PROJECT REPORT
ON
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON FLY-ASH BRICKS MIX DESIGN USING METAL CHIPS
Project submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
Of Master Of Technology in CIVIL ENGINEERING (Structural Engineering)
by
HONEY MALHOTRA
Roll no :- 16017514005
Under the guidance of
Mr.Sonu Mor
(Asst. Professor)
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
PM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENTOFCIVILENGINEERING
PM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

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DECLARATION
I hereby declare that this submission is our own work and that, to the best of our knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person or material which to a substantial extant has been accepted for award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning ,except where due acknowledgement has been made .

HONEY MALHOTRA
(16017514005)

DEPARTMENTOFCIVILENGINEERING
PM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled ” EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON FlyASH BRICKS MIX DESIGN USING METAL CHIPS which is submitted by HONEY MALHOTRA ( Roll No :- 16017514005 ) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of “Master of Technology” in Civil Engineering (Structural Engineering) of PM COLLEGE OFENGINEERING affiliated to DCRUST,HARYANA during the academic year2016-2018,is record of the candidates own work carried by them under our supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has been submitted for the award of the degree.

Date:
Supervisor:Head of Department:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the report of the M.Tech project undertaken during year 2016-18. I owe special debt of gratitude to Mr. Sonu Mor (Asst. Professor)for his consent support and guidance through out the course of work.His sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for me. It is only the cognizant efforts that my endeavors have seen light of the day.

I also do not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of all faculty members of the department for their kind assistance and co -operation during the development of myproject .Last but not the least I acknowledge my friends for their contribution in the development of the project
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO. TABLE DESCRIPTION PAGE No.

TABLE 1 Present Utilization of Fly ash. 12
TABLE 2 Composition of cement 24
TABLE 3 Properties of cement 24
TABLE 4 Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate 27
TABLE 5 Mix proportions of bricks for Phase – I 31
TABLE 6 Mix proportions of bricks for Phase – II 31
TABLE 7 W/C Ratio in mix 33
TABLE 8 Dimensions as per IS 12894:2002 for
modular size 41
TABLE 9 Dimensions as per IS 12894:2002 for non-
modular size 41
TABLE 10 Tolerance as per IS 12894:2002 for modular
Size 41
TABLE 11 Tolerance as per IS 12894:2002 for non- modular size 41
TABLE 12 Average wet compressive strength as perIS
12894:2002 43
TABLE 13 AND 14 Dimension test result for phase I and II 46
TABLE 15 AND 16 Compressive strength test result for phase I
and II 47
48
TABLE 17 AND 18 % Water absorption of fly ash bricks for
phase I and II 51
52
TABLE 19 Cost of materials 54
TABLE 20 Comparison of clay bricks and fly ash bricks 54
CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
LIST OF TABLE
ABSTRACT 9
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
1.2 PRESENT UTILISATION OF FLY ASH IN INDIA
2. LITERATUREREVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 FLY ASH – SOURCE, TERMINOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION
2.3 PHYSICAL CHARECTERISTICS OF FLY ASH
2.3.1 GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION
2.3.2 FINENESS
2.3.3 SPECIFIC GRAVITY
2.4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH
2.5 MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION
3. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
3.1 OBJECTIVE
3.2 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS USED
3.2.1 FLY ASH
3.2.2 CEMENT
3.2.3 SAND DUST
3.2.4 METALLIC CHIPS
4. METHOOLOGY
4.1 PREPARATION OF MIX
4.2 MIXING OF MATERIAL
4.3 ADDITION OF WATER
4.4 CASTING DETAILS
4.5 DRYING OF BRICKS
4.6 CURING OF SPECIMENS
5. DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED WORK AND TEST
5.1 PROPOSED WORK
5.2 TESTS
5.2.1 DIMENSION TEST
5.2.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST
5.2.3 WATER ABSORPTION TEST
5.2.4 EFFLORESCENCE TEST
5.2.5 HARDENESS TEST
6. OBSERVATION AND RESULT
6.1 TEST RESULT
6.2 ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
7.1 DISCUSSION
7.2 CONCLUSION
7.3 REFRENCES
.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
GENERAL
The construction industry is booming in the developing countries resulting in the more usage of Cement as one of the main ingredients that are used to build and construct new buildings. Cement as a material emits a lot of heat which results in the increasing global warming. Global Warming is a very important factor which should not be neglected, Hence We as individuals should try to concentrate on using materials that are more environment friendly and easily available.

