PUBLICATION 4
WHAT ARE THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs)?
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
These 17 Goals build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), while including new areas such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities. The goals are interconnected – often the key to success on one will involve tackling issues more commonly associated with another.

Goal 1: No Poverty
Goal 2: Zero Hunger
Goal 3: Good Health and Well-Being for people
Goal 4: Quality Education
Goal 5: Gender Equality
Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
Goal 10: Reduced Inequalities
Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
Goal 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
Goal 13: Climate Action
Goal 14: Life below Water
Goal 15: Life on Land
Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
Goal 17: Partnerships for the Goals
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs) AS OVERLY OPTIMISTIC AND EXPENSIVE TO IMPLEMENT?
Many have viewed the Sustainable development goals (SDGs) as overly optimistic and expensive to implement, while the implementation of these goals in itself provide several roadmaps to sustainable wealth for nations. It is clear that for development to be sustainable all sectors, government and citizens must be very involve. Again, the leader of the pack must be the Government who can play regulators and Monitoring and evaluation on the compliance of several sector operators to these goals.
Implementing the 17 SDGs and their 169 targets can seem overwhelming, especially for developing countries. Finding sufficient means of implementation (MOI), in particular, is a daunting challenge; although the international community is mobilizing to provide assistance, the bottom line is that most countries will have to use domestic sources, or try to leverage private investment.

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Explaining each of the SDGs in turn and why they matter to the citizens, our aim is to help the citizens understand the challenges that each goal is seeking to address; the ways in which each goal is relevant to all sectors, citizens and government; and how government leaders can take action to mitigate the risks and grasp the opportunities that each goal presents. We bring this to life with practical examples and also explore how to identify and prioritize the SDGs that are important to the government and public sector.
GOAL 4 – QUALITY EDUCATION
WHAT IS IT?

ENSURE INCLUSIVE AND EQUITABLE QUALITY EDUCATION AND PROMOTE LIFELONG LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL
Achieving inclusive and equitable quality education for all will require increasing efforts, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia and for vulnerable populations, including persons with disabilities, indigenous people, refugee children and poor children in rural areas.
Obtaining a quality education is the foundation to improving people’s lives and sustainable development. Major progress has been made towards increasing access to education at all levels and increasing enrolment rates in schools particularly for women and girls. Basic literacy skills have improved tremendously, yet bolder efforts are needed to make even greater strides for achieving universal education goals. For example, the world has achieved equality in primary education between girls and boys, but few countries have achieved that target at all levels of education.
TARGETS
4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes
4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and preprimary education so that they are ready for primary education
4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university
4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations
4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy
4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, nonviolent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries
4,c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing states

GOAL 4 CHALLENGE?
Since 2000, there has been enormous progress in achieving the target of universal primary education. The total enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 percent in 2015, and the worldwide number of children out of school has dropped by almost half.
There has also been a dramatic increase in literacy rates, and many more girls are in school than ever before. These are all remarkable successes.
Progress has also faced tough challenges in developing regions due to high levels of poverty, armed conflicts and other emergencies. In Western Asia and North Africa, ongoing armed conflict has seen an increase in the proportion of children out of school. This is a worrying trend.
While sub-Saharan Africa made the greatest progress in primary school enrolment among all developing regions – from 52 percent in 1990, up to 78 percent in 2012 – large disparities still remain. Children from the poorest households are four times more likely to be out of school than those of the richest households. Disparities between rural and urban areas also remain high.
STAKEHOLDERS’ ENGAGEMENT
Stakeholders in education are person(s) or group of persons, institutions, NGOs or civil society organizations, government, donors, etc that have an interest in the activities, performance, development and quality provision and standard of outcomes of basic education.
THE PUBLIC SECTOR
WHY DOES THIS MATTER FOR THE GOVERNMENT?
Governmental and intergovernmental bodies are responsible for policy making and framework setting, promoting public consultation and input, national (and international) public campaigns and embedding and operationalizing educational systems.

WHAT SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT DO?
1. SUBSIDISING EDUCATION, which can take several forms such as subsidies in school fees for low-income parents or the provision of free meals in schools, essentially targets the demand for education — something that the government may want to look into. Then, if we are concerned about equity in education — a highly desirable goal from a policy perspective — we need to remember that leaving everything to the market will not achieve this goal, as markets may be efficient but equity is not their concern.
2.
PRIVATE SECTOR
The private sector is responsible for entrepreneurial initiatives and training, management models and approaches, implementation and evaluation, and development and sharing of practices of sustainable production and consumption.
WHY DOES THIS MATTER FOR THE PRIVATE SECTOR?
WHAT CAN THE PRIVATE SECTOR DO?
Some other Stakeholders in Education apart from the private and public sector includes;
Civil society and non-governmental organizations are responsible for public awareness raising, advocacy, campaigns and lobbying; consultancy and input into policy formulation; delivering quality education, primarily in non-formal settings; participatory learning and action; and mediation between government and people.
Local people also play an important role as stakeholders, because of their particular and longterm links to specific geo-physical environments and because of threats to their living and future (Blasé, 1996). They are stakeholders both in the active and passive sense, but more especially represent a fund of knowledge in balancing the use and preservation of education. Without idealizing or romanticizing this relationship of human beings to education, the intimate knowledge and transfer of knowledge from generation to generation gives local people a role in informing the wider debate and offering detailed insights into practices of the ‘management’ of human survival and development.
Media and advertising agencies are also key stakeholders in promoting the broad public awareness and ownership without which education will remain the concern of a few enthusiasts and be confined to the walls of educational institutions. The media can stimulate an upsurge of public opinion that will result in an understanding of and commitment to the principles of education and 56 therefore an engagement with educational and informational initiatives
The teacher as a stakeholder is expected to possess the professional knowledge to lead the students in instruction. Additionally, the teacher serves as a mentor, supervisor, counsellor, and community leader. The teacher can be a mentor to students or other teachers. The role of supervisor is present in every aspect of a teacher’s daily responsibilities. The teacher’s role as counselor can be used to offer advice to students or school advisory committees.
Parents as stakeholders also play a critical role in education service delivery. Their primary objective is to ensure that their children receive quality education, which will enable them lead productive rewarding lives in future. Parents provide for their children’s school needs, and influence their behaviors with regard to time management and study habits, eating practices, and their personal safety and general welfare. Parents as educational stakeholders provide additional resources for the school to assist with students’ achievement and to enhance a sense of community pride and commitment, which may be influential in the overall success of the school. Also, parents’ involvement in their children’s educational process through attending school functions, participating in the decision making process, encouraging students to manage their social and academic time wisely, and modelling desirable behavior for their children represent a valuable resource for schools.