REPRESENTATION OF THE CONCEPT THE SELF AND THE OTHER IN THE NOVEL “A PASSAGE TO INDIA”
Department of English
Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Upper Dir Sub Campus Chitral
REPRESENTATION OF SELF AND OTHER IN A PASSAGE TO INDIA
For centuries more than 80%of the earth population was either colonized or had been colonized. The relationship between the colonizer and colonized had been a recurrent theme in novels .And this relationship between the colonizer and colonized was usually an unequal one based on the concept of the “self” and the “other” meaning the ruler and ruled ,the civilized and uncivilized ,the master and slaves and so on. The reason that E.M.Forster novel “A Passage to India” is chosen for this thesis is because the author attempt to look into the long strained relationship between the colonizer and colonized and the perception of the colonizer about the colonized(synonymous in this work is with self and other) and the colonized culture.
The novel published in 1924 which marks the disintegration of colonialism .This study aims to look at how the concept of self and other is presented in colonial relationship. The term colonialism refers to the imperialist expansion of Europe into the rest of the world during the last four hundred years in which a dominant imperium or center carried on a relationship and influence over its margins or colonies. This relationship tended to extend to social, pedagogical, economic, political and cultural exchanges often with a hierarchical European setter class and local educated elite class forming layers between the European mother nation and the various indigenous peoples who were controlled. Such a system carried within it inherent notions of racial inferiority and exotic otherness.
The present study attempts to connect the novel to Edward Said famous book “Orientalism “in which he questioned the stereotypical boundaries between the east and west, and talk about two of its aspects; the way the west sees the orient and the way the west control the orient. He also coined the word orient for the east, which in the present study are presented by the term others and he coined the word occident for the west whish are presented by the term self in the present research work.
With post-colonial theory of orientalism as a background this study is a close reading analysis of the novel “A Passage to India” set in colonial India. Post-colonialism refers to the period when the colonized countries archive independence from Britain and deals with aftermath of colonialism. It argues that western culture is Eurocentric meaning it presents Europeans values as natural and universal, while eastern ideas are presented inferior, immoral or savage.
In this thesis the novel has been analyzed in term of the representation of the self and the other concept. A concept of self and other, self were the colonizer, the occident, the British and Other were the colonized, the orient, the Indians. By applying the self and other concept to the novel the study examines the operations of colonialist ideology in India to show that Forster meant to reinforce the colonialist ideology of superiority along with the representation of India and Indians as other, stereotype and marginalized people and culture.
Table of contents
Chapter 1; Introduction
Chapter 2. Background of the study
Chapter3. Literature Review
Chapter 5.Data analysis and Presentation
Chapter 6.coclusion and work cited
REPRESNTATION OF THE SELF AND OTHER CONCEPT IN THE NOVEL “A PASSAGE TO INDIA” BY EDWARD FORSTER:
Representation is a critical concept which has always been one of the dominant themes in Literature. Writers of about all ages tries to represent some concept or things in some way or another either it is a cultural ,social ,identical ,psychological ,racial concept of representation or something else. The relationship between the thing and representation of the thing is one which has engaged Linguists, Artists, Philosophers, and Historians for centuries.
The term representation embodies a number of meanings and interpretations.Etymologically representation can be understood as a presentation drawn up by depicting the object as it is or constructing it in a new form and /or environment CITATION def89 l 1033 (definition of representation by Mariam Webster, 1889) Representation aims at the reformation of society. As we know that there have been always a theme of representation in literature, and we can see the glimpse of this representation in every literary work form history to present. Same is the case with colonial and post-colonial writing and theme of representation has dominated in all colonial and post-colonial period, which includes the social representation ,geographical representation ,racial ,political and culture representation .Among these culture representation is of main concern in post colonialism as post colonialism is concern with different cultures and their relationship with each other. The present study is also concern with the post-colonialism thus; Culture representation is one of the main aspects in post-colonialism and post-colonial theory. Culture representation refers to representation of the colonizer in relation to the colonized. Almost all critiques/writers of post-colonialism had tried to represent such kind of relationship between the colonizers and colonized which is always an unequal one and can be best represented through the concept of the self and the other.
The self and the other phenomena have its deep rooted essence in the post-colonial period. It was one of the peculiar attributes of the post-colonial society where the self and otherness concept is depicted in much obvious way. The European culture under the dominant ideologist, have differentiate themselves from the subordinate other, the marginalized is always look as other. The western culture most of the time subordinated the other cultures, thus arousing the concept of self and other. The Britain being the masters portrayed themselves as the ‘self ‘meant the one of privileged nature or the ruler ,the superior and the ruled are termed as ‘others ‘means the oppressed or the ruled one and the inferior race.
