RECYCLING OF WATER BY USING BIOFILTER , CHLORINATION & REVERESE OSMOSIS PROCESS
A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by
SR NO NAME ENROLLMENT NO
1 SANANI NAINESH J. 150340119099
2 SONI AKSHIT D. 150340119101
3 PATEL KUNJ P. 150340119060
4 ZALARIYA HARSHIL M. 150340119108
In partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering in mechanical engineering
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
1771650201930MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
139700441960
415290046355
NARNARAYAN SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLGY,AHMEDABAD
GUJRAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
AHMEDABAD
October , 2018
NARNARAYAN SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
YEAR, 2018-19
CERTIFICATE
Date :-
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “RECYCLING OF WATER USING BIOFILTER,CHLORINATION & REVERESE OSMOSIS PROCESS” has been carried out by “SONANI NAINESH J.” under my guidance in fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-2019.

Guide:- Prof Jaydeep Modi
Head of the Department,
Mitesh patel
NARNARAYAN SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
YEAR, 2018-19
CERTIFICATE
Date :-
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “RECYCLING OF WATER USING BIOFILTER,CHLORINATION & REVERESE OSMOSIS PROCESS” has been carried out by “SONI AKSHIT D.” under my guidance in fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-2019.

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Guide:- Prof Jaydeep Modi
Head of the Department,
Mitesh patel
NARNARAYAN SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
YEAR, 2018-19
CERTIFICATE
Date :-
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “RECYCLING OF WATER USING BIOFILTER,CHLORINATION & REVERESE OSMOSIS PROCESS” has been carried out by “PATEL KUNJ ” under my guidance in fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-2019.

Guide:- Prof Jaydeep Modi
Head of the Department,
Mitesh patel
NARNARAYAN SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
YEAR, 2018-19
0CERTIFICATE
Date :-
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “RECYCLING OF WATER USING BIO FILTER , CHLORINATION & REVERESE OSMOSIS PROCESS” has been carried out by ” ZALARIYA HARSHIL M.” under my guidance in fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-2019.

Guide:- Prof Jaydeep Modi
Head of the Department,
Mitesh patel
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would first of all like to thank Mr Jaydeep Modi , Guide Assistant Professor B.E Department of Mechanical Engineering, Narnarayan Shastri Institute of Technology (NSIT) Jetalpur, Ahmedabad who’s been interest and excellent knowledge base helped me to carry out the dissertation work. His constant support and interest in the subject equipped me with a great understanding of different aspects of the project work We further extend our thanks to Mr Alok Tandel, Head, GTU Project coordinator of Mechanical Engineering, Narnarayan Shastri Institute of Technology (NSIT) Jetalpur, Ahmedabad.We are highly indebted to almighty our family members and our friends by whose endless blessing, love and support, help us to complete our study and encouraged us in all possible ways.

SR NO NAME ENROLLMENT NO
1 SONANI NAINESH J. 150340119099
2 SONI AKSHIT D. 150340119101
3 PATEL KUNJ P. 150340119060
4 ZALARIYA HARSHIL M. 150340119108
ABSTRACT

A bio filter is used for treatment for contaminated water which is flowing from the wash basin through filter. The filter contains some natural element like gravel , sand , clay ,activated carbon , resin. Gravels at the top most level to filter out larger sediments. Then the water passed thourgh sand that filters out fine impurities, organism and particles collected in the top most layer of sand , gradually forming a biological zone to filter out bacteria , viruses ; impurities. The activated carbon is used for removing chlorine, odor , color , and other pollutant. The resin is used for removing some kind of lead impurities. A polymer membrane for water treatment contained a chlorinated vinyl chloride resin with a chlorine content of 58 to 73.2%. According to the present invention, it is possible to provide polymer membranes for water treatment that, along with being able to achieve sufficient filtration capacity and water permeability have extremely high strength.

The purified water from the membrane is then fed to the upper reservoir, where we have made a chlorination mechanism. This purified water is made amalgamated with chlorine. The diluted water from membrane is directly fed to the another reservoir. This water can be used for flushing and many other purposes.

LIST OF FIGURES
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SR NO NAME OF THE FIGURE PAGE NO
1 ARTICLE ON TIMES OF INDIA DATED ON 11th JULY 2018 10
2 WATER POLICY TIMELINE IN INDIA 12
3 DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF IN INDIA (FORECAST)20,21 12
4 REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS 14
5 BIO FILTER 16
6 BIO FILTER 18
7 CALCULATION FOR RAISING CONCENTRATION BY 1 PPM OF CHLORINE 21
8 MEMBRANE RANGE OF NOMINAL MEMBRANE POUR SIZE 22
9 IMAGE OF HOLLOW FIBER CROSS SECTION 23
10 PLATE AND FRAME MODULEMEMBRANE 24
11 TABULAR MODULE MEMBRANE 24
12 SPIRAL WOUND MODULE MEMBRANE 25
13 HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE 25
14 REVERESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 26
15 AQUA PERMEATE PUMP 27
16 CONCEPT OF DRAWING OF WORKPLAN 27
17 WORK PLAN FIGURE OF PROJECT 28
18 AEIOU SUMMERY CANVAS 30
19 IDEATION CANVAS 32
20 EAMPATHY CANVAS 34
21 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS 36
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER NO NAME OF THE CHAPTER PAGE NO
TITLE PAGE 1
CERTIFICATE 2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 6
ABSTRACT 7
LIST OF FIGURES 8
LIST OF CONTENTS 9
1 INTRODUCTION 10
1.1 WORKING MOTIVATION 10
1.2 PROBLEM SUMMERY 11
1.3 OBJECTIVES 13
1.4 LITRATURE REVIEW AND PRIOR ART AND SEARCH ABOUT THE PROJECT 14
1.4.1 REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS 14
1.4.2 POLYMER MEMBRANE 15
1.4.3 BIO FILTER 16
2 WORK PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION STRETEGY 18
2.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE AND COMPONENTS 18
2.1.1 BIO FILTER 18
2.1.2 CHLORINATION PROCESS 20
2.1.3 MEMBRANE 22
2.1.4 REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS 26
2.1.5 PUMP 26
2.2 CONCEPT OF WORKING OF PROJECT 27
2.3 WORKING 28
2.4 CANVASES 30
2.4.1 AEIOU SUMMERY CANVAS 30
2.4.2 IDEATION CANVAS 32
2.4.3 EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS 34
2.4.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS 36
3 REFERENCES 38
CHAPTER:-1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 WORKING MOTIVATION:-

