THE IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ MOTIVATION ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING IN COMMUNITY SECONDARY SCHOOLS A CASE STUDY OF HAI DISTRICT, KILIMANJARO REGION
SEBASTIAN MATHIAS MASSAWE
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ADMINISTRATION, PLANNING AND POLICY STUDIES OF THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
The undersigned certifies that has read and hereby recommends for examination by The Open university of Tanzania a dissertation titled “The Impact of Teachers Motivation on the Improvement of Teaching and learning on Community Secondary School in Hai District” in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Master of Education in Administration, Planning and Policy Studies (MED- APPS) of the Open University of Tanzania
Dr. Evaristo A. Mtitu
All rights are reserved. No part of this dissertation may be allowed to be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any other form by any means electronically, mechanically, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the author or the Open University of Tanzania in that behalf.
I, Sebastian Mathias Massawe, do hereby declare that this dissertation is my own original work and that it has not been submitted to any other university for a similar or any other award
This dissertation is dedicated to my father late Mathias Ndelamo and my mother Josephine Ndelamo, my children Septimo, Josephine and Erick, my wife Violet Massawe, my sister Dr. Laurencia Ndelamo and Sr. Mary Mathias.
I would like to acknowledge and thanks my special thanks to my supervisor Dr Evaristo A. Mtitu for special guiding of this dissertation he has spent much time in providing valuable and productive advices and directives on how to go about this dissertation.
I would to express my thanks to my respondents who allowed me to gather information on this dissertation. Special thank should go to Open University of Tanzania Management and staff members of Lemira Secondary School.for their moral and support they paid for the accomplishment of my academic journey.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of teaches motivation on the improvement of teaching and learning in community secondary school in Hai district. Study sought to assess the relationship between motivation and teachers work performance, examine the influence of heads of schools on teaching and learning process, analyze challenges faced by head of schools on teacher’s motivation and determine strategies of improving motivation among community secondary schools. The study involve qualitative and quantitative approach. Participants involved in this study were 73. 60 subject teachers, 6 heads of schools, 6 ward education officer and one district secondary Education Officer. Data were collected by using questionnaire, interview, observation and document review where by simple random sampling and purposively sampling techniques were used in selecting respondents.
The finding show that………………..
The study recommends that………………..
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES………………
LIST OF FIGURES………..
LIST OF ABRIVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS……………….
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY………………………..
Background of the study………………
Statement of the problem……………
Significant of the study……
Scope of the study………
Limitation of the study…………
Organization of the study….
Data collection methods……
Validity and Reliability………….
PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Demographic profile of respondents …….
The relationship between teachers motivation and work performance
The influence of head of school on teaching and learning process
Challenges facing heads of school on teachers motivation
Strategies of improving teachers motivation
SUMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
Appendix 1 questionnaire for teachers
Appendix 11 interview for heads of schools and ward education officers
Appendix 111 Research clearance letter from Open University of Tanzania
Appendix 1v Research clearance letter from district executive Director
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 necta results
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Conceptual Frame work
LIST OF ABREVIATION AND ACRONYMS
CSEE Certificate of Secondary Education Examination
DSEO District Secondary Education Officer
MoEVT Ministry of Education and Vocation Training
NECTA National Examination Council of Tanzania
SEDEP Secondary Education Development Plan
OUT Open University of Tanzania
URL United Republic of Tanzania
UNESCO United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization
TSC Teachers Services Commission
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The study will concerns with the impact of teachers motivation on improving teaching and learning in community secondary schools in Hai district. The chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problem, significant of study, purpose of the study, study objectives, research questions, delimitation of the study, conceptual frame work, definition of key terms and the organization of the study.
1.1 Background of the study
Motivation and performance are very important factors in success of any school and work performance. Any school is necessary to adopt change of environment to motivate teachers. Motivation increases teacher confidence and performance the school goals can be achieved in effective way. Motivation stimulates, direct and sustain behavior. A teacher may be motivated by money, by a sense of having work, security, work environment and the like.
This study intends to investigate the impact of teacher’s motivation on improving teaching and learning in community secondary schools taking the case of Hai District. This may be intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is personal interest, enjoyment or pleasure. Extrinsic motivation is governed with influencing a personal behavior.
Teacher motivation can rise when teaching work satisfy basic needs like food, shelter and clothing (Bennel ; Mukyamuzi, 2005). The effective motivated teacher utilizers well teaching methods and being good creative to bring students better performance.
The school administration and other education stakeholders need to be aware that, motivated teachers perform better than those who are not motivated. Lack of motivation demoralize teachers in developing countries (Sinyolo, 2007). Positive feedback, good communication, and rewards foster motivation. Effective running of school is dependent on the head of school as a leader. Head of the school is responsible for everything which occur in their school. In the school environment heads of the school should motivate teachers to join the force in the school to reach the targeted goal. Blasé and Blasé (1994) pointed the effective use of government strategies teacher feel energized, participating management and motivated. Effective school management plan increase teachers morale at work and leads teachers to positive attitudes and interest in their work.
Mustafa and Othman (2010) pointed out that there is positive relationship between motivation and work performance of teachers. This shows that the greater level of motivation the high will be teacher’s performance. Motivation of teaching come from good payment. A good payment help teachers to meet their basic needs and concentrate in teaching activities, while low salary discourage teachers to perform their work effectively. There is lack of emphasis on teacher’s motivation such as promotions, salary adjustment, payment of leave and transfer allowance (Bernel ; Mukyamuzi, 2005). This is among factors contributed to poor performance in community secondary school.
Secondary Education Development plan (SEDP)was introduced in 2004 the aim of SEDEP is to increase access to secondary school went together with improving quality, equity and management issues (URT, 2004). Increasing secondary school there is demand in increase in teachers and quality of education. Increasing salaries will show changing teacher attitudes and improving student learning, create non-monetary incentives such as increasing opportunity for professional development and environment of the school (Michaelowa, 2002).Advocate for higher teacher salaries UNESCO (2006) recommended a teacher salary of 3.5 times GDP Per capital. Encourage the community to contribute to teachers’ salaries and encourage community self-help project to construct house more available (Urwick, et al 2005).
Teachers’ motivation that operate within the school system if not well attended could slow down their performance, unhappiness and frustration all of which as a result reduce teacher’s performance. The government and stakeholders should be involved in one way or another to improve performance by creating motivation packages to teachers, heads of school should use different leadership styles to encourage them not to be discouraged at their working place.
