South Sudan Membership in East African Community
This section covers the, study population, Sample size, Data collection, Data analyses, and Ethical consideration and analyses of South Sudan relations with EAC.
The population covered by the study included; Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Republic of South Sudan (MFAIC/RSS) official, Member of the Transitional National Assembly South Sudan (TNLASS), one senior personnel from private sector, and the ordinary citizen of South Sudan. Generally, all respondents had some knowledge of South Sudan membership in East African Community.
A sample size of four respondents was used for this study. This sample size covered vital part of the study with respondents has ample knowledge on South Sudan’s membership in EAC.
The study utilizes primary data which was gathered using an interview guide. The interviewees that were interviewed were the high rank official at ministry of foreign affairs and international study. These were contemplated to be key source for this examination. Key source were additionally a source of data that helped with understanding the setting of the membership of South Sudan in EAC or elucidating specific issues or problems of the study.
The decision of the respondents is vital, as the respondents engaged with the running of the Ministry and in this manner have a good knowledge about the membership of South Sudan in EAC.
The data acquired was examined utilizing content analyses. Marying defined content analyses as ”an approach of actual, methodological supervised scrutiny of writings within their setting of communication, following content analytical guidelines and gradual models, without reckless measurement”. It includes viewing and thorough portrayal of object, things or items that comprise the object of study. This approach was considered to more proper for the study since it took into account profound, sense, comprehensive accounts in evolving conditions.
Since the nature of the study being based on the assessment of South Sudan membership in EAC, it was so sensitive because in one way or the other, it assessed the advantages and disadvantages of South Sudan membership in EAC. However, the researcher followed all the professional guidelines of researchers.
At the same time, before engaging a particular respondent, the researcher sought an oral consent. This involved explaining the study objectives to the respondents. The respondents were also notified about the possible risks and benefits of participating in the study, emphasizing the aspect of confidentiality with which the findings would be treated. The respondents were also assured of their free will to participate in the study and those that were not interested in the study were given chance not to participate in the study
Analyses of South Sudan-East African Community Relations in Historical Perspective
It can be contended that South Sudan had in certainty been a casual EAC part state for quite a few years. This can be seen inside a security, social, political and economic focal point. Relations between South Sudan and EAC member states particularly Uganda and Kenya could be traced back before the independence of South Sudan from Sudan. The relationship between South Sudan and EAC member states is based on peaceful co-existence and shared values.
In pre-independence period, Kenya and Uganda hosted hundreds of thousands of South Sudanese refugees as a result of bloody Sudanese second civil war that commenced in 1983. The support for the South Sudanese refugees came from government initiative which includes access to primary, secondary and higher education, Access to health care and other business opportunities. The support did not only come from government or public sector but also from the host communities which includes distribution of clothes, food, and other basic necessities. Kenya for example played vita part in South Sudan’s independence. The country expedites protocols and peace process, principally the Machakos protocol 2002 and Naivashsa agreement known as the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) 2005. CPA was an agreement that led to the creation of South Sudan as an independent state. Some prominent leaders of SPLM/SPLA for example Dr. John Garang have lived in East Africa particularly Uganda and Kenya during the second civil war and the quest for independence. Nevertheless, Kenya and Uganda have also being accused by Sudan’s government of supporting SPLM/SPLA in terms of military logistic, and trainings.
In Post independent period, South Sudan attracted a lot of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) from EAC member states. Notably firms dealing with banking and financial sector for example Kenyan Commercial Bank (KCB), Equity Bank, Co-operative Bank, Insurance companies for example UAP old mutual holding, Aviation companies as well. The relationship between South Sudan and EAC member states again Kenya and Uganda is characterized by increase trade, joint infrastructural projects, support public institutional capacity and human resource capacity of public servants. Particularly Kenya’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been providing trainings and capacity building for the South Sudan officials in diplomatic and other related issues. South Sudan didn’t only attract the FDI’s but also several of these firms particularly from Kenya have established branches in South Sudan.