There are many approaches to interpret the term self and the other like psychological and sociological interpretations. The present study aims to interpret these terms sociologically as post colonialism is more than about social issues .Basically the self and other is a concept that characterized people who believe that the source of power is within the self as opposed to those who believe that it is in other. CITATION DMo09 l 1033 (dictionary, 2009) The term self is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about, evaluates, or perceives them.
Baumeister (1999) provides the following definition; “The individual belief about him or herself, including the person attributes and who and what the self is, or we can say the sense of being separate and distinct from others. CITATION Sau08 l 1033 (Mcleod, 2008) By the definition it is almost clear that in order to understand the term of self-there must be another, as these are in opposition and are in contact in human relations. It is Frantz Fanon who develops the idea of other in his writing to be key concern in postcolonial studies. To him the other is the “not me ‘he is the other. CITATION Afa14 l 1033 (hassan, 2014) The idea of otherness is central to sociologically analysis of how majority and minority are constructed. This is because the representation of different groups within any given society is controlled by groups that have great political powers. Thus in order to understand the notion of other, sociologist first seek to put a critical spotlight on the ways in which social identities are constructed. Social identities reflect the way individuals and groups internalize established social categories within their societies, such as their cultural (or ethical) identities, gender identities, class identities and so on. These social categories shape our ideas about who we think we are ,how we want to be seen by others , and the group to which we belongs. CITATION DrZ18 l 1033 (Zevalos, 2018) We can define other as the social and /or psychological way in which one group excludes or marginalized another groups. By declaring someone “other “people tends to stress what makes them dissimilar from or opposite of another ,and this carries over into the way they presents others, especially through stereotypical images.
British sociologist Stuart Hall argues that visual representation of otherness hold special cultural authority .In western countries with a colonial history ,like the UK,Australia and the USA ,whether difference is portrayed positively or negatively is judged against the dominant group namely white ,middle-to-upper class, heterosexual Christians ,with cis-men being the default to which other are judged against. CITATION zev11 l 1033 (zev dlos, 2011).
In the early 1950, Simone de Beauvoir argued that otherness is a fundamental category of human thought .Thus it is that no group ever sets itself up as one without at once setting up the other over against itself.
Thus the concept of self and other are in opposition, there is no means of self without other and without self-other meaningless. The self is always seen as different from the other and other is seen different from the self.
The self and the other concept is at heart of post colonialism and many defines post colonialism in term of self and other and the analysis of relationship between self and other .In post colonialism the self refers to the colonizer who thinks of themselves as superior and the colonized are looked as other, the slaves ,inferior and marginalized race .
The present study aims to explore the presence of such concept in post-colonial text and the kind of relationship between the self and other means the colonizer and colonized, and how this concept perceives each other in post-colonial context.
E.M.Forster novel “A Passage to India” is also a post-colonial text and the postcolonial reading of the novel covers itself and covers the post-colonial aspects of the novel. As post colonialism is concern with how group of “us “and “them” stands with relation to each other, thus the concept of self means us and other means them arouses. The novel “A Passage to India ‘deals with such concept from many perspectives and it also highlights the kind of relation between the us and them or the self or other, the master and slaves ,the colonized and colonizers ,the white and the brown and the oppressor and the oppressed .
Thus applying post-colonial concept of self and other to A Passage to India the study attempts to provide an insight to complex web of human relationships described in this novel
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A Passage to India published in 1924 by E.M Forster is a well-known novel as it brings about a kind of interaction between India and England dealing with the experience of colonialism in India and it also looks at the whole experience of colonialism from the point of view of colonizer and their perception about their position and power and also reveals their perception about the colonized land and people.
E.M Forster is a colonial writer who has made wide experience of travels all over the world and these travels gives him experiences which were transformed into novels. Forster had five novels in his lifetime. His first novel was “Where Angels Fear to Tread” published in 1905, in 1907 his second novel “The Longest Journey” was published. In 1908 “A Room with a View” was published. His fourth novel “Howards Ends” was published in 1910. Forster achieved his greatest success with his last novel “A Passage to India” which was the most famous novel written by him mainly because it originated from his real experience in India .Forster first time experience in India contributed much in pretending a kind of authentic experience of the interaction between the west the ruler and the East , the natives.