FIGURE:-1 ARTICLE ON TIMES OF INDIA DATED ON 11th JULY 2018
The current time biofilter ,that is used in the most of the railway coaches that contains a chamber at the bottom of the coach where a flushed fiscal matters enters onto tracks in a liquid form this may result in high wastage of water that can be recycled in all the coaches of Indian railway.
Chennai’s Mechanical engineer in “CHENNAI- MANGULURU EXPRESS (12685) ” is trying to modified bio filter , if implemented on all the 55000 coaches of Indian railway means at all 16 headquarters of Indian railway.

It can be save upto 1 crore kilolitre of water every year.
modified version of the this , the waste water entering the chlorination tank is diverted to another chamber is pumped using a submersible pump back to the toilet for flushing.

Two issues for this modification
The odour
The color of the recycled water
The color can be changed with “CuSO4.2H2O” called “morthuthu” in Guajarati and odour can be changed by freshener , so this water becomes greenish blue.
This second solution , provided by us but railway engineers are testing different agents at different concentration to get the right mix.
The railway has not received any negative feedback from the passenger on the mangaluru express.
According to railway estimates , for such bio toilets would save up to 600 litres of water per day per coach.
The railway ministers ‘PIYUSH GOHEL’ in the visit to Chennai gave a green signal to these couches.
1.2 PROBLEM SUMMERY:-
India is suffering from the worst water crisis in its history and millions of lives and livelihoods are under threat. Currently, 600 million people of india face high to extreme water stress and about two lakh people die every year due to inadequate access to safe water. The crisis is only going to get worse. By 2030, the country’s water demand is projected to be twice the available supply, implying severe water scarcity for hundreds of millions of people and an eventual ~6% loss in the country’s GDP. As per the report of National Commission for Integrated Water Resource Development of MoWR, the water requirement by 2050 in high use scenario is likely to be a milder 1,180 BCM, whereas the present-day availability is 695 BCM. The total availability of water possible in country is still lower than this projected demand, at 1,137 BCM. Thus, there is an imminent need to deepen our understanding of our water resources and usage and put in place interventions that make our water use efficient and sustainable.

FIGURE:-2 WATER POLICY TIMELINE IN INDIA

FIGURE:-3 DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF IN INDIA (FORECAST)20,21
Indeed, if nothing changes, and fast, things will get much worse: best estimates indicate that India’s water demand will exceed supply by a factor of two by 2030, with severe water scarcity on the horizon for hundreds of millions.

We have two ways to recollect water from water cycle:-
Using rain water through water harvesting
Recycling of water in multiple way
So , we have made a system to accommodate the entire problem and will give an such an inclusive solution to water management future
1.3 OBJECTIVES:-
Recycling of water
Reusing of water
Filtered water will be used in all the households
Roof top water harvesting system
May be used to provide combating protection to the government’s “HYGIENE AND SANITATION PROBLEMS ”
Coordination , cooperation with Ministry of water resource , Ministry of drinking water and sanitation as well as Ministry of rural development to be used in new initiative that will be launched on 2nd October 2018 what is called “SWACHHA HI SEWA”.

1.4LITRATURETREVIEWTANDTPRIORTARTTANDTSEARCHTABOUT
TTHETPROJECT:-
REVERSETOSMOSISTPROCESS:-
OsmosisTisTaTnaturalTprocessTinTwhichTaTliquidTfromTaTlessTconcentratedTsolution to high coventrated solution T
PressureTisTappliedTonTtheTmoreThighlyTconcentratedTsolutionTsoTthatTliquidTflowsTfromTtheThigherTconcentratedTsolutionTtoTtheTlowerTconcentratedTsolution.

theThighlyTconcentratedTsolutionTisTdirty,TundrinkableTwater.TForTthisTsystem,TpressureTisTappliedTsoTthatTwaterTmoleculesTareTforcedTthroughTaT0.0001TmicronTsemi-permeableTmembrane.

ReverseTosmosisTsystemsTcanT often increase the theTqualityTofTwater.TTheTreverseTosmosisTwaterTtreatmentTmethodThasTbeenTusedTextensivelyTtoTconvertTbrackishorTseawaterTtoTdrinkingTwater,TtoTcleanTupTwasteTwater,TandTtoTrecoverTdissolvedTsaltsTfromTindustrialTprocesses.

ItTisTbecomingTmoreTpopularTinTtheThomeTmarketTasThomeownersTareTincreasinglyTconviencedTaboutTcontaminantsTthatTaffectTtheirThealth,TasTwellTasTaboutTnon-hazardousTchemicalsTthatTaffectTtheTtaste,odor,TorTcolorTofTtheirTdrinkingTwater.