Kenyan and Ugandan export to South Sudan account for $790,079 million in 2014, both countries export to South Sudan is both formal and informal entry. Formal entry incorporate cement, vehicles, mineral water, iron and steel products, beer, oils vegetable fats, maize, coffee, beans etc. informal entry beside incorporate clothes, soda, shoes, maize floor etc… Despite of this enlargement in trade, various difficulties keeps on impeding trade between South Sudan and the two countries this is mainly because of high level of insecurity along Juba-Nimule road and other important strategic roads linking South Sudan to EAC particularly since the 2013 outbreak of the conflict. Additionally weak customs infrastructure and holding up of clearance of goods due to poor quality of institution in dealing with.
South Sudan and the EAC also shared joint infrastructural project for example the Lamu corridor also known as the Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia-Transport (LAPSSET) is a gigantic projects that includes construction of new railways, roads, airport and strikingly, an oil pipeline connecting South Sudan and Lamu. The transport joins are intended to join urban communities in Kenya, South Sudan and Ethiopia. Another mega infrastructural project envisions by South Sudan and EAC member states Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda is Standard gauge railway. The project is expected to cost US$3.2 billion; it would connect the four countries and link up to Democratic Republic of Congo.
Experience and history have shown that it is always in the interest of EAC member states to bring peace, stability in South Sudan; this is because South Sudan is an ally of almost all EAC member states and not also to forget their vested interest in the country. For example Kenya and Uganda have also been involved in mediating a peace processes in South Sudan through a regional organization Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) since the outbreak of the bloody civil war In Dec 2013. Furthermore, the two countries were also involved in the Agreement on the Reunification of the SPLAM in 2015 although Tanzania was a key player involved in the mediation of the deal.
Despite the fact that South Sudan and EAC has good relationship in most part of their history, in 2012 however, South Sudan and Uganda were locked in border dispute that threatened security, and cross border trade between the communities living in the border and the two countries broadly speaking. Tension and violence was witnessed at the scene but thanks to the peaceful resolution of conflict settled between the two countries.
Presentation analyses and Discussion of Finings
This chapter presents the research findings on the South Sudan’s membership in EAC with special reference to analyze potential benefits and detriments. It is extremely important to jot that South Sudan is yet to rectify any of the key pillars of the integration of EAC. The essential pillars of integration in the regional bloc are Custom Union, and Common Market, others include Monetary Union, Political federation (process).
This piece of the interview guide was expected to evaluate the volume of the respondents to answer the inquiries on the interviews guide. The research pointed at interviewing high rank official at Ministry of foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Republic of South Sudan (MFA&IC/RSS), one member of Transitional national assembly of South Sudan (TNLASS), one senior personal from private sector, and one ordinary citizen. All the four respondents were accessible for the meeting and along these lines a 100% reaction rate was accomplished. The interviewees had every achieved Master Degree certificate in different fields related to the subject of the study. With reference to their involvement in the administration and of international cooperation, the researcher discovered that there was affluence of experience that the interviewees had collected over the decades ago that they had earned in their working experience both in public and in the private sector. Generally with this strong foundation in type of the respondents academic qualification and work experience, it was felt that the interviewees were sufficiently proficient on the research topic and accordingly of assistance in the realization of the research objective.
Potential Benefits and Detriments
On the question of what could be the main benefits and the detriments of South Sudan membership in EAC, the interviewees agreed that visa waiver is one conspicuous benefit since many South Sudanese families’ lives in Kenya and Uganda. It would be easy for the families, students, tourists and also those seeking medical attention to access EAC member states without applying for visa hence would ease time and expenditure. Moreover, the researcher found out that major benefits of the countries’ membership in EAC would unquestionably increase trade but this would only be realized if South Sudan rectifies EAC’s Custom Union and Common Market protocol. Also another benefit would come from hard and soft infrastructural development, for example Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) connecting Burundi, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and South Sudan. This would have a diverse impact on public and private sector. As South Sudan became a member in EAC, Some of its infrastructural framework would go for the Northern Corridor Integration Programs (NCIP) under the Northern Corridor Transit and Transport Coordination Authority’s (NCTTCA) associate countries of Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda, The land-locked country needs to quick track its infrastructure development to unlock investment chances in this corridor. This kind of vast infrastructural development should likewise contribute towards settling the impasse about the regional oil-pipeline course to clear oil from the albertine rift oil reserves through Hoima, Uganda, and present both South Sudan and Kenya a substitute route the ports of Lamu, Mombasa or Tanga, whichever will be more attainable, financially reasonable and cost effective. Three interviewees also agreed that the major detriments of the membership in the regional bloc would be a job lost to the natives. The respondents gave various examples of how workers from EAC member states dominating the banking, hospitality sectors, and jobs in international governmental and non-governmental organizations. But one interviewee disagreed, According to the respondent” as long as workers, economic migrants and expatriate coming from the EAC are paying taxes to the government there’s no problem. Directly or indirectly they are contributing to the economy and social welfare of the country.” The researcher sought to find out what are the mutual advantages that would make South Sudan’s EAC membership beneficial to both sides? The researcher found out that the geographical closeness, good diplomatic relations at state and informal level is the mutual advantages that would make South Sudan’s EAC membership beneficial to both sides. As an interviewee point out ”South Sudan’s EAC membership would improve our trade; it will strengthen our social and cultural relationship and educational system.”