A huge amount of CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) is emitted in the production of Cement and moreover for the production of Cement, our natural resources mainly non-renewable resources are used in huge amount. So taking into consideration the following factors, it is advisable to minimize the use of Cement and look for other alternatives which have the same properties or material usage as that of Cement.

Flyash is one such material which possess pozzolanic properties and which can be replaced with Cement.

How are Flyash Bricks Prepared:
When coal is burnt, its residue which is commonly known as fly ash is taken for the construction of Flyash Bricks.

The properties and the type of coal used will determine the properties and the form of Flyash produced from the coal residue.

Quicklime or Portland Cement are sometimes used as a Cementing Agent in the production of Flyash Bricks.

Lime is also used in some kind of flyash bricks. Lime has settling properties and when water is added ,it automatically converts into flyash Bricks.

Fly AshCement SandMetal Chips

Fly ash Bricks

Materials used Flow Chart

Types of Fly ash
The above flowchart depicts the process of manufacturing and utilization of Fly ash.

Fly ash can be classified in 2 classes by ASTM:
Class F:
This type of Fly ash is produced by using bituminous coal or anthracite.

This type has less than 5% CaO.

Class F type fly ash has pozzolanic properties only.

Class C:
This type of Fly ash is produced by using sub-bituminous coal or lignite.

This type of Fly ash has 10% or more Cao.

Class C Fly ash has pozzolanic as well as cementious properties.

1.2 PRESENT UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH IN INDIA:
In India ,the major source of Energy produced through thermal power is produced
thorough Coal .

Approximately 65% power in India is produced through the Thermal Power Plants.

TABLE 1: Present Utilization of Fly ash
(source – Fly ash utilization Unit– DST Govt. of India)
Sector Million Tonne % of utilization
In production of Portland
Pozzolana Cement 32 40
Cement Replacement at Concrete batching Plants (RMC) 8 10
Filling in low lying areas 14 18
Roads and Embankments 12 17
Dyke Raising 4 5
Brick Manufacturing 3 2.5
Agriculture Sector 3 2.5
Other miscellaneous uses. 4 5
Total 80 100
Present Utilization of Fly ash
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
The source of Fly ash used is from Dadri thermal power plant to conduct the experiments for the present study.
We will discuss the properties, both physical and chemical and the morphology behavior of the same.

Process:
In the thermal power plants, the pulverized coal is burnt to produce the Fly ash.

The pulverized coal is put into the boilers along with the addition of air and burnt at a temperature above 1600 degree celcius. This leads to alteration of the mineral matter present in the coal, both physically and chemically.

The residue of the resulting mix is called Coal Combustion by-products. The by- products are namely bottom ash, economizer ash, electrostatic precipitator ash (fly ash) and air pre-heater ash.

The ashes produced are handled and disposed separately because of the differing qualities by hydraulic, mechanical and conveying systems.

Various factors which determines the quality of fly ash produced are:
source of coal
degree of pulverization
design of furnace
changes in coal supply
changes in boiler load
firing condition
Because of the above stated factors, it has become .important to study the characterstics of the fly ash before its application.

Fly ash is thus utilized in the construction of pavement, in high performance concrete, high strength concrete and in other applications.

2.2 FLY ASH – TERMINOLOGY , SOURCE AND CLASSIFICATION
A: TERMINOLOGY
Fly ash is known as fly ash in the English speaking countries. In UK, it is called Pulverized Fuel Ash.

B : Source
Raw Material i.e pulverized coal is fed into the thermal power plant at a temperature ranging from 1500 -1700 degree celcius. The precipitators removes the Fly ash.

Production of fly ash

2 C : Classification
Till now FLY ASH was thought to possess ‘POZZOLAN’ PROPERTIES. But it has been observed that external source of lime is not required in case of high calcium fly ash to produce cementious properties, thus we can say that they are not completely pozzolans.

As stated by Manz and a few others in 1982 , the Class C Fly ashes i.e. high calcium fly ashes are different from the Class F flyash that are low calcium fly ashes with respect to their Cementing Properties.

2.3 PHYSICAL CHARECTERISTICS
There are so many criteria’s used by the researchers till date to characterize fly ash namely:
Fineness
Specific gravity
Grain size
These parameters and properties are then related to its reactivity.

The above stated factors are varied by the efficiency and the process used in the power plant for the grinding of coal.

2.3 a Grain Size Distribution
Various researchers namely Kokubu in 1968, Minnick and others in 1971, Mehta in 1985 and a few more have done tremendous research on the reactivity of fly ash and the role of particle size distribution.

All these observations i.e. the reactivity of fly ash due to the size of grain or the fly ash cement concrete strength characteristics are noted mainly on Class F i.e low calcium fly ashes.

