The beneficial effect of weight loss in obese adults who suffer from OSA and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Over the last decade, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) seems to be a recognizable prevailing condition among people with type 2 diabetes (mellitus) and vice versa. The majority of cases of overweight adults in our modern society are the result of poor style of living, such as having an unhealthy diet pattern and a lack of regular physical activity. This type of lifestyle has been correlated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as it is a recurring issue amidst this group of people. The other pervasive condition linked to this growing group of obese adults, is the curable sleep disorder which is known as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Derived from recent numbers it has been suggested that up to 50% of the patients with type 2 diabetes have moderate to severe OSA. Supporting this cross?sectional link between the presence and gravity of OSA and insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, there has been a sufficient amount of literature published regarding this phenomenon. Intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation in OSA can alter glucose homeostasis by triggering an ensemble of physiological events in the human body, which could increase the risk of getting type 2 diabetes. On the contrary, type 2 diabetes may also have an influence on the development of sleep-disordered respiring. Furthermore, it has been evaluated that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment helps enhance glucose control in patients with OSA. Although, both diabetes type 2 and OSA have been linked with cardiovascular morbidity as well, this review will primarily focus on the significance of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea amidst overweight middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes, given that these maladies are increasingly common in this specific age group.

What are the risks for type 2 DM patients to get OSA?
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has a few dangers that are modifiable, to be able to recognize and regulate these risk factors play an important role when it comes to alleviating the associated complications. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the important comorbidities under sleep-related breathing disorders, which should get sufficient attention when it comes to the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. Alvah R. Cass, W. Herome Alonso, Jamal Islam and Susan C, Weller conducted an experiment where they attempted to approximate the percentage of patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, who are prone to suffering from OSA and to expound factors associated with that likelihood. They focused their attention on the common risk factors that obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes share, which are: age, ethnicity, and obesity. With the outcomes of the experiment, it can be concluded that among adults with type 2 diabetes, the risk of getting OSA is quite high, and in some cases, this may go undiagnosed.

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What are the effects of weight loss among patients with OSA?
Gary D. Foster, Kelley E. Borradaile and Mark H. Sanders examined the effects of weight loss among participants with OSA and type 2 diabetes over a one-year period. For this study, obese patients suffering from type 2 diabetes were split up randomly into two groups. The first group, named ILI (Intensive Lifesyle Intervention), was assigned to develop a healthier lifestyle. Hence, they received a dietary modification and they had to follow a weight loss program specifically for obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The second group, labeled DSE (Diabetes Support and Education), followed sessions where they were guided to manage their diabetes more effectively. In the end, patients who were in the ILI group lost more weight in comparison to the DSE group, and at the end of the first year it was noticeable that more than three times as many participants in the ILI group than in the DSE group had a decrease of their OSA. Additionally, the pervasiveness of severe OSA in the ILI group seemed to have decreased to 50% of the DSE group while the situation with OSA seem to have worsened in the DSE group. These results conclude that weight loss is indeed a relevant factor when it comes to improvements regarding OSA among obese patients with type 2 diabetes.