One interviewee supported the membership of South Sudan, depicting it as a win-win circumstance for South Sudan and its neighbors in the EAC. The respondent said” “The choice to join isn’t terrible in any way. We are not an islet. Nations flourishes through partnership, and collaboration even in Europe, they are cooperating. That is the cause they have European Union and the Americans chose to unite distinctive states to frame United States of America. In this 21st century it is almost impossible to thrive without regional integration. It now forms as of basis development, eradicating poverty and advancing your interest “.
The Major Motives that Pilot South Sudan membership in EAC
From economic dependence perspective, the possible motives that steer south Sudan to join EAC is to have easy access to the EAC market through custom union. South Sudan relations with Sudan have deteriorated badly in the last years and no signs of improvement. Sudan ceased all the export to South Sudan and this is terrible for the new nation since the new born country has very little manufacturing industries. So therefore the only viable option is to access EAC market through membership to avoid future political and economic uncertainties. The researcher also sought to find out on the question what are the potential Disadvantage to South Sudan’s EAC membership that has raised concerns in South Sudan and the EAC? The researcher found out that membership of South Sudan in EAC would lead to heavy dependence on productions of goods and services from the EAC member states. Since South Sudan has no item for which they are best at its production in the region with the exception of crude oil. The new born country will fundamentally rely upon the EAC nations for the supply of products which they are not in a position to produce or deliver hence would create over dependence. With EAC membership the country would be reluctant to set up new manufacturing industries. An interviewee stated” We would not get equivalent share from the regional bloc in term of trade as we will be completely relying upon their foreign made merchandise. We do not have the capacity to shield our newly established industry from their well entrenched industry. It will imperil our economy and political independence as we should absolutely rely upon them.” Furthermore, issues that has raised concerned in South Sudan about her membership in EAC is similar to the first findings, the recently graduate youthful South Sudanese won’t have a space for employment opportunities, as corporations, and businesses would require better qualification and work experience so they will disregard the recently graduate which will bring about to high joblessness to the local individuals. It’s likewise evident that high joblessness rate for youth dependably prompt high rate of crime as the outcome, it will likewise cost government to handle the rate of crime which is another issue. For the EAC’s part, pundit and activists have raised concern over the absence of intellectual property laws in South Sudan. Wilfred Lusi an advocate and patent agent in Kenya stated” without the laws, corporation are uncovered and can’t apply rights identified with a specific intellectual property. That implies the intellectual property is totally lost”. Intellectual property right is very significant in every business environment. For South Sudan to encourage and attract investors and businesses it has to guarantee intellectual property rights. Proper and Enforced Intellectual Property Rights Protect Consumers and Families. Solid intellectual property rights enable buyers to settle on an informed decision about the safety, unwavering quality, and viability of their buys. Implemented intellectual property rights guarantee items are bona fide, and of the high caliber that purchasers perceive and anticipate. Furthermore, it gives motivating force to the person to new manifestation. The researcher found out that major motive of South Sudan membership in EAC is purely economic and political motives. Seeking diplomatic alliance to protect its interest and economical to improve the welfare of the state. Anonymous believes that South Sudan has more chances of resolving its economic challenges through the membership in EAC. The economic challenges the interviewee described currently facing the new countries are economic growth and Job, cost of living, delivery of services, corruption. Whilst other respondent pointed out that the major motivate that pilot country to seek for the membership in EAC is mainly political. What the interviewee meant politically is that it would largely favor the leadership and bureaucrats. South Sudan wants to use EAC membership to leverage decision making in IGAD through their allies Uganda and Kenya although the country is also IGAD member. IGAD is presently the mediator of South Sudan peace negotiation. In addition, South Sudan membership would be important in regards with of the EAC’S efforts to counter contemporary threats. A present contemporary threat in the region includes terrorism, poaching, human and drug trafficking.