FIGURE:-4TREVERSETOSMOSISTPROCESS
TPOLYMERTMEMBRANE:-
AmembraneTpolymerTTforTwaterTtreatmentTcontainedTaTchlorinatedTvinylTchlorideTresinTwithTaTchlorineTcontentTofT58TtoT73.2%.TAccordingTtoTtheTpresentTinvention,TitTisTpossibleTtoTprovideTpolymerTmembranesTforTwaterTtreatmentTthat,TalongTwithTbeingTableTtoTachieveTsufficientTfiltrationTcapacityTandTwaterTpermeability,ThaveTextremelyThighTstrength.

TPolymerTmembranesTforTwaterTtreatmentTincreaseTvtheTpureTwaterTpermeabilityTwhenTT(i.e.,TaTfiltrationTcapacity)TreducedTtoTtheTso-calledTultraTfiltrationTlevel.TConversely,TwhenTtheTpureTwaterTpermeabilityTisTincreased,TtheTfiltrationTcapacityTisTrelativelyTlowerTcomparedTtoTanTultraTfiltrationTmembraneTandTreachesTtheTlevelTofTaTmicrofiltrationTmembrane.TInTthisTway,TthereTisTaTtrade-offTrelationshipTbetweenTtheTfiltrationTcapacityTandTtheTpureTwaterTpermeability,TsoTthatTthereTisTtheTproblemTwithTlargeTscaleTfacilityTthatTareTrequiredTtoTmaintainTbothTaThighTfiltrationTcapacityTandTsufficientTwaterTpermeability.

WaterTpermeabilityTisTinverselyTproportionalTtoTwaterTfiltrationTcapacity
TheTpolymerTmembranesTforTwaterTtreatmentTforTwaterTtreatmentTofTtheTpresentTinventionTareTextremelyTusefulTseparationTmembranesTforTremovingTturbidityTfromTriverTwaterTandTgroundwater,TclarificationTofTindustrialTwater,TandTforTtheTtreatmentTofTwastewaterTandTsewage,TandTcanTbeTsuitableTforTuseTinTwaterTtreatmentTunitsTandTasTcommercialTwaterTtreatmentTmembranes.

TheTpolymerTmembranesTforTwaterTtreatmentTforTwaterTtreatmentTofTtheTpresentTinventionTareTextremelyTusefulTseparationTmembranesTforTremovingTturbidityTfromTriverTwaterTandTgroundwater,TclarificationTofTindustrialTwater,TandTforTtheTtreatmentTofTwastewaterTandTsewage,TandTcanTbeTsuitableTforTuseTinTwaterTtreatmentTunitsTandTasTcommercialTwaterTtreatmentTmembranes
ATchlorineTcontentTofT58TtoT73.2%TinTtheTchlorinatedTvinylTchlorideTresinTisTsatisfactory,T60TtoT73.2%TisTpreferred,TandT67TtoT71%TisTfurtherTpreferred.TIfTtheTchlorineTcontentTisTtooTlow,TsufficientTheatTstabilityTandTdurabilityTcannotTbeTobtained,TwhileTifTitTgetsTtooThigh,TnotTonlyTdoTproblemsTwithTmoldabilityTandTprocessabilityTtendTtoTarise,TbutTthereTareTproblemsTinTmanufacturingTtheTresinTdueTtoTstericTrepulsionsTbetweenTneighboringTchlorines.TConsequently,TbyTincreasingTtheTchlorineTcontentTinTthisTway,TtheTpolarityTofTtheTresinTincreases.

TheTpolymerTmembranesTforTwaterTtreatmentTforTwaterTtreatmentTofTtheTpresentTinventionTareTextremelyTusefulTseparationTmembranesTforTremovingTturbidityTfromTriverTwaterTandTgroundwater,TclarificationTofTindustrialTwater,TandTforTtheTtreatmentTofTwastewaterTandTsewage,TandTcanTbeTsuitableTforTuseTinTwaterTtreatmentTunitsTandTasTcommercialTwaterTtreatmentTmembranes.

BIOFILTER:-

FIGURE:-5TBIOTFILTER
Bio-filter,TasTaThomemadeTfilter,TisTcomposedTofTthreeTseparateTlayersTofTgravel,Tsand,TandTactivatedTcharcoal.TItTisTaTstreamlinedTmethodTofTfilteringTimpuritiesTinTtheTwaterTstartingTfromTtheTbiggestTupTtoTtheTmostTminuteimpuritiesTinTtheTwater.

TheTfirstTmustTbeTgravelTGravelTisTbasicallyTpebblesTasTlikeTrockTthatTactsTasTaTfilterTforTcommonTdebrisTfoundTinTwaterTsuchTasTsmallTsticks,TfallenTleaves,TandTevenTtinyTcreaturesTthatTareTeitherTanTanimalTorTanTinsect.

TheTsecondTlayerTfilledTwithTsand.TSandTcanTfurtherTfilterToutTsmallerTparticlesTinTtheTwaterTthatTtheTgravelTwasTnotTableTtoTcatch.

Lastly,TthirdTlayerTcontainsTtheTactivatedTcharcoalTwhichTwillTremoveTminuteTimpurities.THarmfulTpathogensTandTchemicalsTlingeringTinTtheTwaterTcanTbeTremovedTwithTcarbon.TAsTtheTlastTofTthreeTlayers,TpassingTthroughTthisTpointTwillTrenderTtheTwaterTcleanTandTfreeTfromTimpuritiesTthatTtheTprocessTintendedTtoT
remove.

T
T
BioTfilterThasTmainlyTfourTcomponentsT:-
Gravel:-
ToTfilterToutTtheTlargerTsediments.