A Passage to India” the tittle of the novel itself is indicative of the relationship between the England and India more generally the European and the non-European. The tittle of the novel gives us impression that it is a journey towards India or we can say it is a Western journey toward Eastern geography or a journey to explore various newness of the East. The novel explores that the relationship of the West and East is not just of that of colonizer and colonized because moreover in gentle term it also speak about the interrelationship between two cultures ,the Western culture on one side and the eastern culture on another. Forster attempted to study the relationship between these two cultures and analyzed the kind of interaction between them. By criticizing British colonialism and their rule in India Forster also challenges British belief that they had the right to rule over the Indians because their white blood is superior to all other colors .In this way it also reveals the European superiority over those who were poorer than them and whose skin is different than them and they had the authority/right to civilize and establish the savage.
Being a British subject Forster has his own prejudice of India that India is the land of people who are not educated, not civilized etc. He looks at Indian culture as dominantly spiritual in nature whereas the Western culture is materialistic in nature. The novel to present India from his own point of view and analysis the kind of people who are there and they are divided by different religions and also tries to represent the interaction between the western and eastern cultures in this novel.
The novel is actually set in a city of Chandra pore which is an imaginary city in India. There are four major characters in the novel; Dr.Aziz, Mr. Cyril Fielding, Mrs. Moore and Miss Adela Quested .The subject of the novel is based on the relationship and interaction between the east and west and racial problems faced by them. The novel tries to portray the story of a country under Colonialism and the impact of this on the whole society of colonized country India, the life of Indians and the behavior of the colonizer to the colonized as the writer had experienced it between 1922 to 1924 .The novel is divided into three sections namely “the Mosque”, the Cave” and “the Temple” roughly representing Muslims, the English and Hindus respectively and also representing the three seasons of India. The novel tries to bridge the gap between two different culture, but the failure of its character to construct relation reveals the difficulty of west-east relationship/ English –Indian friendship i.e. Human relationships, the unity of all living things and the negligence of British colonial government. The ending of the novel reveals that friendship is possible between unequal’s at any cost. Although the characters tries their best to establish friendship particularly Dr.Aziz and Mr. Fielding but unable to bridge their cultural and political differences despite for their affection for one another.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this work is to investigate the novel “A Passage To India” from postcolonial perspective of representation, in order to accomplish o study this representation the term self and other are used. The main purpose of the researcher is to explore how the concept of self and other is represented in the novel, and the kind of relationship between the self and other synonymous in this work is with colonizer and colonized.
This work will investigate the following questions.
What is representation and what is the significant of representation in post-colonial era?
What the term self and other indicate to?
Is it right to humiliate human by considering them inferior/uncivilized?
Is it fair to divide humans as master and slaves /inferior and superior?
Are all humans equal?
Objectives of The study
The main objective of the present research is to reinterpret the select novel “A Passage to India’ ‘from the perspective of post colonialism which gives a new dimension to analyze the text .The study particularly focus on
.The various problems of Indians who were treated as “other” by the British ruler in their own homeland.
.How the social stigma of otherness is addressed and whether or not they have had an overall effect upon our society.
.The way in which literature by the colonizing culture distorts the experience and realities and inscribe the inferiority of colonized people.
. To explore the concept of orientalism and apply this theory to the novel ‘A passage to India’.
The selected fiction can studied under different aspects and perspectives. Out of various aspects this study will only focus on the aspect of representation of the self and the other concept.
Significance of the study ;
This research work focuses on representation of self and other concept portrayed by E.M.Forster in the novel “A Passage to India”. This study will highlight that no human has the right to rule over another human being. There is no need to control over people and consider them as slaves and inferior .Freedom is the basic right of every human being because every human being is born as free .No one on the earth has the right to rule over another and to divide the people on basis of color and territory . The Study also explores that the division of human being on basis of superiority and inferiority will only leads to the culture clash and frustrating relationship between humans. Colonialism only promotes destructions, its destroys once identity, confidence and motivations and creates inequality between humans which only results in tensions and frustrating relationships on the earth.
Representation, the self, the other, colonialism, post-colonialism, orientalism, stereotype.
Organization of the study
Dissertation of the present study is divided into six chapters. Chapter one is compose of introduction, objectives, purpose, significance and research questions .Chapter 2 deals with the background on the study. Chapter 3 reflects the possible literature review on the concept of self and other and also on the novel, in which views of different researchers and critics are involved .Third chapter of the research deals with methodology and data collection for the present study. Fourth chapter consist of data analysis and presentation. Final chapter of the thesis contains conclusion.