Thus, as per the studies, the particles whose size is below45 µm possess th pozzolanic properties.

The particles of sizes ranging from below 10 to 20 µm or below tends to be much more related to the enhancement in compressive strength.

2.3 b: Fineness
The main parameter that is considered in the case of fly ash to be used with cement is FINENESS because it determines the pace of development of strength mainly mechanical.

The increase in the strength becomes less significant after reaching the level of optimal fineness value.

2.3 c : Specific Gravity
The research done by Weinheimer in 1944 and Minnick in 1959 shows that specific gravity differs significantly with the chemical composition, different shapes and the colour of fly ash.

Helmuth in 1987 stated The difference in density is caused mainly by the compositional fluctuations of carbon contents and iron.

As researched by Carette ; Malhotra in 1986 and Jarriage in 1971 :The specific gravity ranges widely from 1.90 to 2.98.

1.90 for the sub- bituminous ash and 2.98 for the iron rich ash.

Sharma in 1990 has researched on almost 25 Indian fly ashes and concluded that there is no direct influence of specific gravity and reactivity bof fly ash if its values range from 2.01 to 2.44.

Conclusion :
Specific Gravity has no direct influence on reactivity of fly ash.

But it defines the quality of fly ash by the predennce of iron contents and carbon.

2.4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH
Ramezanianpour and Malhotra in 1994 stated that water required for workability of concrete and mortar depends upon the carbon content of fly ashes.

The more the carbon content thus more water is needed to produce a normal consistency paste .

In Class F i.e low calcium flyashes, carbon content of 2-10% (high carbon content) is common.

Minnick in 1959 ;1961 stated that the pozzolanic activity is decreased by the high %age of carbon.

But, Davis in1949 ; Clendenning and Durie in 1962 have researched that strength of fly ashes mix is not affected much by the carbon .

2.5 MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION

McCarthy in 1987 ; McCarthy and others in 1988 have emphasized that mineralogy content of fly ash controls the rate of release of the potentially harmful elements (trace), for the disposal.

Luke in 1961 discovered the fly ash have many crystalline and other phases present by using the light microscopic techniques ; XRD and has discovered that glass is the most abundant phase in each fly ash and that hematite ,mullite, , quartz ,magnetite and calcite were the other phases in fly ash .

Watt ; Thorne in 1965 examined 14 different fly ashes by using XRD and microscopic techniques and said that after extraction with water most of them contained only 4 crystalline phases in significant amounts:
Quartz
Mullite
Magnetite
Hematite.

After evaluating the results of many Scientists and researchers ,Helmuth in 1987 said Glass is the most abundant constituent of fly ash.

PROPORTIONING OF RAW MATERIALS
Proportioning of raw materials is a very important point to ensure the quality of fly ash bricks. The proportioning will depend upon the quality of the raw materials used and the class of brick we want to require.

The following mix proportion is being adopted by many:
1. For sludge lime, sand ,gypsum; fly ash bricks.

Fly ash 55 to 60%
Sludge Lime
Stone/Sand dust
Gypsum
15 to 20%
20 to 25%
5%
2. For fly ash, hydrated lime, sand and gypsum bricks.

Fly ash 60 to 65%
Sand/Stone dust
Gypsum
Hydrating Lime
For fly ash, cement and sand bricks
Fly ash 50 to 60%
Sand/Stone dust
Cement
The strength of bricks made with the the above proportion is generally of the order of 7.5 to 10.0 N/sq.mm after 28 days.

Mix proportion as suggested above ca n be used as guidelines. Mix proportion largely depends upon characteristics and quality of raw materials used.

32 to 40%
8 to 10%
CHAPTER 3
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
3.1 OBJECTIVE
The main objective of the project is to prepare a mix of fly ash and cement by changing their composition and adding metal chips powder into it to produce bricks of high strength and durability. The bricks so produced will have higher strength and low cost as compare to conventional Indian bricks.

Utilization of fly ash can help in deceasing the problems of global warming as fly as is ore environment friendly and we can also to use fly ash to produce economical products.

Fly ash can be used in many ways but the most popular and suitable one is to use it as a building material.

3.2 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS USED
Material used in preparation of mix are as follows:
3.2 a: FLY ASH
The fly ash we used in this project was brought from NTPC Dadri plant. Fly is a very useful building material. Use of fly ash has been incorporated in a no. of experiments and projects . 63 thermal power stations in India produce almost 30 million tones of fly ash every year.