SandTandTfineTsand:-
TSandTisTtheTfilterToutTtheTfineTimpuritiesTorTorganismTparticlesTcollectsTinTtheTtopTlayersTofTaTbiologicalTzoneTtoTfilterToutTbacteriaT,virusesTandTparasites.T
ActivatedTcarbon:-
ToTremoveTcontaminatedTandTimpurities,TutilizingTchemicalTadsorption.T
TheTdirtyTwaterTisTpushedTthroughTtheTsandTandTsandTcapturesTinsolubleTmineralsTandTcanTbeTusedTbyTrisingTit.T
HoweverT,TsandTisTprimarilyTusedTtoTgetTridTofTmineralsTlikeTmanganeseTandTironTwhichTaffectTtheTtasteTandTalsoTcreateTtheTmineralTstrains.

ActivatedTcarbonT,TalsoTknownTasTcharcoalTisTaTveryTporousTcarbon,
ItTcanTbeTmadeTfromTaTvarietyTofTnaturalTsubstancesTincludingTpeatTcoalTitThelpsTpurifyTwaterTinTaTwaterTinTaTwaterTfilterTbyTtrappingTcontaminants.T
StrainingTfabric:-
ToTholdTbackTcarbonTandTletTtheTpurifiedTwaterTpassTthroughTit
CHAPTER:-2TWORKTPLANTANDTIMPLEMENTATIONTSTRETEGY
2.1TWORKINGTPRINCIPLETANDTCOMPONENTS:-T
BIOTFILTER:-

FIGURE:-6TBIOTFILTER
BioTfilterThasTmainlyTfourTcomponentsT:-
Gravel:-
ToTfilterToutTtheTlargerTsedimentsT
SandTandTfineTsand:-
SandTisTtheTfilterToutTtheTfineTimpuritiesTorTorganismTparticlesTcollectsTinTtheTtopTlayersTofTaTbiologicalTzoneTtoTfilterToutTbacteriaT,virusesTandTparasitesT
ActivatedTcarbon:-
TIt’sTabilitiesTtoTremoveTtoxins,TodorTandTbadTtasteTfromTwater.

ActivatedTcarbonTfiltersTareTsmallTpiecesTofTcarbon,TinTgranularTorTblockTform,TthatThaveTbeenTtreatedTtoTbeTextremelyTporous.TJustToneTgramTofTactivatedTcarbonTcanTeasilyThaveTaTsurfaceTareaTofT5k-30kTsquareTfeet.TIt’sTtheTsurfaceTareaTthatTallowsTactiveTcarbonTfiltersTtoTbeTveryTeffectiveTinTadsorbingT(essentiallyTremoving)TcontaminantsTandTotherTsubstances.

InTadditionTtoTtheTsurfaceTareaTactiveTcarbonTfiltersThaveTdifferentTcapabilitiesTinTtermsTofTtheTsizeTofTcontaminantsTtheyTremove.TTheseTrangeTfromTaroundT50TmicronsTtoT0.5Tmicrons.TTheTsmallerTtheTmoreTeffective.

WhenTtheTwaterTflowsTthroughTactiveTcarbonTfiltersTtheTchemicalsTstickTtoTtheTcarbonTresultingTinTpurerTwaterToutput.TTheTeffectivenessTdependsTonTtheTflowTandTtemperatureTofTtheTwater.TThereforeTmostTsmallerTactiveTcarbonTfiltersTshouldTbeTusedTwithTlowTpressureTandTcoldTwater.

ActivatedTcarbonTisTveryTeffectiveTinTremovingTatTleastT81TchemicalsT,TeffectiveTinTanotherT30TandTmoderatelyTeffectiveTforT22TinTrealityTit’sTaTlotTmoreTbutTtheseTareTchemicalsTthatThaveTbeenTthoroughlyTtestedThowever,TitTdoesTnotTremoveTeverythingTfromTtheTwaterT
AccordingTtoTEPAT(theTEnvironmentalTProtectionTAgencyTInTtheTUnitedTStatesT)TactivatedTcarbonTisTtheTonlyTfilterTrecommendedTtoTremoveTallT32TidentifiedTorganicTcontaminantsTincludingTTHMsTtheTsameTisTtrueTforTallT14TlistedTpesticidesTandT12TherbicidesT
UnderstandingTwaterTcontaminantsTcanTbeTdifficultTthereforeTit’sTeasierTtoTfocusTonTspecificTproblemsTthatTmayTencounteredTinTrecycledTwaterT
SafeTchlorineTisTaddedTwhichTmayTmakeTitTtasteTandTsmellTbad.TActivatedTCarbonTfiltersTareTexcellentTatTremovingTchlorine,TtasteTandTodor.

ActivatedTcarbonTdoesTnotTremoveTorTreducedT
DissolvedTsolidsTincludingTminerals,TsaltsTorTmetalsTsuchTasTironTthatTareTnotTconsideredTcontaminants
3ToutTofT4TmicrobiologicalTcontaminantsTinclTcysts,TcoliTformTandTbacteria
InorganicTcontaminantsTsuchTasTlead,TarsenicTandTasbestos
RadioTnuclidesTalthoughTtheseTareTreduced
StrainingTfabric:-
TToTholdTbackTcarbonTandTletTtheTpurifiedTwaterTpassTthroughTitT
CHLORINATIONTPROCESS:-
WaterTchlorinationTisTtheTprocessTofTaddingTchlorineT(Cl2)TorThypochloriteTtoTwater.TThisTmethodTisTusedTtoTkillTcertainTbacteriaTandTotherTmicrobesTinTtapTwaterTasTchlorineTisThighlyTtoxic.TInTparticular,TchlorinationTisTusedTtoTpreventTtheTspreadTofTwaterborneTdiseasessuchTasTcholera,Tdysentery,TandTtyphoid.