2.1 Review of Related Literature
The following chapter presents and discusses the studies done by some other researcher that are very much related to the work the writer is undertaking. Some of the studies will explicate the concept of self and other while some will explain the novel “A Passage to India” from the perspective of different researchers and writers.
The idea to represent the concept of self and other is not a new one. There are many researcher and critics who expresses their view about the representation of the concept of self and other. For example Historical case study of the representation of woman (de Beavor1949/1989) and the orient (said 1978) have clearly demonstrated how the representation of the other is deeply entwined with the representation of the self .For example according to said (1978)representation of the orient among occidentals, has historically been defined by what occident is not .thus the orient has been portrayed as undeveloped, passive and immature while occident has been presented as advanced ,proactive and mature. CITATION sai70 l 1033 (said, 1970) A research conducted by Afaf Ahmad Hassan Al-Saide on post –colonialism literature; the concept of self and other in Coetzee’s waiting for Barbarians” at department of English College of Arts and Education King Khalid University Abha K.S.A the writer is of the opinion that in the countries that are colonized they are constructed on the binary opposition and in that binary opposition they give each other values in which one is what the other is not as such self and other. The writer further argues that in these binary opposition the self has always given values because it is not the other but is different from the other and by nature it is dominant to other. Through the character of Coetzee the writer makes it clear that in countries that are colonized and constructed on binary opposition the only choice for the savage is there is to become the other because the colonized are treated as aliens and they don’t have values in their own country. While the masters rank their position as superior to all and they had the right to rule peoples those are lesser and exotic than them. The way colonial Joll tortured the Barbarian girl is one of the example of the self-perception of the other. The writer further elaborated the view that othering can destroy human relations and also brings destruction in an imperial regime. The destruction of human relation is not only between self and other but also involves the destruction of the empire. As in the end of the novel the empires fails to control its word .The empire was able to grip the colonized and to maintain relations, which show that how othering can bring destructions in every matter of life.
The concept of self and other is also found in a work done by S.R Mossavinia, N.Niazi and Ahmad Ghaforian on Edward Said’s orientalism and the study of the self and other in Orwell’s Burmese Day it is illustrated by the writers that there is always a gulf between the occidentals (self) and Orientals (other) which remains them rigid in their place, the superior the ruler (the self) and the Inferior the ruled one’s (the other).
The writer is of the view that the interaction between the European and the non-European in the novel is that of Said’s concept of self and other, like the familiar the European and the strange the non-European. The way Burmese Culture people and lifestyle is presented in the novel is exotic, the Burmese are in downplay and they are marginalized by their white masters. They are described as less humans .The writer argues that the colonizer are raciest in nature ,their bigoted allegation against the colonized and their mistreating the colonized ruined each and every aspects of the natives. Like Elli’s blind school boy, Flory destroyed Burmese woman and Elizabeth disparages the Burmese culture, in this way colonizer effected the natives.
The result of the study reveals that the way the Burmese culture and people are represented and the way the colonizer behavior is described, it results in the presentation of the concept of self and other in Burmese Days. The identification of stereotype and n platitude to the oriental fall outs Said’s posture which is detailed in his orientalism therefore, we cannot neglect the orientalist distinction between self and other. po
A third sense of self and otherness is found in a study conducted by Jean Franco’s Staszak on international encyclopedia of human Geography, in 2008 Elsevier the writer has point out the effect of geography on the production of self and otherness. In his opinion the concept of self us and other them has divided the humanity into two groups of which one group embodies all norms that why whose identity is valued while the other is just formed by its faults and devalued to discrimination. He further argues that geography like physical anthropology and history has provide narrations from the ground of digressive structures of a number of aspects of otherness. To a notable extent these people otherness has been ground on their reputed special property of being marginal. This case of spatial establishment like territorial construction permits the confrontation between the self and other to be retained.