This study is specifically designed to assess the impact of teacher’s motivation on the improvement of teaching and learning in community secondary school in Hai district.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Secondary education in Tanzania is accompanied with poor performance in secondary education examinations where most students get division IV or fail completely. The performance for selected secondary schools at Hai district for consecutive three years is as shown below.
School Ward Year Performance
div. I div. II div. III div. IV div. 0
Kyuu sec.school Masama West 2014 00 08 02 17 09
2015 00 02 04 26 25
2016 00 04 13 36 12
Lemira sec.school Masama Central 2014
01 01 07 20 23
2015 00 05 05 40 51
2016 00 07 06 41 25
Nkokashu sec. school Masama East 2014 01 01 06 19 09
2015 00 00 04 44 108
2016 00 03 07 35 45
Boma sec.school Masama East 2014 02 02 10 25 09
2015 01 05 10 56 59
2016 01 07 15 46 43
Rundugai Sec.school Masama South 2014 00 01 06 27 11
2015 02 05 10 67 43
2016 00 06 15 47 21
Lyasikika sec. school Machame 2014 00 03 05 23 15
2015 00 04 05 53 54
2016 01 07 13 36 32
Figure 1: CSEE results of three years, 2014, 2015 and 2016 Source: NECTA
Different studies have proved that motivation increase teacher`s efficiency. Expenditure of teachers per month is not equal to their salary. In Tanzania, teachers are earning less than what is required for their human needs. Different Studies pointed out that good performance of students is affected by working conditions which include teachers low salaries, poor working environment, work load, teacher –student ratio (Aaronson et al, 2007).
Ministry of Education and Culture since 1995 have different sections which deal with services and working conditions of teachers which discussed the importance of motivation for teachers such as salary payments shortage of teaching and learning materials, lack of housing for teachers and individual welfare of teachers.
Efforts are taken towards improving teacher’s motivation such as the establishment of the Teachers Service Commission (TSC) under the Teachers Service Act of 2015 as a step taken by government towards solving teacher’s issues such as promotion, claims, working and living environment. The researcher is more interested in examining different motivation options provided to teachers so as to improve teaching and learning in community secondary school in Hai District.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was guided by general objective and specific objectives as shown below.
1.3.1 The General Objective
The General objective of this study is to explore the impact of teachers’ motivation on the improving teaching and learning in Community Secondary Schools in Hai District.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
The researcher was guided by the following specific objectives:
(i) To assess the relationship between motivation and teacher’s work performance.
(ii) To examine the influence of heads of schools on teaching and learning process.
(iii) To analyze challenges faced by Head of schools on teachers motivation.
(iv) To determine strategies of improving motivation among community secondary schools.
1.3.3 Research Questions
(i) What is the relationship between motivation and teachers work performance?
(ii) What influence does the head of school have on teaching and learning processes?
(iii) What are the challenges faced by Head of schools on motivation of teachers in their schools?
(iv)What strategies can be used to improve teacher’s motivation?
1.4 Significant of the Study
The study is significant because it may provide information on the relationship between motivation and teachers work performance, the influence of heads of schools on teaching and learning process, challenges faced by head of schools and the strategies of improving teacher’s motivation in teaching. Also the study may encourage other researchers to conduct a study related to the impact of teacher’s motivation in improving teaching and learning in community secondary schools in Hai district.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study was conducted in community secondary schools in Hai district, Kilimanjaro region. The selected area of the study represent other areas in the country. The schools was selected in order to examine the impact of teacher’s motivation on improving teaching and learning in community secondary schools in Hai district.
1.6 Definition of Key Terms
Community Secondary Schools
Community secondary school is defined as school directly maintained by the Ministry or Local Authority (National Assembly, 1995). Sometimes addressed as government secondary schools owned and financed by the central government through local government authority. These are secondary schools that are built, financed and owned by both government and the community.
Teacher’s motivation is the situation of teachers by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors to greater effort, excellent performance or higher attainment. Highly motivated teachers have the will to perform, are actively engaged in teaching are open to new ideas and approaches produce positive results and are committed to students.
Impact is a situation, process or person means to affect them. Means increase pressure for higher wages and that in turn would impact on inflation and competition.(from Collins English dictionary com)
Teaching is what teachers do.
Teaching is the process of carrying out those activities that experience has shown to be effective in getting students to learn.
Learning is process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, value or preferences.
Improvement is the act or process of making something better. Change that makes something better or more valuable.
Performance involves punctuality at work place, good cooperation with co-workers, and control over emotions, commitment and willingness to accept the delegation of duties.(Cole,1998)
1.7 Organization of the Study
This study comprises five chapters. Each chapter has sub- parts with short explanations. Chapter one introduces the background of the problem, research objective, research question, significant of research, limitation and delimitation of the study and definition of key terms. Chapter two covers the literature review which related to the study, conceptual frame work and research gap and chapter three deals with research methodology and research procedure. Chapter four covers the presentation, analysis and discussion of the results and chapter five present the summary, conclusions and recommendations of the study.
The preceding chapter discussed the background and the rationale of teacher’s motivation. This chapter is concerned with literature review of the study, the theoretical frame work, and the conceptual frame work about the impact of teacher’s motivation in improving teaching and learning process. It provides more information on other studies and the investigation in community secondary schools to bridge the gap.
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1 The relationship between motivation and work performance
Parijat, (2014) argues that motivation is the driving force behind all human efforts and is essential to all human achievements. As an aspect of management it occupies a very important place. Many theories on motivation in business management have emerged. Expectancy Theory as proposed by Victor Vroom is one of the process theories of motivation. It looks at the cognitive processes that effect motivation of people working in organizations. Expectancy Theory is useful in many respects. If an employee earns a reward, such as a financial bonus or promotion, they will increase their productivity to obtain the reward. The head of school can create a work environment, climate and culture that will increase the motivation levels of teachers by understanding the factors that motivate and demotivate individual employees.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s two factor theory and Vroom’s expectancy theory are used to show what motivates people. Money motivates employees which are in the first three steps of the pyramid of Maslow. Factors such as stimulating personal growth, giving more responsibilities and giving more recognition for their performance prove to be help better motivate employees. They should feel that they are capable of successfully completing a task and the reward should be valuable and in line with the performance.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs shows that motivation to work comes from certain needs an employee wants to fulfill. In the first three steps of the pyramid (psychological, safety and security, and love and belonging), money is seen as a tool to motivate people.