Nowadays with the increase in the usage of this material, a disposal method for the same which is eco friendly has become very important to look for.

FLY ASH USED IN MIX
The work done on NTPC Dadri-fly ash has shown low reactivity and very less lime content. The NTPCi thermal Power station at Dadri has facilities of collecting fly ash from hoppers in dry state with the help of electrostatic precipitator. Fly ash used from NTPC Thermal Power Plant at Dadri was a Class F fly ash. It may also be noted that until very recent time, there has not been much efforts in India to classify the dry-collected fly ash or to process the bulk collected dry fly ash through removal of carbon or further size reduction.

From the previous study done on the same source of fly ash the following observations can be made :
• Fly ash fulfill the criteria for lime reactivity specified in IS 3812-1981.

• It was found that fly ash particles retained on 45 µm sieve was very small (1.0-1.5 percent)
and 90 percent of particles have diameter between 17 and 20µm.

3.2 b CEMENT
Pozzolona Portland cement conforming to IS 4031-1968 ; IS 269-1976 was used in this work.

TABLE 2 : CEMENT COMPOSITION
Ca0 6 to 63%
Si O2 17 to 21%
Al2 O3 4 to 8%
Fe2 O3 0.5 to 0.6%
SO3 1.3 to 3.0%
Mg O 0.1 to 4.0%
Na2 O+K2 O 0.4 to 1.3%
CI 0.01 to 0.1%
I R 0.6 to 1.75%
TABLE 3: PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
SR.

NO. TEST RESULT IS REQUIREMENT
1. FINENESS 5% AS PER IS 269-1976
MAX 10 %
2. CONSISTENCY 34% –
3. INITIAL SETTING TIME 40 MIN. AS PER IS 4031-1968
MIN 30 MIN.

4. FINAL SETTING TIME 262 MIN. AS PER IS 4031-1968
MAX 600 MIN.

5. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 18.59 N/mm2 in
3 days ; 25.54 N/mm2in 7 days AS PER 1489-1991
16 N/ mm2 in three days ;
22 N/ mm2 in seven days
IMPORTENT PROPERTIES:
Initial Setting Time: The initial minimum setting time is 30 minutes as per Indian Standard.

Chemical Properties: The durability of cement is affected by the chloride content present.

Fineness of cement: Except for Portland Pozzolana cement, IS code provides for min. specific surface of 225 m2/kg.

Heat of hydration : Heat of Hydration in the hot weather specified for cements is
(i) 7 days ; 270 Kj/ kg ; (ii) 28 days ;320 Kj/ Kg.

Factors Affecting Choice of Cement:
Durability characteristics
Functional requirements
Speed of construction- Time of constructions
Design parameters.

The cement used was 43 grade.

CEMENT USED IN MIX
3.2.3 SAND (Fine Aggregates)
Natural River Sand which is available locally in the Ghaziabad region is used. The specific gravity of the same is 2.57. Fineness Modulus was also determined using 10 mm to 150 µm sieve and wass found 2.972. The fineness modulus gives the idea about average size of particles in the fine aggregates .The value 2.972 indicates medium size sand.
Sand is a very important building material.

Sand which we use for construction therefore should be clean,should not have any impurity or stones. There are 3 types of sand ,so it is important to know which type is suitable for the construction purposes.

According to the particle size ,sand is classified in 3 types:

SAND USED IN MIX
The details of sieve analysis are presented in Table :
Weight Of sample=2000gm
Table 4: Fine Agg. Sieve Analysis
Size of Sieve
(mm) WT.Retaine
(gm) %age Wt.

Retained Cumulative %age WT.

Retained % age
Passing
40 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00
20 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00
10 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00
4.75 36.00 1.80 1.80 98.20
2.36 150.00 7.50 9.30 90.70
1.18 560.00 28.00 37.30 62.70
600 476.00 23.80 61.10 38.90
300 554.00 27.70 88.80 11.20
150 202.00 10.10 98.90 1.10
L.P. 22.00 1.10 100.00 0.00
Fineness modulus =Cumulative % weight retained/100 = 2972/100 = 2.972
Types of sand:
i) Pit Sand (Coarse sand): Pit sand is coarse in nature . It is usually referred to as BADARPUR. Usually it is orange-red in colour..

ii) River Sand: River sand is procured from river streams and bank. Its quality is fine unlike pit sand. This sand has rounded grains and is generally grey-white in colour.

iii) Sea Sand: Sea sand is taken from seas shores and it is usually brown in colour with fine circular grains.