This chapter provides a summary of the findings of the research, the conclusions and recommendations for the Policy makers.
In summery, the study shows that the interwees are aware of the menbership of South Sudan in EAC. The study also shows that the membership of South Sudan in EAC could have two faces, the advantages and disadvatnges. Among the advanteges found in the study is the free movement of labour,capital and service. This is gurantee in EAC common market protocol. Additionally, increase in trade and EAC infrastructural development projet are a potential benefits. Some of the detriments established in th study include job lost, this is in the view of the fact that human capital in South Sudan is significantly low in contrast with Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania. Other disadvantages found in the study is perturb of over dependence on basic commodities from other regioanl bloc members. Seeking regional economic and political alliance because of firendly relationship between South Sudan and some other EAC member states like Uganda, Kenay are some motives that pilot South Sudan’s membership in EAC.
East Africa Community is one of the most advance regional economic community in Africa. Although there are some success stories of EAC, the regional body has accomplished not as much as wanted. This is due to so many reasons for example membership in multiple regional economic communities also known as spaghetti bowl, harmonization and coordination of policis, poor infrastructure et cetera.South Sudan’s membership in EAC is most likely to have positive effect in trade increase, but it would also come with heavy cost that should never be disregarded. For South Sudan to start ripping the benefits of its mebership in EAC the government should commence implementing the Custom Union and Common markert protocols to draw levels with and integrate its economy with the other EAC members states. The extent to which South Sudan would benefit from this regional integration would largely depends on its economic development and political will.
Guarantee a Peaceful Environment to Encourage and Facilitate Trade Regional integration offers a wide cluster of advantages for South Sudan, particularly over the long haul. Notwithstanding, for these advantages to be acknowledged South Sudan must promote peace and stability this would enable businesses, people and private sector to engage in productive activities and trade. The government should make sure that universal adequate concept of good governance are clung to by all ethnic and government institutions. Moreover, the government must guarantee that democracy, rule of law, respect for human rights and social justice are highly observed.
Build Appropriate Hard and Soft Infrastructure
Infrastructure is the fundamental necessity of economic development. It doesn’t straight produce goods and services but encourages and facilitate production, facilitation of production could be in primary, could be in secondary or in tertiary economic activities. It plays a focal role in trade between countries, regions both locally and globally. With only 100 kilometers paved road, South Sudan needs roads, communication infrastructure. The government should also prioritize electricity; this would empowers the local entrepreneurs, create technological atmosphere and attract investors. South Sudan has the smallest electricity utilization per capita in sub-Saharan Africa, with a per capita consumption of between 1-3 kWh. The key to South Sudan’s ability to pull out benefits from EAC membership is to provide itself with constructive and effective infrastructure, and as in addition to proper governmental institution to enhance trade.
Examine macroeconomic policies to boost Entrepreneurs
Until now the government is experiencing challenges of executing macroeconomic policies that back economic growth and wealth creation; some of the swift policies to boost growth include providing opportunities for the entrepreneurs to have access to credit, finance, and land. Supporting rural farmers to have access to urban market this would enable them to sell their products. Furthermore, the government should also address administrative barriers to trade, and taxation and legal environment.
Address Macroeconomic Adjustment Problems
The government should undauntedly address budgetary, monetary and fiscal policy, exchange rate, and balance of payments and debt issues. Advice of IMF is highly needed, in this context.
Incorporate National Policies in Align with EAC’s Policies
The government should incorporate its policies with the regional bloc policies; this is to ensure they both work in the same page and to avoid double work.
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