Herzberg’s two factor theory showed that there are motivating and hygiene factors which play a role in the motivation of employees. Hygiene factors do motivate employees but should be present to prevent employees from becoming unmotivated. This includes working conditions, salary, and relationships among personnel, job security and quality of management. Motivating factors as well as good hygiene factors are capable of increasing the motivation and therefore performance of employees.
Vroom’s expectancy theory states three factors that play a role in the motivation of employees: effort-performance expectancy, instrumentality and valence. The effort performance expectancy deals with the expectancy an employee has about his own capabilities to complete a task. If the employee thinks he can do it, the motivation will be larger and vice versa. Instrumentality deals with the expectations of the employee about what reward he will receive for his performance. Valence deals with the expectation the employee has about how valuable the reward he can obtain is. If the employee sees the reward, such as money, as useful, then he will be motivated to perform well. Motivation stimulates personal growth. To motivate employees, an employer can give employees more responsibilities and more recognition for their performance
Therefore according to Herzberg, employees who are satisfied at work attribute their satisfaction to internal factors. Applying two factor theory of education in school improvement depends on the improvement of teaching practices. To increase teacher motivation, the capability of a teacher should be the main focus of authorities (Ololube, 2006).Teachers work efficiently when they are motivated in different aspects. Due to this theory, there is a need for motivation to raise teachers’ performance.
2.2.2 Classical management theory
Classical management theories, sometimes known as scientific management theories, were developed by Fredric Taylor. These theories explain how to manage work in organizations efficiently. In 1909 in his book “the principle of scientific management,” the theory explains how work should be organized and simplified to improve our productivity. In addition, there is a need for cooperation amongst workers and employers to increase productivity. Employees are motivated by money, so if a worker works hard, they will be compensated with money accordingly. Taylor believes that decision based upon tradition and rule of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study on individual work. The theory argues that human beings, or workers in this case, by nature, are lazy and dislike work especially when working in groups. The head of school has power to influence teachers in teaching and learning processes.
The scientific management theory explains that to improve the academic performance there must be cooperation between the head of school and teachers. This theory suggests that there will be improvement of productivity if the head of school utilizes principles, close cooperation, and known distribution of responsibilities.
2.3 Empirical Literature Review
2.3.1 The relationship between motivation and work performance
Barasa et al, (2015) conducted a study on the influence of teacher motivation and strategies on the students’ performance in day secondary schools of Trans –Nzoia west district, Trans Nzoia County, Kenya. The study sought to establish how staff development influences students’ performance in day secondary schools; to determine how staff recognition influences students’ performance in day secondary schools; to establish how teachers’ growth and advancement influences students’ performance in day secondary schools and to determine the influence of teachers’ incentives on the students’ performance in day secondary schools.
The results were that most teachers lacked motivation in their work and this accounts for the low performance in these schools. Motivation strategies such as recognition, training, development, incentives, and career advancement were minimal in the schools. Findings on teacher motivation in TransNzoia west district indicates widespread low or decreasing levels of motivation, resulting in low student performance. This agreed with the findings of Bennell and Akyeampong (2007) which state that large percentages of primary school teachers are poorly motivated in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, the study is conducted in different context from one this study is targeted.
Moreover Ololube, (2006) argues that motivation is very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and ranks alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources, and strategies. The study assessed the similarities and differences between teachers’ job satisfaction, motivation and their teaching performance in Rivers State of Nigeria. The research revealed that teachers’ sources of job satisfaction have a greater impact on teaching performance, as teachers are also dissatisfied with the educational policies and administration, pay and fringe benefits, material rewards and advancement.
According to HakiElimu, (2016) teachers’ level of motivation and job satisfaction in Tanzania is low due to several factors. These include poor working environments, delays in promotions, lack of support from authorities, inadequate support from parents and the community, inadequate teaching and learning materials, the low status of the teaching profession, low salaries and longstanding unpaid claims. Its findings will not be applicable direct to the current study on the impact of teacher’s motivation on improving teaching and learning process. The quality of education depends on motivation provided to teachers. Improvement of students’ performance is due to the effort teachers have in the classroom. Teachers are essential in promoting quality education (UNESCO, 2000). Efforts must be made to ensure that teachers are well educated, highly trained, professional, and are able to work with students. In sub-Sahara African, teachers’ motivation is low and has affected the quality of education and performance of their students (Fry 2003).
Motivation of teachers comes from good payment. A good salary helps teachers to meet their basic needs and concentrate on their work. The provision of motivation encourages teachers to be able to perform effectively in school activities. The deficient in motivation among teachers results in unwillingness to participate in school activities such as poor attendance, late coming, lack of interest, attitudes and resistance to contribute more than the required (Jackson, 1997).
Motivation is linked to how teachers perceive their own working and living environment. Motivated teachers have positive relationships between learning and performance of students. Teachers should be intrinsically and extrinsically motivated.
Due to teachers’ payment being insufficient, teachers are forced to borrow some money to meet their basic needs. It also affects them psychologically because they are thinking about debts instead of how to teach effectively. Therefore, there is a need to increase teachers’ salaries and pay their allowances on time so that they may be more motivated to concentrate on teaching activities. This will result in improvement with teaching and learning processes in community secondary schools.
2.3.2 Influence of heads of school on teaching and learning process
Musa, (2014) conducted a study on the effective strategies that heads of schools can use to motivate teachers. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from 120 teachers from 20 schools in Ilala district. The results of the findings have revealed that the most effective strategies for the heads of schools to use are provision of teaching and learning materials and resources, involving teachers in decision making, and awarding token prizes to teachers who produced better results. Personal factors that helped motivate teachers included interpersonal relationships (collegiality), sense of belonging, ability and interest in teaching and level of education.
Furthermore, the study found that school based factors leading to teacher motivation included a conducive environment (good working condition), parents’ involvement in school issues and learners’ discipline.
Adeyemi, (2010) investigated the relationship between the leadership styles of principals and teacher’s job performance in secondary schools. His study determined that there is a direct relationship between leadership styles used by Principals and teachers job performance. Depending on the situation, different leadership styles have more success than others with teacher performance including autocratic and democratic styles. Therefore, a good leadership style is required for improvement of teaching and learning for good performance amongst the students.
