Sher-Kaila OuterbridgeSeptember 14, 2018
Biochemistry- Mitosis and Meiosis Assignment
Cell division is an essential role of a cell’s life cycle; therefore without it, all organisms will fail to reproduce causing them to eventually die off eventually. Cytokinesis and nuclear division are two of the significant steps that are involved in cell division. Mitosis and meiosis are two different types of the nuclear division, but they differ in their products and specific processes. Mitosis and meiosis are processes where cells divide and replicate for growth and reproduction.
Mitosis is the process that splits parent cells into two daughter cells which are genetically alike. Meiosis is a reduction division that produces daughter cells which have half of the information that the parent cells contained. Mitosis occurs in the haploid number of chromosomes (23) while meiosis occurs in the diploid number of chromosomes (46). In meiosis, diploid divides the nucleus twice producing four nuclei, and in mitosis, haploid divides the nucleus once producing two nuclei. Meiosis produces gametes such as sex cells while mitosis produces somatic cells such as body cells.
Both mitosis and meiosis go through interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. Mitosis goes through these phases once while meiosis goes through the stages twice but also includes interkinesis. In both mitosis and meiosis, they include the nuclear membrane breakdown which is when genetic material separates into two groups that are followed by cell division and reformation of the nuclear membrane in each cell. Though both tend to differ in two fundamentals, mitosis has one round of genetic separation and cellular division while meiosis has two of each.
Mitosis and meiosis tend to be present in all life forms, in that mitosis are used very widely for the organic growth of tissues, fibers, and membranes. Mitosis manages to create more body cells in that the body can maintain the healing process and not run out of cells. Prophase and prophase II is when chromosomes start to come together to condense allowing the nucleus to get ready to divide. Prophase I, the homologous chromosomes gather and exchange genetic material. In metaphase and metaphase II, chromosomes are prepared to be pulled apart while spindles are attached to each side of the centromeres to hold together sister chromatids.
In metaphase I, spindles are connected to different chromosomes from opposite sides of the cell. In anaphase and anaphase II, the physical splitting takes place whereas sister chromosomes are separated moving in opposite directions. Though in anaphase, the divided sister chromatids are identical while in anaphase I, they are not identical but go through the crossing in prophase I, and they stay together until moved in opposite directions after being pulled apart.
Telophase is the last phase in cell division; in telophase and telophase II, what has happened during prophase would ultimately be reversed. Though in telophase, it goes into cytokinesis which results in two diploid cells while telophase II has already been through one division which goes into cytokinesis after resulting in four haploid cells.
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