SEA-SAND
3.2.4 METALS CHIPS
The waste material from Mechanical lab was used in mix. Metals chips are waste material produced during mechanical operations on lathe machine. The metal chips obtained was first crushed with help of hammer and then passed through 600 µm. The metal powdered was obtained then added in mix proportion.

METAL CHIPS USED IN MIX
CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY

4.1 PREPARATION OF MIX
In the present study ,work was carried out in two phases.
In 1st phase the proportion of cement and fly ash was varied and in 2nd phase proportion of fly ash ,sand and cement were constant but powder of metallic chips was added in different % by weight. For each mix proportion ,total no. of four bricks were prepared.

TABLE – 5 Mix proportions of bricks for Phase – I
MIX NO. FLY ASH CEMENT SAND DUST
MIX 1 58 % 12% 30%
MIX 2 60 % 10 % 30 %
MIX 3 62 % 8 % 30 %
MIX 4 64 % 6% 30 %
TABLE – 6 Mix proportions of bricks for Phase – II
MIX NO. FLY ASH CEMENT SAND DUST METAL CHIPS
POWDER
MIX 1 62 % 8 % 30 % 0 %
MIX 2 62 % 8 % 30 % 0.5 %
MIX 3 62 % 8 % 30 % 1.0 %
MIX 4 62 % 8 % 30 % 2.0 %
4.2 MIXING OF MATERIALS
Each mix proportion prepared were properly mixed with help of mechanical mixer and then manually with hands so that uniform mix proportion will be obtained.

MECHANICAL MIXING OF MATERIALS

MANUAL MIXING OF MATERIALS
4.3 ADDITION OF WATER
After proper mixing of material, water was added into mix in stages so as to carry out removal of air . The water/cement ratio was taken to be constant throughout the work.

TABLE 7: W/C RATIO IN MIX
MIX W/C RATIO
MIX 1 23.44 %
MIX 2 23.44%
MIX 3 23.44 %
MIX 4 23.44%

ADDITION OF WATER INTO MIX
4.4 CASTING OF BRICKS
For casting of bricks, mould of size 19 cm*9 cm* 9 cm was used. The casting of bricks was carried out by filling mix proportion in mould in three stages , each compacted to thickness of 3 cm.

STAGE 1 OF FILLING MIX IN MOULD

STAGE 2 OF FILLING MIX IN MOULD

STAGE 3 OF FILLING MIX IN MOULD
In each stage of filling, compaction of each layer should be done carefully such that no visible cracks can be seen as it will cause failure of bricks at that plane only.

For each phase, total 4 no. of bricks were casted for each mix proportion.

GUIDELINES FOR MANUFACTURING QUALITY FLY ASH BRICKS
To promote the fly ash utilization in the thermal power plants, NTPC has made pilot ash brick making plants at its thirteen thermal power generating stations viz, Singrauli, Korba, Ramagundam, Badarpur, Dadri, Vindhyachal, Rihand, Talcher-Thermal, Talcher-Kaniha, Kahalgaon, Farakka, Unchahar, Tanda. About one hundred fifty million fly ash bricks have been manufactured in these pilot plants and used for various in-house consumption. All these pilot plants use processes similar to FAL-G technology by using fly ash, Lime/ Cement and gypsum to make fly ash bricks. These bricks are cured withwater, thus avoid the need of curing with steam and fire.

These guidelines are prepared based on the inputs given by various NTPC plants on their experience gained in running the pilot plants. Since all the pilot plants use processes similar to FAL-G Technology, the guidelines are applicable to only such processes. These guidelines can be uniformly followed by all fly ash brick manufacturing units so as to manufacture fly ash bricks of consistent quality which conforms to IS: 12894.

4.4 DRYING OF BRICKS
Drying of bricks was carried out in two stage. In 1st stage , air drying of bricks was carried out for 3 days and in 2nd stage , oven drying of brick was done for 24 hours.

AIR DRYING OF BRICKS

OVEN DRYING OF BRICKS
4.5 CURING OF BRICKS
Curing of bricks was carried out as per IS 12894: 2002.Curing of fly ash bricks was done for at least 15 to 20 days.