Running a school effectively depends on the head of school. The head of school has different ways to motivate teachers. School management should develop a learning environment with good physical infrastructure, transparency with the teachers, respect of staff and their ideas, skill development, and adhere to education goals set by Ministry of Education and Vocational Training.
Also staff members can be motivated by delegating responsibilities to them, consulting them regularly, recognizing their achievements and work appreciation (Wanjiku, 2012).
Therefore heads of schools should ensure the improvement of the school environment as well as support teachers’ motivation for effective performance.
2.3.3 Challenges heads of schools faced on teachers motivation.
Nthenya et al, (2012) conducted a study on challenges that are faced by head teachers in managing the teachers in their schools and the impact that these challenges have on teaching and learning processes. The objectives of the study were to find the issues that the head teachers encounter in recruitment, induction, development and motivation of teachers in their schools. The findings were; challenges affecting teachers were resistance to change as well as lack of commitment towards learning and training. Teachers and support staff had similar financial reward that lead to lower level of motivation. There is a need to carry out similar study in order to come up with more relevant information to match with teachers at Hai district.
Work and living environments for many teachers are poor which tends to lower self-esteem and is generally de-motivating teachers. Housing is a major issue for nearly all teachers (Bennell, 2004). There are inadequate staff houses to accommodate all teachers which affects the preparation for the teachers’ lessons and low salary affects teacher’s performance.
In Tanzania the implementation of Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) of early 1990s by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank forced the government to cut down expenditure on education and other services (Otunga, et al 2008). Teachers’ salaries were poor and their purchasing power fell dramatically. This resulted in teachers taking an extra job in order to survive. This has affected their teaching morale.
In addition to that teachers were exposed to political harassment, difficult working conditions which include large class size, shortage of teaching and learning facilities and work load. Political leaders put pressure on the head of schools to maintain and performing things which are not possible due to the situation (Otunga et al 2008). Other problems were personal to teachers and were beyond the heads of school control. For instance, some teachers took loan from bank and others from SACCOS took so long to pay and that interfered with their daily activities.
The challenges heads of school face exist due to the difficulty of education instructions (Armstrong, 2004). The supervision of teachers is challenge due to the situation under which many teachers live and work. There is need to develop motivation strategies such as update their competence by giving them in service training, commitment and capability so as to cope with curriculum changes and reform.
Nyirenda (2013) pointed that the challenges facing the education sector in Tanzania are lack of teachers’ motivation due to little resources allocated by the central government; Shortage of accountability among teachers; Deficiency of teaching and learning materials; poor infrastructure and Lack of effective and efficiency resource utilization; Poor community participation; and knowledge; and Curriculum preparation processes. In the other way these are among challenges facing heads of schools and reduce teacher’s performance.
The challenges facing implementation of motivation to teachers is perceived as an intellectual exercise. Teachers in community secondary school have a low perception of their school administration effectiveness. If the school administration is effective, teachers will be more motivated and perform their work effectively.
2.3.4 Strategies of improving teacher’s motivation
In order to improve the performance of teachers, factors that can motivate the teachers should be looked at. This could include the government providing good conditions for teaching and living as well as other benefits.
Motivation of teacher vary in different countries depending on the level of economic situation.
Adelabu (2005) identifies teacher motivation as based on the way teachers
are organized, working conditions, teachers? competence, teachers? status, vocational intent, career advancement, fringe benefits, and remunerations
There is a need to increase teachers? salaries and pay them on time so that they may be motivated to concentrate on teaching activities and this will possibly improve teaching and learning. Teachers? motivation promotes teachers to plan for teaching activities like preparing teaching aids and lesson plan and other creative activities.
Matthew, (2014) examined the strategies for motivating teachers in order to improve performance which included allowing teachers to participate in decision making, recognizing, praising and rewarding outstanding performance, assigning responsibilities, providing incentives, improving school environment, providing instructional materials, regular promotions, sponsoring conferences, seminars, and workshops, as well as prompt payment of salaries and allowances.
Additionally Bohlander et al (2001) shows that compensation packages are very important for administrators and managers of education institutions in motivating teachers.
In Tanzania, teacher’s motivation is low and it has had a negative impact on the quality of education (Hakielimu, 2004). The minimum salary is low and teachers are earning less than what is required for human survival. The ministry has introduced a bank system where by teachers have to receive their salaries through the bank and pay house rent from their pockets. The classroom environment is not attractive and does not support teachers to be successful due to large number of students, poor classes, shortage of desks and teaching materials, poor housing, poor payment packages, and lack of training (Mkumbo, 2011).
Alam, (2011) recommended that an increase in teachers’ salaries should be according to their qualification and provided to acknowledge their efforts and good performance. This would bring awareness in the community and they would start to recognize the status of teachers for quality education. Studies show that people who feel appreciated are more positive and can boost work performance.
Therefore the good leadership style, pay, promotion, collaboration and environment of a school are very important and promote good performance for teachers which bring effective results to the students.
2.4 Conceptual Framework
Conceptual framework describes an abstract of basic concepts and constructs that are expected to interact on real settings and experiences that form a foundation of good research. The conceptual framework of this research explains the impact of teacher’s motivation in relation to improvement of teaching and learning in community secondary schools a case study of Hai district. The teacher’s motivation has a direct relationship with the performance of teachers in their work. Whereas, motivation is the independent variable and teachers performance is the dependent variable. This is to say, there is direct relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. Also the availability of intermediate variables may have an effect on teachers’ performance. Therefore, the role of motivation in the teacher’s performance will depend on the interplay of independent variable and intermediate variables.
Figure 2. The conceptual framework on the impact of teacher’s motivation in relation to improvement of teaching and learning in community secondary schools
Figure 2: Source: modified from Sanyay and Brandley (2008).
For positive school results there must be a mutual relationship between the head of school and teachers (Ehren;Visscher, 2006). Teachers must be committed towards their work with the help of the head of school. The head of school should be competent and knowledgeable in all areas of motivation. Feedback and quality of leadership style should make the teachers value their work and improve their performance.
2.6 literature gap
The gap in the literature refers to the shortage of empirical data related to the study because more investigation on the topic is required. Different literature has been reviewed in this study and describes a variety of issues linked with the impact of teachers motivation on the improvement of teachers performance in teaching and learning in community secondary schools .The researchers revealed that there are many studies that have been written about ways of improving performance such as good leadership, availability of teaching and learning resources, school supervision and in service training. Thus this has made the research to have a deep investigation on the impact of teachers motivation for improvement of performance and different options practiced in community secondary schools in Hai district.