AsTaThalogen,TchlorineTisTaThighlyTefficientTdisinfectant,TandTisTaddedTtoTpublicTwaterTsuppliesTtoTkillTdisease-causingTpathogens,TsuchTasTbacteria,Tviruses,TandTprotozoans,TthatTcommonlyTgrowTinTwaterTsupplyTreservoirs,TonTtheTwallsTofTwaterTmainsTandTinTstorageTtanks.TTheTmicroscopicTagentsTofTmanyTdiseasesTsuchTasTcholera,TtyphoidTfever,TandTdysenterykilledTcountlessTpeopleTannuallyTbeforeTdisinfectionTmethodsTwereTemployedTroutinely.

ChlorineTisTmanufacturedTfromTsaltTbyTelectrolysisTorTotherTmethods.TItTisTaTgasTatTatmosphericTpressuresTbutTliquefiesTunderTpressure.TTheTliquefiedTgasTisTtransportedTandTusedTasTsuch.

AsTaTstrongToxidizingTagent,TchlorineTkillsTviaTtheToxidationTofTorganicTmolecules.ChlorineTandThydrolysisTproductThypochlorousTacidTareTneutrallyTchargedTandTthereforeTeasilyTpenetrateTtheTnegativelyTchargedTsurfaceTofTpathogens.TItTisTableTtoTdisintegrateTtheTlipidsTthatTcomposeTtheTcellTwallTandTreactTwithTintracellularTenzymesTandTproteins,TmakingTthemTnonfunctional.TMicroorganismsTthenTeitherTdieTorTareTnoTlongerTableTtoTmultiply.

PRINCIPLS:-
WhenTdissolvedTinTwater,TchlorineTconvertsTtoTanTequilibriumTmixtureTofTchlorine,ThypochlorousTacidT(HOCl),TandThydrochloricTacidT(HCl):
Cl2T+TH2OT?THOClT+THCl
InTacidicTsolution,TtheTmajorTspeciesTareTCl2andTHOCl,TwhereasTinTalkalineTsolution,TeffectivelyTonlyTClO?T(hypochloriteTion)TisTpresent.TVeryTsmallTconcentrationsTofTClO2?,TClO3?,TClO4?TareTalsoTfound.

DRAWBACKS:-
DisinfectionTbyTchlorinationTcanTbeTproblematic,TinTsomeTcircumstances.TChlorineTcanTreactTwithTnaturallyToccurringTorganicTcompoundsTfoundTinTtheTwaterTsupplyTtoTproduceTcompoundsTknownTasTdisinfectionTby-productsT(DBPs).

TheTmostTcommonTDBPsTareTtrihalomethanesT(THMs)TandThaloaceticTacidsT(HAAs).TTrihalomethanesTareTtheTmainTdisinfectantTby-productsTcreatedTfromTchlorinationTwithTtwoTdifferentTtypes,TbromoformTandTdibromochloromethane,TwhichTareTmainlyTresponsibleTforThealthThazards
TTheirTeffectsTdependTstrictlyTonTtheTdurationTofTtheirTexposureTtoTtheTchemicalsTandTtheTamountTingestedTintoTtheTbody.TInThighTdoses,TbromoformTmainlyTslowsTdownTregularTbrainTactivity,TwhichTisTmanifestedTbyTsymptomsTsuchTasTsleepinessTorTsedation.TChronicTexposureTofTbothTbromoformTandTdibromochloromethaneTcanTcauseTliverTandTkidneyTcancer,TasTwellTasTheartTdisease,Tunconsciousness,TorTdeathTinThighTdoses.DueTtoTtheTpotentialTcarcinogenicityTofTtheseTcompounds,TdrinkingTwaterTregulationsTacrossTtheTdevelopedTworldTrequireTregularTmonitoringTofTtheTconcentrationTofTtheseTcompoundsTinTtheTdistributionTsystemsTofTmunicipalTwaterTsystems.ThereTareTalsoTotherTconcernsTregardingTchlorine,TincludingTitsTvolatileTnatureTwhichTcausesTitTtoTdisappearTtooTquicklyTfromTtheTwaterTsystem,TandTorganolepticTconcernsTsuchTasTtasteTandTodor
AmountTofTchlorineTupTtoT1TtoT3TppmTinTswimmingTpoolTisTknownTasTidealTconditionTforTcalculationsTforTraisingTppmTconcentratationTbyT1TppmTisTgivenTbelow

FIGURE:-7TCALCULATIONTFORTRAISINGTCONCENTRATIONTBYT1TPPMTOFTCHLORINE
MEMBRANE:-
TYPESTOFTMEMBRANE.

MicrofiltrationT(MF);-TMFTmembranesThaveTtheTbiggestTporeTsizeTandTtypicallyTrejectTlargeTparticlesTandTvariousTmicroorganisms.

UltraTfiltrationT(UF):-TUFTmembranesThaveTsmallestTporesTthanTMFTmembranesTand,Ttherefore,TinTadditionTtoTlargeTparticlesTandTmicroorganisms,TtheyTcanTrejectTbacteriaTandTsolubleTmacromoleculesTsuchTasTproteins.

ReverseTosmosisT(RO):TROTmembranesTareTeffectivelyTnon-porousTand,Ttherefore,TexcludeTparticlesTandTevenTmanyTlessTmolarTmassTspeciesTsuchTasTsaltTions,Torganics,Tetc.