CURING OF FLY ASH BRICKS

CHAPTER 5
DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED WORK AND TEST
5.1 PROPOSED WORK
PHASE – I
MIX
PROPORTION WEIGHT OF FLY
ASH(KG) WEIGHT OF
SAND (KG) WEIGHT OF
CEMENT (KG) WATER
(ml)
MIX 1 6.061 3.135 1.463 1237
MIX 2 6.270 3.135 1.045 1237
MIX 3 6.479 3.135 0.836 1237
MIX 4 6.688 3.135 0.627 1237
Total nos. of bricks casted in Phase- I = 16
Total Quantity of fly ash used in Phase-I = 25.498 kg
Total Quantity of sand used in Phase-I = 12.54 kg
Total Quantity of cement used in Phase-I = 3.971 kg
Total Quantity of water used in Phase- I = 4948 ml
PHASE -II
MIX PROPORTION
WEIGHT OF FLY ASH (KG) WEIGHT OF SAND(KG) WEIGHT OF CEMENT (KG) WEIGHT
OF METALLIC CHIPS POWDER(gm) WATER (ML)
MIX 1 6.479 3.135 0.836 52.25 1237
MIX 2 6.479 3.135 0.836 104.5 1237
MIX 3 6.479 3.135 0.836 156.75 1237
MIX 4 6.479 3.135 0.836 209.0 1237
Total nos. of bricks casted in Phase-II = 16
Total Quantity of fly ash used in Phase-II = 25.916 kg
Total Quantity of sand used in Phase-II = 12.54 kg
Total Quantity of cement used in Phase-II = 3.344kg
Total Quantity of metallic chips powder used =522.5 gm
Total Quantity of water used in Phase- II = 4948 ml
5.2 TEST
5.2.1 DIMENSIONS TEST
MEASUREMENT and DIMENSIONS OF BRICK:
Clause 5.2.1 of IS 12894:2002 is considered for conducting the bricks dimensions measurement. Measuring Tape is required to carry out the test .

For this test,we have randomly selected 20 bricks from the stack of bricks.

The bricks should be clean and free from any projection, loose particles of clay, blisters etc.

These bricks are then placed next to each other in a straight line on a levelled surface. The method of arranging the bricks will depend upon which dimension is to be measured; length, width or height.

TABLE 8:DIMENSIONS AS PER IS 12894:2002 FOR MODULAR SIZE
LENGTH WIDTH DEPTH
190 mm 90 mm 90 mm
TABLE 9:DIMENSIONS AS PER IS 12894:2002 FOR NON MODULAR SIZE
LENGTH WIDTH DEPTH
230 mm 110 mm 70 mm
TABLE 10:TOLERANCE AS PER IS 12894:2002 FOR MODULAR SIZE
LENGTH 3720 mm to 3880 mm
WIDTH 1760 mm to 1840 mm
HEIGHT 1760 mm to 1840 mm
TABLE 11:TOLERANCE AS PER IS 12894:2002 FOR NON MODULAR SIZE
LENGTH 4520 mm to 4680 mm
WIDTH 2160 mm to 2240 mm
HEIGHT 1360 mm to 1440 mm
5.2.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST
APPARATUS:
Measuring tape or scale ,Compression testing machine and surface grinder.

PROCEDURE:
Sample Preparation:-
i. Smooth and parallel faces of the bricks should be achieved by removing all the unevenness in the bed surfaces..

iiThe sample should be immersed in water for 24 hours at the room temperature..

iii. The above prepared sample should then be stored in clean water under a jute bag for three days.

iv. moisture should be removed and the traces should be cleaned.

v. Area should be measured of the horizontal faces.

Testing :-
i. The specimen should be carefully placed between two plywood sheets with flat faces horizontal and carefully centre between plates of the testing machine.

ii. Load should be applied at a uniform rate 14 N/mm2 per minute and the load should be applied axially till failure occurs.
iii. Maximum load at failure should be noted.

CALCULATION:
Compressive Strength ( N/mm2 ) = (Maximum load at Failure in N)/(Avg. Area of Bed in mm2)
TABLE 12: AVERAGE WET COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AS PER IS 12894:2002
CLASS DESIGNATION
AVERAGE WET COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH NOT LESS THAN
N/mm2 Kgf/cm2
30 30 300
25 25 250
20 20 200
17.5 17.5 175
15 15 150
12.5 12.5 125
10 10 100
7.5 7.5 75
5 5 50
3.5 3.5 35
5.2.3 WATER ABSORPTION TEST
(Twenty Four hour Immersion Cold Water Test)
APPARATUS:
A ventilated oven along with a sensitive balance which is capable of weighing within 0.1 percent of the mass of the specimen.

PRE-CONDITIONING:
The specimen is dried in a ventilated oven attaining a temperature of 105 to 115 °C till a constant mass is attained. The specimen is cooled to room temperature and the weight (M1) is obtained.
If the Specimen is warm to touch,then it shall not be used for the purpose.

PROCEDURE:
(i) A completely dried specimen should be immersed in clean water at a temperature of 27 ± 2 °C for 24 hours.

