cause for even greater alarm; there have been genuine fears that these two states would possibly fight a nuclear conflict (Philips et al., 1962:109).
The two countries have been part of several pacts, peace initiatives to manage and resolve their conflict, however, none of the peace efforts could bring them nearer to final settlement. Regional and international developments also impacted relations between India and Pakistan and both were part of various international alliances in cold war era. In post-cold war times, the two countries acquired nuclear weapons in May 1998 and since then Kashmir was declared as nuclear flash point. War of 1948, 1965, 1971 and Kargil Issue of 1999 are the all results of this armed rivalry. Frequent violation at Line of Control, allegation of spying and ferocity on embassy staff at both sides are the some of the prominent evidences of antipathy between the two nations. Throughout the history, two nations remained in a continuous conflict and have limited bilateral relations (Lyon, 2008:110).
In the relations between Pakistan and India there is lack of trust which is one of the main reasons that has affected the bilateral relationship and is responsible for the tensions between both countries. Given the three wars fought by them, the relationship is an accident prone because of which the two countries have come close to war on other occasions. The countries have been moving more towards separation of identities, partly due to disputes and differences, and the lack of cultural exchange. The case worsened mostly because of the security issues between the two countries which restricts across-the-border movement of neutral elements. Poor role of media to enhance the people to people contact is another hurdle in that dimension.