The novel “A Passage to India” has been commented upon by number of critics and researcher from different angles and perspectives. In this chapter the Researcher will also highlight how different researcher and critics have viewed Forster’s work. The critic E.A Home on studying Forster work in long letter to The New Statesman explains the unreality of Forster Anglo-Indians by unlikeable and unrealistic manner .He additionally postulates that while studying the novel one can feel unhappy in British association and feel regretful for Indians. CITATION AHo24 l 1033 (.A, 1924)Philippa Moody states about Forster and A Passage to India “the vastness of the novel dwells in Forster’s real involvement of India rather than demonstrating to reveal Forster’s philosophy towards British imperialism, it is also important to practice the way of survival from studying the text itself. CITATION Moo68 l 1033 (Moody, 1968).Andrew Sanders receive A Passage to India as Forster’s important novel which illustrates a less satisfying illustration of British sawyer and their view towards Indians, than those remarked by Kipling. The British function like harsh masters being cruel towards the Indians, upsetting to stretch themselves from indigenous native people. CITATION And96 l 1033 (Sanders, 1966) A research conducted by M.A student Milguiling at Hebei University has analyzed the novel from the author cultural discrimination and from postcolonial reading perspective. In his work the writer attempted to highlight that Forster novel is fully henpecked with cultural secernment .In his analysis the writer has demonstrated that how the Indian culture and people in the novel are represented by the novelist and the way they are dis respected by the Europeans. By applying three basic aspects the writer has analyzed the cultural secernment in the novel which are, the marginalized cultural identity of Indians, cultural prejudices presented by symbols and Indian culture as mystical. By the help of these aspects the writer has highlighted the cultural discrimination is present in the novel. The writer has discussed this cultural discrimination against the colonized people (the Indians) from the perspective of post colonialism and the writer is of the view that cultural discrimination only leads to destruction as the Indian culture is destructed and devalued in the novel, as a result of which and human relations fails to establish there remain a gap between people who are culturally different from one another and they also disrespect each other.
Another critic Bhopal Singh condemns Forster’s novel “as a means for transmitting the British view of superiority”. He feels that “the novel presents profound picture of Englishmen in united India and the opposing correlation between the Indians and British”. CITATION Sin74 l 1033 (Singh, 1974) Martin Green examining the novel suggests that:
Forster’s interest in the novel is the British imperialism ,when the authority comes to an edge the relation could be made better ,and there would be some kind of sympathy between two races ;an improved relationship ,he hopes .The British have been depicted as superior human beings in the subject of power and managements ;the Indians as less skilled in the subject of holding the regime of the state . CITATION Mar80 l 1033 (Green, 1980)
In an article by Ahmad M.S Abu Baker on Rethinking Identity; the colonizer in E.M Forster’s “A passage to India” the author has analyzed the problematic relationship between the English and the Indians in a colonial context. In the study the writer is of the opinion that friendship is not possible between unequal’s just like the characters of the novel failed to established any kind of relation in a colonial status que. Aziz and Fielding relationship is frustrated by colonization which was based on racism and inequality. Their personal relationship failed to develop because the barriers of inequality cannot easily be overcome. The writer tried to depict the relationship, races, and the issues of identity formulation and complexities of colonial discourse in hybrid context.
The researcher is still working on the novel because the other researchers and critics have interpreted this novel from different perspectives. No one of the any writer had interpreted this novel from the perspective of self and other representation .The researcher perception and interpretation of the novel is different as the writer tries to represent the self and other concept in the novel.
This chapter will describe the methods and tool which had been used by the researcher for the conduction of the thesis.
3.1 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
The aim of the present study is to analyze the novel “A Passage to India” by E.M.Forster through the post-colonial representation of the self an d other .In order to accomplish this aim a post-colonial theory of Orientalism is undertaken which was represented by the most influential and prominent theorist of the age whose name is Edward Said.
Basically Orientalism is a term used by artist, historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects of Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures by writers, designers and artist in the west .It is a way of coming to term with the orient special place and European and western experiences. The orient the mysterious east, a place of desire, imagination and fantasy has been created by the west to express the possession of the western power. Thus the orient is not only adjust cent to Europe, but it’s a place of Europe biggest, richest and oldest colonies.
The most leading theorist of that age was Edward Said .Said’s book orientalism is regarded as profoundly significant .Orientalism revolutionized the study of Middle East and help to create and shape entirely a new field of study such as postcolonial theory as well as influencing English ,history ,political science and cultural studies.
Orientalism tries to answer the question why when we think of Middle East, for example we have a preconceive notion that what kind of people live there ,what they believe ,how they act ,even though we may never have been there or indeed even not met anyone there.
More Generally Orientalism speaks about how we come to understand people, stranger who looks different to us by virtue of color of their skin and by virtue of the language they speak. The central argument of orientalism is how the West sees the other part of the world. Specifically Said’s argues that the way the West (Europe) the self, the us looks at the countries and peoples of middle East is through a lens that destroy the actual reality of those places and those people because this lens through which the occident view the part of the world is orientalism, a framework is to be used to understand the unfamiliar, strange and other to make the people of Middle East different and threatening.