This chapter presents the research methodology and research procedures by showing the research strategies, methods, study areas, population sample, sample size, sampling procedure, research instruments, data collection, data analysis, ethical consideration of the study, time framework, and budget estimate.
3.2 Description of Study Area
The study was conducted at Hai district, one of the districts in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. A researcher has selected six schools purposely, because it is easy to visit them during data collection. The following schools were included; Lemira secondary school Masama central ward, Nkokashu secondary school Masama Romu ward, Kyuu secondary school Masama West ward, Rundugai secondary school Masama South ward, Lyasikika secondary school Machame East ward, and Boma secondary school Masama East. Also Hai District selected to be an area of study for this title due to the fact that no study done on the impact of teachers motivation on improvement on teaching and learning in community secondary schools.
3.3 Research Design
The research design used in this study was case study. The case study was chosen because it allow using the variety of data collection techniques; it offers in depth and breadth analysis of variables to be studied. It is flexible method in data collection and it can be used in combination with other design. Case study design is usually associated with a specific place, community or organization in order to shade light on a phenomenon (Bryman, 2001). In this study the researcher applied different categories of people in Hai district such as teachers, heads of schools, ward education officers were involved to give information about the impact of teacher’s motivation on the improvement of teaching and learning. However the study applied both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Quantitative approach helped to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data and transform them into statistics. While qualitative approach help to study behavior, opinion and other defined variables.
3.4 Study Population
Population refers to an entire group of individuals’ events or objects having common observable characteristics. Is a full set of cases from which a sample is taken (Kothari, 2004) the population of the study has involved sixty subject teachers, six heads of schools, one districts educational officer, and six ward educational officers.
3.5 Sample and sampling Techniques
Sample is a portion of elements taken from a population which is considered to be a representative to the population, Kothari (1990). The purpose of selection of a sample is to obtain respondents who reflect the quality and characteristics of general population.
In this study the selection of respondents was done purposively and systematic random sampling where a total of 73 respondents were selected which includes 60 subject teachers, 6 Heads of selected secondary schools, 1 District Secondary Educational Officer of Hai district, 6 Wards Educational Officer.
3.5.1 Simple Random Sampling
Simple random technique used because of its advantage that each element in the population provides an equal chance or opportunity of being selected (Kothari, 1990). The researcher use this technique to select secondary schools teachers, whereby ten teachers were selected in each school. In this study to avoid bias pieces of paper labeled “YES “or “NO“ were put in a box and after shaking teachers were allowed to pick a piece of paper from the box. Those who picked “Yes“ were involved in responding questionnaires.
3.5.2 Purposive sampling
Purposive sampling the respondents are chosen on the basis of their knowledge of the information required. This technique was used in order to obtain specific information about the impact of teacher’s motivation on improvement of teaching and learning from the studied area. The 6 heads of schools, 6 ward education officers and one District Education officer was chosen purposively to be interviewed due to the reason that they are the ones having information needed by the researcher.
3.6 Data Collection
In this study, a combination of two methods of data collection was used. Data collection was done using both qualitative and quantitative approaches.
3.6.1 Source of Data
Both primary and secondary source of data was used. Primary data was collected through interview, observation, and questionnaires while secondary source of data was obtained from relevant documents published and unpublished documents within the heads of schools offices and other related educational places.
3.6.3 Data collection techniques
An interview is a data collection technique that involves oral questioning to respondents either individually or as a group the responses can be recorded by writing down during the interview or immediate after the interview or by tape recording or combination of both.
Personal interviews were used mainly for sensitive questions as per research objectives. Interview technique provide much potential due to the fact that the researcher meet face to face with respondents and the researcher had a chance to clarify ambiguous answers and follow up information (Msuya and Maro, 2002). From the interview useful data was collected.
Questionnaires were used in this study to elicit response about the impact of teacher’s motivation on improvement of teaching and learning on community secondary schools in Hai district. Questionnaires were used to find the specific objectives on the impact of teacher’s motivation on improvement of teaching and learning on community secondary school in Hai district. The questionnaires consisted both open and closed ended questions. The questionnaire method was used to collect information from teachers.
Review of documents both (published and unpublished documents) from the heads of schools offices and other related educational center (offices). The documentary review used in this study is found in checklist Appendix 4.
In this study the researcher made an observation on teaching takes place at school, supervision of terminal and mock examination at schools, teachers teaching in the classrooms, application of teaching and learning materials, different books used, attitudes of teachers towards teaching, school environment where teaching is taking place.
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Instruments
3.7.1 Validity of Instruments
According to Bernard (2006), validity is the effectiveness of an instrument to measure what is intended to measure. A researcher was checked all the instruments used to collect data to provide the intended data which were expected to be collected
3.7.2 Reliability of Instruments
Reliability refers to the ability to measure instrument to confer accurate and consistency result (Bernard, 2006). A researcher was used questionnaire, interview and documentary methods to get the information required. This study insure that the reliability of the instruments by administering the questionnaire and interview twice in different time to see if there is consistency response from respondents.
3.8 Data Analysis and Interpretation Techniques
Kothari (2004) define data analysis as a process that implies editing, coding classifying and tabulation of collected data.
In this study editing activities on the collected raw data was conducted after the field work. The quantitative data were analyzed with the help of computer software in which frequencies and percentage of respondents on the impact of teacher’s motivation on the improvement of teaching and learning in community secondary schools in Hai district were computed. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis.
3.9 Research Ethics Consideration
The researcher adhere ethical issues such as respect for anonymity and confidentiality, storage of information, consent and respect for privacy. The researcher asked for research clearance for conducting the research from vice chancellor of Open University of Tanzania. The clearance helped the researcher to obtain permission from reginal administrative secretary (RAS) in Kilimanjaro region and District Executive Director of Hai district. The researcher worked with District Secondary Education Officer (DSEO), Ward education officers, heads of schools and teachers of the six selected community secondary schools all provided permission to collected data in specific schools. The clearance letter explain how long the collected information will last and explain the title of the study.
3.10 Chapter Summary
The aim of this chapter was to introduce research methods on the impact of teacher’s motivation on the improvement of teaching and learning process in community secondary schools case study of Hai district. The chapter sequentially outlined the areas of study, research design, population of study, sample size, instruments used, data analysis procedure and consideration on ethical issues. Hai district was selected as a representative of other district in the country
Population of study was subject teachers, head of schools, ward education officers and district secondary education officer. The research tools used to collect information were questionnaire, interview, observation and document review.
