Political approaches and theories to politics are embodied in the way different political parties or groups claim and provide with distinctive visions of a ‘better future’ and to attempt and convince that the world should be remade in the line with most popular vision. Issues of the present often reflect ideas that carry centuries of tradition and meaning. It refers to the structure, efficiency, and social consequences of different sorts of political systems. Democracy, justice, ethics, law, equality, authority and other concepts encounters in daily life have deep roots in the past.
With the regard to the characterizations of present society which appear most frequently in the criticisms of communism, it appears that such characterizations are presented in the doctrines of Karl Marx and that, since he attempts to give them a reasoned foundation, an examination of Marx’s argument gives some basis for evaluating a number of assumptions. To millions, the name of Karl Marx inspires the hope of a new and better society. To others, the name only conjures up the image of a mad prophet who in his fanaticism to rid the world of its social evils would destroy the world in the process.
Karl Heinrich Marx was born of a well-to-do Jewish family in Germany in 1818. His parents were Herschel and Henrietta Marx. He became became fascinated with revolution and the nature of change within civilization. The purpose of these changes would be the ultimate creation of an ideal society. The political theory of socialism, which gave rise to communism, had been around for hundreds of years. Marx, also known as the father of communism, spent most of his life in exile in Great Britain and France. He wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848, which later served as the inspiration for the formation of the Communist Party.
The success or failure of communist regimes in transforming the attitudes and behavior of populations may constitute a test of explanatory power of political culture theory. This approach may view communist regimes as “natural experiments” in attitude change. Such regimes seek and usually succeed in establishing organizations and communication medial monopolies, as well as penetrative police and internal intelligence systems. Ideological conformity is rewarded; deviation is heavily penalized. Communities and neighborhoods come under the surveillance of party activists. Children of all ages are organized in party-related formations, and school instruction places emphasis on appropriate ideological indoctrination. In addition to this powerful array of institutional and communication controls, the communist movement has a clear-cut, explicit set of attitudes, beliefs, values, and feelings that it seeks to inculcate.