NanofiltrationT(NF):- MembranesTNFTTareTrelativelyTnewTandTareTsometimesTcalledT”loose”TROTmembranes.TTheyTareTporousTmembranes,TbutTsinceTtheTporesTareTonTtheTorderTofTtenTangstromsTorTless,TtheyTexhibitTperformanceTbetweenTthatTofTROTandTUFTmembranes

FIGURE:8TMEMBRANETRANGETOFTNOMINALTMEMBRANETPOURTSIZE
MEMBRANETCHARACTRISTICS:-
generalTclassificationTofTmembranes
IsotropicTmembranes:- MembranesTIsotropicTTareTuniformTinTcompositionTandTphysicalTnatureTacrossTtheTcross-sectionTofTtheTmembrane.TisotropicTmembranesTmayTbeTmicroporous.TMicroporousTmembranesTareToftenTpreparedTfromTrigidTpolymericTmaterialsTwithTlargeTvoidsTthatTcreateTinterconnectedTpores3.TTheTmostTcommonTmicroporousTmembranesTareTphaseTinversionTmembranes.TIsotropicTmembranesTcanTalsoTbeTdenseTfilmsTwhichTeitherTlackTporesTorTcontainTporesTthatTareTsoTsmallTasTtoTrenderTtheTmembraneTeffectivelyTnon-porous
AnisotropicTmembranes:- membranesTAnisotropicTTareTnon-uniformToverTtheTmembraneTcross-section,TandTtheyTtypicallyTconsistTofTlayersTwhichTvaryTinTstructureTand/orTchemicalTcomposition.TAnisotropicTphaseTseparationTmembranesTareToftenTcalledTLoebSourirajanTmembranes,TreferringTtoTtheTpeopleTwhoTareTcreditedTwithTinitiallyTdevelopingTthemTTheseTphase-separatedTmembranesTareThomogeneousTincomposition is TchemicalTTbutTnotTinTstructure.TheTdescriptionsTaboveTofTisotropicTandTanisotropicTmembranesTreferTtoTflatTsheetTconfigurations.THowever,TmembranesTcanTalsoTbeTproducedTasThollowTfibers.TLikeTflatTsheets,TtheseTfibersTcanTeitherTbeTisotropicTorTanisotropic.TTheyTalsoTcanTbeTdenseTorTporous.TCommonTfibersTusedTinTindustryTtodayTareTanisotropicTwithTaTdenseTouterTlayerTaroundTaTporousTtubeTTOneTadvantageTofThollowTfiberTmembranesTisTthatTtheyThaveTmoreTsurfaceTareaTperTunitTvolumeTthanTflatTsheetTmembranes
TheTdescriptionsTaboveTofTisotropicTandTanisotropicTmembranesTreferTtoTflatTsheetTconfigurations.THowever,TmembranesTcanTalsoTbeTproducedTasThollowTfibers3.TLikeTflatTsheets,TtheseTfibersTcanTeitherTbeTisotropicTorTanisotropic.TTheyTalsoTcanTbeTdenseTorTporous.TCommonTfibersTusedTinTindustryTtodayTareTanisotropicTwithTaTdenseTouterTlayerTaroundTaTporousTtubeT(FigureT4).TOneTadvantageTofThollowTfiberTmembranesTisTthatTtheyThaveTmoreTsurfaceTareaTperTunitTvolumeTthanTflatTsheetTmembranes

FIGURE:-T9TIMAGETOFTHOLLOWTFIBERTCROSSTSECTIONT
MembraneTModules.:-
ThereTareTfourTmainTtypesTofTmodules:-
Plate-and-frame:-TTheTplate-and-frameTmoduleTisTtheTsimplestTconfiguration,TconsistingTofTtwoTendTplates,TtheTflatTsheetTmembrane,TandTspacers.

T
FIGURE:-10TPLATETANDTFRAMETMODULEMEMBRANE
Tubular:TtheTmembraneTisToftenTonTtheTinsideTofTaTtube,TandTtheTfeedTsolutionTisTpumpedTthroughTtheTtube.T

FIGURE:-T11TTABULARTMODULETMEMBRANE
SpiralTwound:-TTheTmostTpopularTmoduleTinTindustryTforTnanofiltrationTorTreverseTosmosisTmembranesTisTtheTspiralTwoundTmodule.TThisTmoduleThasTaTflatTsheetTmembraneTwrappedTaroundTaTperforatedTpermeateTcollectionTtube3.TTheTfeedTflowsTonToneTsideTofTtheTmembrane.TPermeateTisTcollectedTonTtheTotherTsideTofTtheTmembraneTandTspiralsTinTtowardsTtheTcenterTcollectionTtube.T

FIGURE:-12TSPIRALTWOUNDTMODULETMEMBRANET
HollowTfiber:-THollowTfiberTmodulesTusedTforTseawaterTdesalinationTconsistTofTbundlesTofThollowTfibersTinTaTpressureTvessel

FIGURE:-13THOLLOWTFIBERTMEMBRANET
REVERSETOSMOSISTPROCESS:-T
OsmosisTisTaTnaturalTprocessTinTwhichTaTliquidTfromTaTlessTconcentratedTsolutionTflowsTthroughTaTsemi-permeableTmembraneTtoTaTmoreTconcentratedTsolution.

PressureTisTappliedTonTtheTmoreThighlyTconcentratedTsolutionTsoTthatTliquidTflowsTfromTtheThigherTconcentratedTsolutionTtoTtheTlowerTconcentratedTsolution.

theThighlyTconcentratedTsolutionTisTdirty,TundrinkableTwater.TForTthisTsystem,TpressureTisTappliedTsoTthatTwaterTmoleculesTareTforcedTthroughTaT0.0001TmicronTsemi-permeableTmembrane.

ReverseTosmosisTsystemsTcanToftenTimproveTtheTqualityTofTwater.TTheTreverseTosmosisTwaterTtreatmentTmethodThasTbeenTusedTextensivelyTtoTconvertTbrackishorTseawaterTtoTdrinkingTwater,TtoTcleanTupTwasteTwaterT,TandTtoTrecoverTdissolvedTsaltsTfromTindustrialTprocesses.

ItTisTbecomingTmoreTpopularTinTtheThomeTmarketTasThomeownersTareTincreasinglyTconcernedTaboutTcontaminantsTthatTaffectTtheirThealth,TasTwellTasTaboutTnon-hazardousTchemicalsTthatTaffectTtheTtaste,odor,TorTcolorTofTtheirTdrinkingTwater.