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
This chapter presents findings, which have been found through questionnaire,
Interview and documentary review. Questionnaires were distributed to teachers, and interview were conducted to ward Education officers, head of schools and District Secondary Education officer. Teachers filled the questionnaires and returned them to the researcher. Head of schools, ward education officers and district secondary education officer were by the researcher. The researcher also made some observation and documentary reviews in the schools he visited during data collection process.
4.2 Demographic Profile of Teachers
This section presents the demographic profile of teacher participants. Demographic profile includes the education level, length of working experience, gender, number of years at work.
4.2.1 Educational Attainment
Educational attainment as presented in Table 4.1 showed that71.7% of the teacher participants were bachelor degree holders while 25 % have diploma in education while small percentages (3.3%) of the participants have master in education.
4.2.2 Length of Teaching Experience
Based on the data presented in Table 4.1, results implied that majority of the teacher participants have teaching experienced. 36.7% of them have been teaching for 6 to 10 years, 25% were teaching for more than 11 years. 38.3% of the teachers had teaching experience below 5 years.
It is evident in gender category in table 4.1, which shows that out of 60 teacher
Participants, about forty two percent (41.7%) were female and fifty eight (58.3%) were males teachers. The findings of this study are evident that male teachers are more than female teachers.
Table 4.1: Demographic Profile of Teachers Educational level Frequency
Education level Frequency Percentage (%) Cumulative
Master in education 02 3.3 3.3
Degree in education 43 71.7 75
Diploma in education 15 25 100
Sub total 60 100
Working experience 23 38.3 38.3
Below 5 years 23 38.3 38.3
6 – 10 years 22 36.7 75
11 and above 15 25 100
Sub total 60 100
Male 35 58.3 58.3
Female 25 41.7 100
Sub total 60 100
Age 35 58.3 58.3
18 -35 35 58.3 58.3
36 -45 20 33.3 91.6
46 -55 04 6.7 98.3
55 ++ 01 1.7 100
Table 4.1 Field data (2018)
4.2.4 Heads of schools
Among the six schools where the researcher has made data collection, it was
Observed that there is a little bias in terms of maintaining gender balance in
Leadership. Four schools were led by the headmasters and two schools lead by the headmistress.
4.2.5 Ward education officers
These were among the target group from which the researcher has collected
Information. The population was a mixture of officers from every ward, for which they were purposive selected. Instruments for data collection that was used to collect data included interview.
The researcher was able to supply interviews to ward education officers and head of schools. Therefore presents the findings of the facts obtained from the field, which is guided by four research objectives. The objectives were:
(i) To assess the relationship between motivation and teacher’s work performance.
(ii) To examine the influence of heads of schools on teaching and learning process.
(iii) To analyze challenges faced by Head of schools on teachers motivation.
(iv)To determine strategies of improving motivation among community secondary schools.
4.3 To assess the relationship between motivation and teacher’s work performance.
Research indicates that teachers who are motivated are performing better than those who are less motivated. One of the most stable and consistently observed incidents in the field was the impact of teacher’s motivation in improving teaching and learning in community secondary school. The researcher wanted to find out how does teachers motivation influenced teachers’ performance. To understand some of the relationship between motivation and teachers work performance the researcher distributed questionnaires to teachers of the selected schools.
Table 4.2 The relationship between motivation and teachers work performance
Relationship between motivation and performance Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes 42 70
No 18 30
Source: Field data (2018).
Findings made it was revealed that teachers have identified to the researcher that there is relationship between teacher’s motivation and work performance. 70% of the teachers responded yes and give the reasons that motivation improve morality of hardworking and confidence in achievement of targeted goals. Motivation bring respect upon teachers and human being work in order to be motivated, and teachers feel like they are doing a good job and will be innovative in their teaching. Concerning teachers performance they said, it is low because they were not provided with enough teaching and learning materials and do not have high morale in teaching. They said that some teachers attend classes very late and the lost sessions are not compensated. 30% responded no and give the same reason that motivation increase confidence and teachers morale in teaching and learning. Except one respondent said that motivation is minor thing performance is in born character not caused by motivation.
From heads of school a lot of information had been found. Such information was as follows:
(i) Head of school 1: Motivation raise the morale of performance of teachers, and teachers will be innovative with education matters that associate with globalization. Said that the number of available teaching staff does not match with the demand of teaching staff. Some teachers have teaching periods up to 33 per week.
(ii) Head of school 2 Motivation raise teacher’s effort and hard working in performance.
Motivation are considered as important by teachers in community secondary schools. There is need to recognize teachers and working condition.
(iii) Head of school 3. Said that motivation act as catalyst to perform better in order to fulfill the objective intended.
On the other response from WEO said that when teachers are motivated they explore the different techniques in teaching. They will be able to advice together with the education stake holder on how to achieve a targeted goal and raise morale of teaching.
(ii) The influence of heads of school on teaching and learning process.
Table 4.3 Responses from teacher’s questionnaires
Aspects Yes No
1. Be able to provide support in solving problems 56 (93.3%) 4 (6.7%)
2. Consider the interest of teachers and academic abilities 52 (86.7%) 8 (13.3%)
3. Provision of instructional resources for teaching and learning physical facilities such as desks and chairs for students 53 (88.3%) 7 (11.7%)
4. Involvement of teachers in decision making 57 (95%) 3 (5%)
From table 4.3 on the influence of head of schools in teaching and learning process response from teachers said that 93.3% heads of school can provide support in solving problems while 6.7% respond no`’ is to create conducive environment where teaching takes place. Head of schools supervise teaching and learning to make sure that teaching and learning materials are available such as chalk, manila cards, modals, maps, and real objects and are used accordingly. Heads of school to make sure that teachers attend in class after preparation and are having lesson preparation such as lesson plan and students work. Head of school should create good classroom environment for teaching and learning and applying management standard of principles of leadership. Providing advice to teachers having problems and encourage them on working by good words and maintaining discipline to students.
Response from head of schools interview said that they organize, supervising and coordinating in the whole process of teaching and learning process, and cooperation with other staff members.
(iii)The challenges facing heads of schools to motivate teachers.