(ii)The specimen should be removed and clean any traces of water with a damp cloth and weigh the specimen.

(iii)The weighing should be done within 3 minutes after it is removed from water.

(M2). Water absorption, percent by mass, after 24-hour immersion in cold water is given by the
following formula:
= (M2 -M1)/M1
WATER ABSORPTION AS PER IS 12894 : 2002
The bricks when tested, after immersion in cold water for 24 hour, shall have average water absorption not more than 20 % by mass up to class 12.5 and15 % by mass for higher classes.

5.2.4 EFFLOROSCENCE TEST
The bricks when tested in accordance with the procedure laid down in IS 3495 (Part 3 ), shall have the rating of efflorescence not more than ‘moderate’ up to Class 12.5 and ‘slight’ for higher classes.

5.2.5 HARDNESS TEST
The bricks when tested in accordance with the procedure laid down in IS 3495 (Part 3 ), no mark of scrap should be seen.

CHAPTER 6
OBSERVATION AND RESULT
6.1 TEST RESULTS
DIMENSION TEST

TABLE 13: PHASE – I
MIX PROPORTION AVERAGE
LENGTH(MM) AVERAGE
WIDTH(MM) AVERAGE
HEIGHT(MM)
MIX 1 3750 1780 1777
MIX 2 3756 1788 1773
MIX 3 3759 1784 1775
MIX 4 3753 1787 1773
TABLE 14: PHASE – II
MIX PROPORTION AVERAGE
LENGTH(MM) AVERAGE
WIDTH(MM) AVERAGE
HEIGHT(MM)
MIX 1 3751 1780 1776
MIX 2 3755 1788 1773
MIX 3 3759 1784 1775
MIX 4 3753 1788 1774

ACTUAL BRICKS PREPARED
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST

TABLE 15: PHASE- I
MIX PROPORTION AVERAGE
7 DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (N/mm2) AVERAGE
14 DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (N/mm2) AVERAGE
28 DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (N/mm2)
MIX 1 2.04 2.95 5.23
MIX 2 1.68 2.06 4.78
MIX 3 1.22 1.78 3.87
MIX 4 0.94 1.23 3.12

Average compressive strength of fly ash brick in Phase I =1.47 N/mm2 (at seven days).
Average compressive strength of fly ash brick in Phase I = 4.25 N/mm2 (at 28 days)
TABLE 16: PHASE- II
MIX PROPORTION AVERAGE
7 DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (N/mm2) AVERAGE
14 DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (N/mm2) AVERAGE
28 DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (N/mm2)
MIX 1 1.22 1.78 3.87
MIX 2 0.824 2.83 4.08
MIX 3 0.712 2.90 4.11
MIX 4 0.651 3.08 4.02
VARIATION OF STREGTH

Average compressive strength of fly ash brick in Phase II=0.851 N/mm2 ( at 7 days)
Average compressive strength of fly ash brick in Phase II = 4.02 N/mm2 (at 28 days)

WATER ABSORPTION TEST

TABLE 17: PHASE- I
MIX PROPORTION AVERAGE OVEN DRY
WEIGHT OF BRICK (KG) AVERAGE WET
WEIGHT OF BRICK AFTER
24 hr(KG) % OF WATER
ABSORPTION
MIX 1 2.255 2.440 8.20
MIX 2 2.310 2.480 7.36
MIX 3 2.285 2.460 7.66
MIX 4 2.260 2.400 6.19
Average % of water absorption in Phase I = 7.35% .

TABLE 18: PHASE-II
MIX PROPORTION AVERAGE OVEN DRY WEIGHT OF BRICK (Kg) AVERAGE WET WEIGHT OF BRICK AFTER
24 hr(Kg) % OF WATER ABSORPTION
MIX 1 2.355 2.520 7.00
MIX 2 2.310 2.525 9.30
MIX 3 2.380 2.610 9.66
MIX 4 2.350 2.501 6.42

Average % of water absorption in Phase II = 8.1 % .

EFFLOROSCENCE TEST
No effect of efflorescence was seen when the bricks were tested in accordance with the procedure in IS 3495 (Part 3 )
HARDNESS TEST
Hardness test was conducted on each of the sample bricks but no marks of scraps were seen hence it may be concluded that bricks were sufficiently hard to resist any indention.