FIGURE:-14TREVERESETOSMOSISTPROCESS
TPUMP:-
ThisTAquaTtecTpermeateTpump,TmodelT#TERP-1000TisTusedTtoTcreateTbackTpressureTonTtheTROTmembraneTandTincreaseTtheTefficiencyTandTrateTofTproductTwaterTproduction.

ImprovesTrecoveryTratesTbyTasTmuchTasT400%
ReducesTwasteTwaterTbyTasTmuchTasT80%
IdealTforTmembranesTratedTfromT10-100TGPD
EffectiveTforTinletTwaterTpressureTasTlowTasT30Tpsi
IncreasesTmembraneTlife,TlowersT”TDSTcreep”
FillsTproductTtankTupTtoT4TtimesTmoreTrapidly

FIGURE:-15TAQUATPERMEATETPUMP
TCONCEPTTOFTWORKINGTOFTPROJECT:-

FIGURE:-16TCONCEPTTOFTDRAWINGTOFTWORKPLAN
WeThaveTmadeTtwoTdimensionalTdrawingTofTourTplanTthatTweTareTgoingTtoTimplementTsoon
2.3TWORKING:-

FIGURE:-17TWORKTPLANTFIGURETOFTPROJECTT
StepT1T:-T
ATcontaminatedTwaterTfromTtheTwashbasinTcontainsTsomeTfoamTofTsoapT,TbacteriaT,TfungiT,TetcT.TWhichThasTalsoTcontainedTanTodorTasTwellTasTcolorTofTtheTcontaminatedTwaterTisTdifferentTfromTtheTcolorTofToriginalTwater.

T
StepT:-2
InTaTorderTtoTremoveTaboveTfaucalTmaterialT,TtheTwaterTfirstTstoredTinTtank:-1TwhichTisTlocatedTbelowT”tank:-1″.T”tank:-1″TisTmadeTofTsufficientTsizeTlikeTofT100TlitersTwhichTstoreTcontaminatedTwaterTinTwholeTofTtheTdayT.

StepT:-3
TheTcontaminatedTwaterTthenTsuppliedTtoTaTbioTfilter.TATbioTfilterTcontainsTgravelTwhichTfilterToutTlargerTsediments,TsandTwhichTfilterToutTfineTimpuritiesT,TorganismsTandTparticlesTcollectTinTtheTtopTlayersTofTtheTsandTthenTwaterTwillTpassTfromTmainTcomponentTofTbioTfilterTwhichTisTcalledTactivatedTcarbonTtoTremoveTcontaminantsTandTimpuritiesT,TutilizingTchemicalTabsorptionTandTlastTbutTnotTtheTleastTaTstrainerTfabricTtoTholdTbackTcarbonTandTletTpurifiedTwaterTthroughTit.T
StepT:-4
ATfilteredTwaterTfromTbioTfilterTisTthenTstoredTinTaTtankT2TwhichTwillTbeThavingTaTvolumeTofT70TlitersTapproximatelyT
StepT:-5T
WaterTfromTtankT2TisTrequiredTtoTincreaseTtheTpressureTbyTpumpTtoTfilterToutTfromTmembrane.TSoTweTmayTuseT”aquaTtapeTpermeateTpump”TtoTmakeTaTfunctionTinclusiveT
StepT:-T6
TheTpurifiedTwaterTfromTmembraneTisTsendTtoTaTtankTinTwhichTweThaveTmadeTaTchlorinationTprocessTwhichTmakeTaTwaterTpurifyTbyTkillingTgermsTandTalsoTtheTcolorTofTwaterTwillTbeTchangedTasTwaterTusedTforTbathingTandTswimmingTpoolT
T
Step:-7
TheTwasteTwaterTfromTmembraneTisTthenTtransferredTtoTtankT3TwhichTisThavingTaTvolumeTofT50TlitersTwhichTisTrecycledTwaterTusedTinTflushingTpurposeTinTtoilet
2.4TCANVAS:-T
AEIOUTCANVAST:-
T
FIGURE:-18TAEIOUTSUMMERYTCANVAS
ItTdiscussesTaboutTfiveTmajorTpointsTwhichTare:Tactivity,Tenvironment,Tinteraction,TobjectsTandTusers.

Activity:-TInclusiveTactivitiesTwhichTweThaveTdoneTthroughTsomeTliteratureTtakingTformTdoingTGoogleT,TsomeTgovernmentTreportsTasTwellTasTschemesTmadeTbyTgovernmentTofTIndiaTcalledTcentrallyTsectoredTschemedTthatTareTenitirelyTfundedTbyTgovernmentTonly.

ResearchTonTchlorinationTprocess
ResearchTonTfilter
ResearchTonTmembrane
ComparisonTofTvariousTmembraneTmaterials
Environment:-TAnTenvironmentTisTveryTinevitableTthingTthatTanTecosystemTinTwhichTourTprojectTisTtoTbeTexistedTinTnearTfuture.TTheTenvironmentTofTadoptedTsystemTtoTwhichTitTmakesTadaptiveTofTcoordinatingTrelationTbetweenTsystemTofTcustomers.TTheTergonomicsTofTmenT,TmachineTandTenvironmentTisTfullTfilledTinTallTtheTrequiredTplaces.