Teacher’s response said that Head of schools lack funds to motivate teachers. Indiscipline cases to some teachers, free education with specified budget from central government, lack of school projects which raise funds, number of students does not math with teachers. Poor cooperation between teachers and head of school. Lack of science teachers teaching many classes.
Responses from head of schools said that lack of funds to motivate teachers and poor income from central government. Strict laws which do not allow head of school to use capitation grants to motivate teachers. Little cooperation from parents and community around. Political leader’s influence heads according to their political interest and some of education policy does not favor teacher’s motivation.
Another head of school said that some teachers posted to their school are not having any capacity building, and any seminar from ministry concerned, this lead to incompetent to teachers.
Response from head of school 1 said that:
Lack of funds from central government and little cooperation from parents and community around are among big challenges in motivating teachers.
(iv) Strategies of improving teacher’s motivation
Factors Yes % No %
1. Since your employment have you attend in-service training. 25 41.7
2. School provide meals and accommodation is available. 19
3. Have you been timely promoted from one grade to another? 20 33.3 40 66.7
4. Teachers who perform well get rewards 9 15 51 85
5. I receive salary on time and is satisfactory for my basic needs. 10 16.7 50 83.3
6. Does your employer give you arrears such as unpaid salaries, transfer and hardship allowance? 6 10 54 90
7.Teaching aids/resources are enough 16 26.7 44 73.3
8. Cooperation between teachers and head of school is satisfactory. 45 75 15 25
9. Do you think motivation is done fairly to all employees 14 23.3 46 76.3
10. Teachers are given leave on holiday. 41 68.3 19 31.7
11. There is good relationship between teachers and students. 34 56.7 26 43.3
12. Provision of motivation affect the students’ performance. 34 56.7 26 43.3
13. Classroom environment support learning and teaching process. 18 30 42 70
Response from teachers said that since they are employed they have not attend any inservice training 58.3% and 41.7% said yes promotion of teachers on time, providing rewards, increment of salary to satisfy basic needs, good relationship between teachers and parents, in-service training, providing annual increment, giving teaching allowance, providing meals and accommodation to teachers. Oral and written form of appreciation, rewarding teachers according to performance of students, effective communication, transparency and accountability, conducive learning and teaching environment, provision of enough funds from government, participating in decision making, involving parents in contribution. The government to reduce laws which do not favor teachers and their leaders. Good management and leadership. The society should give priority to needs of students. Cooperation between teachers and head of schools.
Response from head of school said that the environment of teachers should be improved by paying enough salary, good environment like housing, meal, electricity, and suppling or employing enough teachers and teaching and learning materials should be proportional and supplied. The government and community should appreciate the work of teachers and respect the contribution of teachers. To conduct meeting by using horizontal communication. Teachers should be given first priority in promotion and salary due to the fact that their results is known. As motivation is higher the performance increases. All sampled schools have similar favorable perceptions on their relationships with the teachers as they confirm that the relationship was good. They said that it is an individual teacher or student that has an effect on student’s perceptions o
4.6 The Nature of School Environment in Hai District Teachers and school administrators were provided with questionnaires to fill in on the nature of school environment where teaching and learning was practiced. Observation was also done on the nature of school environments and its quality to performance of students All six schools visited on making observations the researcher noticed the shortage of teaching materials, which was parallel to no use of available teaching resources.no school library and students are not interested in learning after class hours students are interested in playing and staying in groups discussing unknown not doing homework and other things related to education matters. This implies that teachers are not motivated to stay close to students and doing extra curriculum activities.
4.7 The Influence of head of school on improvement of teachers Performance
The head of school found that in the researched schools there was a good relationship between teachers and their students. It shows how there is a firm system of leadership in Hai district schools. Head of schools said that there is a minimum level of conflict in their schools. The study results revealed that school management style and characteristics had high influence on teacher’s performance. It was possible to conclude that there is a democratic style of school management teaching activity in school was supervised by head of schools. Furthermore high indicator of factors that hinder the teaching process as there was skipping classes and missing of periods during teaching hours which have really affected performance. School management supported teaching and learning by providing books, chalks, rehabilitation of infrastructures and other teaching aids. But when they were asked in what ratio they said that still resources are very insufficient.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations based on the result on the impact of teacher’s motivation on improvement of teaching and learning in community secondary schools in Hai district. In this study both qualitative and quantitative data analysis were used.
5.2 study summary
This study was done in Hai district involving six secondary schools as the sample of study among 49 schools in the district. Hai district was selected to represent other districts in Tanzania. The participants of the study were teachers; head of schools and ward education officers. Specifically, the study sought:
(i)To assess the relationship between teachers motivation and performance in community secondary schools.
(ii) To examine the influence of heads of school in improvement teaching and learning process.
(iii) To analyze challenges facing heads of schools on teachers motivation.
(iv)To determine strategies for improving motivation among community schools. The study was done in Hai district. The research involved six secondary schools among 49 secondary schools. The respondents of the study consisted of six heads of schools, subject teachers who were chosen through simple random sampling, six heads of schools who were purposively selected. The other respondents were District Secondary Education Officer (DSEO) and ward education officer who were purposive selected. Questionnaires were used in determining teachers’ motivation in relation to performance of teachers. Was found to be …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. motivated teachers make more involvement and giving more exercises and feedback in time. Results of the study also revealed that there was a significant difference between Teachers who are motivated by attending workshops and seminars, and those who are not motivated in bringing changes in students’ performance The researcher found that if each student could have close supervision with teachers and other supplementary learning materials and practically learning they could perform better .The research findings agree with that conducted by Aacha (2010) who found a significant relationship between motivation and performance of teachers in primary schools in Masaka district in Uganda. The findings shows that teachers in community secondary schools in Hai district are not happy about motivation provided to them and that has resulted to below average performance in their schools.
Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that:
Majority of the teachers in selected secondary schools in Hai District mostly were male. As to educational attainment and length of teaching experience, highest educational attainments of majority of the teachers were bachelor degrees with a very good experienced in teaching. Teacher’s age above 46 years are very few about 8.4%. Majority are below 45 years old.
(i) There was a relationship between teachers’ motivation and work performance:
Teachers should be motivated, motivation increase morale and bring teachers confidence makes them attending classes as there is absence of hostility. Settle in lesson preparation and providing positive attitudes towards teaching teachers will be innovative. Government should improve teaching and learning conditions by providing enough funds in order to motivate teachers. This is important as the finding of this study have revealed that there is relationship between motivation and work performance. Motivation affects performance of teachers.