HARDNESS TEST
6.2 ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
TABLE : 19 COST OF MATERIALS
S.NO Material used Quantity of Material Cost(in Rs.)
1 Fly Ash 51.414 kg 0
2 Sand 25.08 kg 8
3 Cement 7.315 kg 40
4 Metallic Powder 0.5225 kg 2
Total material cost of project = Rs.50
Total transportation cost of project = Rs. 10
Total Cost of project = Rs.60
Cost of one brick = Rs.1.88
The results shows that fly ash bricks are economical, more safe and having higher strength when compared to conventional bricks.

TABLE 20 : COMPARISION BETWWEN CLAY BRICKS AND FLY ASH BRICKS
PROPERTIES CLAY BRICKS FLY ASH BRICKS REMARKS
Cost of one
Brick Rs. 7 Rs. 1.88 Approximately
4 times less
Colour Very Uniform Good Appearance
Compressive Strength 3.0-3.5 N/mm2 3.5-5.0 N/mm2 Can bear high load
Water Absorption 15-25 % 8-12% Less Dampness
Dimensional Stability Very Low Tolerance High Tolerance Saving in Mortar Up
to 25 % .

CHAPTER 7
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
7.1 DISCUSSION
1. In this experimental investigation it was observed that when we add Metallic Powder in the mix, the average compressive strength of the fly ash brick at the 28th day gradually increases upto a certain limit but after that it gradually decreases.

2. In this experimental investigation it was observed that when we add Metallic Powder in the mix, the average compressive strength of the fly ash brick at the 7th day gradually decreases.

3. At 0.5 %, there is 10.8 % decrease in initial average compressive strength for 7 days.

4. At 0.5% , there is 5.4% increase in average compressive strength for 28 days.

5. Up to 1 % , there is increase in average compressive strength(28 days).

7.2 CONCLUSIONS
The compressive strength of fly ash bricks increases with addition of waste metallic powder up to 1 % by weight of total mix and further any addition of waste metallic powder results in decrease in compressive strength of fly ash brick.

Thus we found out that optimum % for addition of metallic powder with mix is almost equal to 1 % by weight of mix.

We have used a simple step to minimize the costs for construction with usage of waste metallic powder which is freely, cheaply and readily available.

We have also stepped into realm of saving the environmental pollution by usage of fly ash in bricks and cement production; being our main objective as Civil Engineers.

7.3 REFRENCES
1. Akhtar, J.N. et. al. (2011), “Bricks with Total Replacement of Clay by Fly Ash Mixed With Different Materials”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), Vol. 3, No.10 October 2011.

2. Gamal, A. A. (2012), “Utilization of Perlite and Foam in Cement Bricks”, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, ISSN 1819544X.2012, 8(7), pp : 3112-3121
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4. IS-3495 : 1992 (Part 1 to 4), “Method Of Testing Of Burnt Clay Building Bricks”, First Revision, Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002.

5. IS-5454 : 1978,”Method for Sampling of Clay Building Bricks”, First Revision, Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002.

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7. Tabin Rushad S. et. al. (2011), “Experimental Studies on Lime-Soil-Fly Ash Bricks”, International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, Volume 1, No 4, 2011.

8. Priyadarshi, A. K.(1999), ” Use of fly ash as construction material”, M.Tech. Thesis, Department of Civil Engg., IIT Delhi.

9. Feasibility of mixing Fly ash in Manufacture of burnt clay bricks – Report by Aligarh Muslim University
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11. Watt, J.D. et al. (1965), “The composition and pozzolanic properties of pulverised fuel ashes: II. Pozzolanic properties of fly ashes, as deter-mined by crushing strength tests on lime mortars”, J. Appl. Chem. 15 (12), pp. 595–604.

12. Throne, D.J. et al. (1966), “The composition and pozzolanic properties of pulverised fuel ashes: III. Pozzolanic properties of fly ashes as deter-mined by chemistry methods”, J. Appl. Chem. 16 (2), pp. 33– 39.

13. MEHTA, P.K. Role of pozzolanic and cementitious materials in sustainable development of concrete indistry, ACI Special publication SP-178, 1998
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17 Garg M. and Singh M. (1995),” Phosphogypsum – Fly ash cementitious binder – Its hydration and strength development”, Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 25, Issue 4, Pages 752-758
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19 Garg, M. and Singh, M, (1999),” Cementitious binder from fly ash and other industrial wastes”, Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 300-314
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Fly Ash Based Lime Bricks”, International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 5(11), pp 1688-1695.

22 Om Prakash (1990), “Utilization of Pulverized (Fertilizer Plant) Fly Ash as Low-Cost Bricks and Construction Material” M. Tech. Thesis Submitted to MNREC, Allahabad
23 IS: 1077-1992, Common Burnt Clay Building Bricks—Specification, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.