HumidTtemperature
SubtropicalTregion
NoiselessToperationT
CompactTdesign
MinimumTfloorTareaTwillTbeTrequiredT
WillTnotTmeetTanyTaccidents
NoticeTofTcautionTnotTrequired
InteractionT:-TWeThaveTdoneTdiscretionaryTinteractionTwithTfollowing:-
TInternalTguide
ResidentialTmember
ReverseTosmosisTplantToperators
FilterTdeveloper
PumpToperates
HardwareTsuppliers
Objects:-
Washbasin
TankT(4Tpieces)
Pump
Pipes
TElectricTmotor
ChlorinationTmechanism
BioTFilter
MembraneT
Users:-TTheTusersTwillTbeTcollaboratingTwithTourTprojectTareTfollowing:
ResidentialThouse
Theatres
MobileTtoiletTvan
RailwayTstation
SchoolTcollageTetc.

RainTwaterTHarvesting
IDEATIONTCANVAST:-

FIGURE:-19TIDEATIONTCANVAS
ItTDiscussTaboutT4TmajorTpointsTwhichTare:TPeople,TActivities,TSituation/context/location,TProps/tools/objects/equipment.

People:-TTheTpeopleTwillTbeTcollaboratingTwithTourTprojectTareTfollowing:-
ResidentialThouse
Theatres
MobileTtoiletTvan
RailwayTstation
School,TcollageTetc.

RainTwaterTHarvesting
Activities:-TInclusiveTactivitiesTwhichTweThaveTdoneTthroughTsomeTliteratureTtakingTformTdoingTGoogleT,TsomeTgovernmentTreportsTasTwellTasTschemesTmadeTbyTgovernmentTofTIndiaTcalledTcentrallyTschemedTthatTareTentirelyTfundedTbyTgovernmentTonly.

ResearchTonTchlorinationTprocess
ResearchTonTfilter
ResearchTonTmembrane
ComparisonTofTvariousTmembraneTmaterial
Situation/context/location:-T:-TTheTconditionTasTwellTasTlocationTwhereTourTprojectTwillTbeTdeployedT:-
NearTmunicipalTsupplyTtank
WaterTscarcityTareas
InTmountainTregion
InTforestTareas
Props/tools/objects/equipment:-
Washbasin
TankT(4Tpieces)
Pump
Pipes
ElectricTmotor
ChlorinationTmechanism
BioTFilter
membrane
EMPATHYTMAPPINGTCANVAS:-T

FIGURE:-20TEMPATHYTMAPPINGTCANVAS
ItTdiscussT3TmainTPointsTwhichTare:TUsers,TStakeholders,TActivities
Users:-TtheTusersTwillTbeTcollaboratingTwithTourTprojectTareTfollowing
ResidentialThouse
Theatres
MobileTtoiletTvan
RailwayTstation
SchoolTcollageTetc.

RainTwaterTHarvesting
Stakeholders:-TTheTgovernmentTinstitutionsTasTwellTasTmanyTministriesT,TweTareTgoingTtoTshackThandTwithTthem
MinistriesTofTrailway
MinistriesTofTruralTdevelopment
MinistriesTofTwaterTresources
MinistriesTofTdrinkingTwaterTandTsanitation
MinistriesTofTenvironmentTofTforest
Activities:-TInclusiveTactivitiesTwhichTweThaveTdoneTthroughTsomeTliteratureTtakingTformTdoingTGoogleT,TsomeTgovernmentTreportsTasTwellTasTschemesTmadeTbyTgovernmentTofTIndiaTcalledTcentrallyTschemedTthatTareTentirelyTfundedTbyTgovernmentTonly.

ResearchTonTchlorinationTprocess
ResearchTonTfilter
ResearchTonTmembrane
ComparisonTofTvariousTmembraneTmaterial
PRODUCTTDEVELOPMENTTCANVAS:-

FIGURE:-21TPRODUCTTDEVELOPMENTTCANVAS
ItTdiscussT8TmajorTpointTwhichTare:TPurpose,TPeople,TProductTExperience,TProductTfunctions,TProductTfeatures,TComponents,TCustomerTrevalidations,TRejectTredesignTandTreturn.

Purpose:-
ToTpurifyTwater
ToTrecycleTofTwater
ToTreuseTofTwater
People:-TTheTpeopleTwillTbeTcollaboratingTwithTourTprojectTareTfollowing
ResidentialThouse
Theatres
MobileTtoiletTvan
RailwayTstation
SchoolTcollageTetc.

RainTwaterTHarvesting
ProductTExperience:-TourTcustomerTmayTfillTtheTproductTimplemantedTinTthireTprovincesTareTinevitablyTusefulTforTthem.

WaterTshouldTbeTstoredTtoTmakeTfurtherTuseT.

FarmersTwillTbeTeasilyTpersuadedTwithTthisTproject
ProductTfunctions:-TTheTproductTfunctionTshouldTdoTfollowing
RainTharvestingTsystem
ChlorinationTwillTimproveTtheTqualityTof
RecycleTandTreuseTofTwater
ProductTfeatures:-TTheTproductTfeaturesTareTveryTinclusiveTforTourTsystem
ChlorinationTmechanism
BioTfilter
Components:-
Washbasin
TankT(4Tpieces)
Pump
Pipes
ElectricTmotor
BioTFilter
ChlorinationTmechanism
membrane
CustomerTrevalidations:-TTheTproductTcanTbeTusedTbyTtheTcustomerTsoTasTtoTgiveTsomeTfeedbackTforTfeaturesTofTtheTproject.

railwayTfiscalTdeficientThasTtoTbeTreduced
FloorTmightTbecomeTmarshyTwetTandTswampy
DurationTofTtimeTbetweenTtwoTreadoptingTfiltersTandTmembranes.

MakingTProductTofTsystemTinTcompactTsize.T
TheTproductTcanTbeTusedTbyTtheTcustomer
RejectTredesignTandTreturn:-TcustomersTmightTopposeTtheTsystemTdueTtoTfollowingTreasons
PartTshouldTbeTchangedTaccordingTtoTtime
CostTincreaseTorTdecreaseTasTperTtheTsizeTandTsite