Said’s concept of orientalism is to challenge the differences between east and west which leads to stereotypical boundaries between east and west .There are two aspects of Orientalism, the way west sees the orient and the way the west control the orients .Thus Orientalism has helped the Europeans to define their self-image on the basis of which European divided the world into two parts, the East and West, the oppressor and the oppressed, the self and the other etc.
When European colonization started the Westerners came in contact with the lesser developed countries, and they found their culture very civilized and established and think the other countries as uncivilized and incapable to rule and as inferior race. In the novel “A Passage to India” Forster aims to portray such concept through various English characters. And we see how the colonizers thinks about themselves and view their position in India. The way the Indians are portray in the novel and the way they treated by the colonizer reveals the oriental minds of the Europeans. Thus applying this postcolonial theory of Orientalism to the novel “A Passage to India” the writer attempts to explore the representation of the self and the other concept through the representation of Indian society under British Imperial power and also tries to reveal the perception of colonizer about their position and about colonized people and their land.
The method used in the current study is qualitative method and with the help of two sources the researcher wrote this thesis. Primary source is textual analysis, by reading the text of the novel “A Passage to India” thoroughly and comprehensively and secondary source is internet, by reading many books, articles, essays, thesis and literary criticism from internet.
Since, the writer is working on “representation of the concept self and other in the novel “A Passage to India” which is the result of imperialism/colonialism, the study is based upon the exhaustive analysis of the novel in the light of post-colonial critical theory of Edward Said’s,. The study intended to prove that Forster is colonialist writer, who has written from colonialist perspective of superiority and the novel is colonialist representation of India. According to my own perception and interpretation the study is different from the work of other researchers and critics who have interpreted this novel. The researcher read many research article dealing with post-colonialism and representational practices, and quoted some words or sentences from the text to support the analysis.
The instrumentation in this thesis is the writer herself by reading the novel ” A Passage to India”, besides analyzing the data the researcher also put it as the evidence in this research.
4.3 Data Analysis;
In analyzing the data, the researcher uses the following techniques and steps ,first of all reading the novel “A Passage to India “carefully , comprehensively and thoroughly ,then quote some words and sentences from the text to support the analysis .Secondly the researcher identifies the data by reading books ,articles, essays and literary criticism.
Finally organizing the data and analyzing them.
4.4 Analysis Unit
The analysis unit for the research is E .M .Forster ” A Passage to India”.
4.5 Time and place
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
A Passage to India set during the British Raj is a novel by Edward Morgan Forster, in 1924 which portrays the socio –cultural and political atmosphere of India under the authority of European culture .The novel presents the ideas of British imperialism, culture tensions between the self and other, frustrating relationship between the east and west and the general perception of the west about the others the non-westerners means the east.
For two hundred years Briton was the most powerful nation in the world .It control over many countries including India, Australia, sari Lanka, some part of Africa and etc, believing that their white blood was superior to any indigenous race in the world. British got rid of the rich and noble leaders in these countries which make people there wealthy .They sent some of their own people there to take over their wealth and treat the local as servants and slaves .They considered them animals and barbarians in their own homeland .In this way the British empire once ruled over third of people on the earth.
The present study “to analyze the novel a Passage to India” reveals how the British viewed their imperial position. The novel experienced the ruler (self) and the ruled (other) and their perception about the other and the relationship between them.
The British imperial History is a story of contradiction, discovery, progress and prejudice and depression .When British politics enter in India they color the social background and it not be interesting to look back of the novel for the minute from political point of view .By the time it came out India was ruled by great Britain to the greatest comfort of both parties .And the book dwells especially on the representation, the racial aggrogrance and snobbery at English the clubs from which the Indians were excluded.
The British government in India have not only deprived the Indian people of freedom but had based itself on the spoliation masses and had ruined India .The British believe that their duty in India is to govern them and to civilized them, as the British considered them as self means they are superior to any other race on the earth and thinks of Indian as other means uncivilized and incapable of doing anything .This perception of British to rule India is shown in firm way in the novel many time ,for example in chapter fifth the British character Ronny says that the British “are out here to do justice and keep peace …..India is not a drawing room” CITATION for24 l 1033 (forster, 1924)by saying that Ronny in a way presents the British ideology of superiority as in his opinion in order to keep peace it is necessary to control over the natives.