The brain as we know today is very complex that has functions that control our whole body, but our brain wasn’t always thought to be that. Nearly 7,000 years ago during the early stone age, Homo sapiens cut holes in skulls called trepanation. Trepanation was to help the evil escape the body, and during this time the brain was thought to be the least important organ. In the Bible and the Talmud, the brain couldn’t be related to any diseases. As time progressed, the facts that once seemed valuable changed. In the time of the Greeks, Aristotle, and Egyptians, the heart was the most necessary organ. As Aristotle told, an injury to the heart was fatal, but an injury to the brain wasn’t. An observation showed a change in thought could change your heartbeat while the brain showed no change. The heart was characterized as the vital organ of life, while the soul was crucial for life was in the liver. When Pythagoras, Plato, and Hippocrates came, they told of how the brain was most crucial organ, that the liver held greed, and that the heart was the emotions. Galen came around to give new insight to brain research, and that was the idea of ventricles. Ventricles are empty spaces which hold an air like substance, and when tested affected the animal like numbness. The vapors in the ventricles were called “spiritus animalis”, and the empty space in the ventricles were said to be the soul. The “spiritus animalis” was like a breeze in the ventricles, but it was later found to be a nerve juice. Galen continued his research on ventricles and began trying to build a model of brain function. When Leonardo de Vinci was fascinated by the idea of the brain, he drew the first realistic picture of the ventricles. Andres Versalus began doing live brain dissections for people to see, but even with new ideas of the brain no one knew the function of the brains parts. Réne Decartes told how the parts did not relate to brain function, but it was a connection to the soul. The brain he described was very complex, which produced a new model of the brain. When Giovianni Bolvellis did an experiment, he began to make a connection towards muscles and the brain. With all this new information during this time, most experiments could not be proven since other ideas contradicted their ideas. Luigi Galvani did an experiment and found the “spiritus animalis” didn’t hold electricity, but the nerve fiber did. Emil Du Bois brought the idea of nerve fibers, and soon after the neuronal theory was born. Microscopes began to test tissue samples that showed that brain cells had the same shape, and the idea of neurons go to neurons was introduced by Charles Sharrington. These neurons had connection points called synapse, which connected neuron to neurons. The study of neurons brought the idea that nerve fibers can learn and change by action. The brain still was not connected to thought or thinking, but parts of the brain were now being identified by what they controlled. The cerebral cortex is a vital part of memory, but even with this new information of the brains parts and their functions were still not fully understood. Maps of the brain function were developed by Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Theodor Fritsch, who began doing experiments about functions in certain regions of the brain. Certain regions in the brain produced movement while others couldn’t. Marc Dax found that the ability to speak came from the left hemisphere through experimentation. Wilder Penfield did research on the brain to see different functions in different regions, and he stimulated the brain which caused his patients to report the sight of lights, noises, images, voices, and memories. The cortex function is like a brain machine, and it is very complex. In the 20th century, computers came along with a new science, psychology. The brain and a computer are very complex, but almost identical. Karl Steinbeck brought a new idea of associative memory, which related the mind to computer memory. William James came up with a new idea of functionalism, which is how we learn behavior from experience. We need to understand computers, and how we think, feel, consciousness to continue brain and mental research. The idea of robots controlling the world should not be feared, because it will be us with longer lives, more wisdom, and more abilities. The big answer we need is the body and soul connection, and we must understand which ideas or theories that were in the past that we can keep around. Psychology is a science, it contains ideas from neurobiology, classical physics, and quantum physics and chemistry. The answer lies in all these sciences, and the furthering understanding of the soul. New ideas and research will need to be done, but who knows what we could find. The brain is a complex organ with certain functions, but will we ever figure out everything the brain has to offer?