(ii) The influence of head of school in teaching and learning process
Heads of school should supervise teaching and learning process and providing good teaching and learning environment, materials for teaching, leading according to principles of leadership. Encouraging teachers to prepare lesson plans and having preparation before going to classes.
(iii) The challenges faced by head of school on teacher’s motivation
Lack of funds, poor cooperation between head of school and community surrounding and poor income in the school.
(iv) Strategies for improving motivation among community schools.
Improve environment for teachers by paying enough salary which satisfies basic needs and providing teaching and learning materials.
Based on the results of the study, the following recommendations were made:
The study revealed that salary for teachers does not satisfies their basic needs and this de-motivate teachers. the ministry of education science and technology should set up an appropriate salary scale which cope with basic needs as one of the important teachers motivation. The majority of teachers are complaining about salary not able to satisfy basic needs.
-The government should formulate proper policies and plan to deal with teachers motivation in community secondary schools.
-The community school to have resources of income which enable the head of school to motivate teachers.
-The government should set priority to community secondary schools than the Ministry level due to the fact that problems start from lower level than higher level.
-stake holders to finance community secondary schools so as to enable availability of enough teaching and learning materials.
-Involving parents in contribution and reduce laws so as it give room for heads of school to motivate teachers and free suggestion of uses of funds example capitation grants.
-They may be able to realize the importance of recognizing teachers and respect them, and providing teaching allowance accordingly. By doing that, teachers would be able to deliver content clearly, and increase morale to leading better work performance.
Lastly, it is also suggested for the teachers to be motivated head of schools may learn to develop their profession and innovativeness in motivating teachers in order to improve teachers’ performance.
5.4.3 School Administrators For school administrators, it is recommended that. Effective teaching and learning cannot be achieved in the absence of teachers motivation. It is also highly recommended that the government to increase salary to meet the basic needs, school leaders provide more in-service seminars, trainings and workshops for the teachers focusing more on how the teachers would enable them to align their instructional strategies and creating good teaching and learning environment for teaching. Furthermore, teachers should also been courage by the head of schools not to be discouraged and provide all guides and teaching resources.
5.4.4 Recommendations for further studies
The researcher is recommending research to be done in future on the same title in primary schools. This is highly suggested in order to widen the scope of the current study and initiate the process of creating evidenced based on teachers motivation and strategies that will enhance the teachers good work performance.
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5.5 Chapter Summary
The aim of this chapter is to present the findings based on the impact of teachers motivation on the improvement of teaching and learning in community secondary schools in Hai district. The chapter has presented issues such as the relationship between teachers motivation and work performance, the influence of heads of schools on teaching and learning process, challenges facing head of school on teachers motivation such as lack of enough funds to motivate teachers and suggest strategies used in improvement of teachers motivation such as increasing salary to satsfy basic needs, promotion teaching allowance should be provided and in-service training.
Appendix I: Questionnaire for Teachers
I am a student in the Faculty of Education at The Open University
Of Tanzania (OUT) Kilimanjaro Centre. I am taking MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ADMINISTRATION, PLANNING AND POLICY STUDIES (MED.APPS). I am interested on The Impact of Teacher’s Motivation on the Improvement of Teaching and Learning in Community Secondary Schools. The enclosed questionnaire was designed to obtain information about the impact of teacher’s motivation on improvement of teaching and learning process. Your response will be anonymous and the information gathered will help to improve the teacher’s performance and also help our students to perform better. I would appreciate your completion of the questionnaire.
. Thank you in advance for your participation
SECTION A: PERSONAL PARTICULARS
Education level; (Tick in the respective brackets)
Master in Education ( ) Degree in education ( ) Diploma in education ( )
Below 5yrs ( ) 6-10yrs ( ) 11yrs and above ( )
Age in years 18-35 ( ), 36-45 ( ), 46-55 ( ), 55+ ( )
Gender; Male ( ) Female ( )
A. Please tick the correct one to you
1. (i) Is there a relationship between motivation and teachers work performance at your school?
(a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( )
Give reasons ………….…………………………………………………..….
(ii) Does motivation increase teacher’s confidence in teaching and learning?
(a) yes ( ) (b) No ( )
Give reasons …………………………………………………………………
(iii) If teachers are motivated, school goals will be achieved in effective way.
(a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( )
Give reasons ……………………………………………………………….
2. What is the influence of heads of school in teaching and learning process………………………………………………………
(i).How is the classroom environment/condition where teaching takes place at your school?
(a) Very good ( ) (b) Good ( ) (c) Average ( ) (d) Bad ( )
(ii). Mention applied teaching aids used in teaching at your school.
(iii). How does school management system support teaching and learning in
Your school? ………………………………………………………………….
3. What are the challenges faced by head of schools on teacher’s motivation?
4. (a) Mention three (3) ways to improve teachers motivation in your secondary
(b) In the following motivational factors, which do you think it has effects to teachers’ Performance? (Tick Yes or No)
Factors Yes No
1. Since your employment have you attend in-service training.
2. School provide meals and accommodation is available.
3. Have you been timely promoted from one grade to another?
4. Teachers who perform well get rewards
5. I receive salary on time and is satisfactory for my basic needs.
6. Does your employer give you arrears such as unpaid salaries, transfer and hardship allowance?
7.Teaching aids/resources are enough
8. Teachers makes enough preparation before classes begin.
9. Cooperation between teachers and head of school is satisfactory.
10. Do you think motivation is done fairly to all employees
11. Teachers are given leave on holiday.
12. There is good relationship between teachers and students.
13. Provision of motivation affect the students’ performance.
14. Classroom environment support learning and teaching process.
C. For teachers to be good in teaching and learning process, Heads of schools should support them in the following aspects. (Put Yes or No in the space provided)
Aspects Yes No
1. Be able to provide support in solving problems
2. Consider the interest of teachers and academic abilities
3. Provision of instructional resources for teaching and learning physical facilities such as desks and chairs for students
4. Involvement of teachers in decision making
Thank you very much for you response
Appendix I1: Interview Questions for District Educational Officer, ward Education officers and Heads of school on The Impact of Teacher’s Motivation on the Improvement of Teaching and Learning in Community Secondary Schools.
1. What do you understand by the term teacher’s motivation?
2. What is the relationship between motivation and teachers work performance?
3. What is the role of motivation in improving teacher’s performance?
4. Mention any teacher’s motivation do you know
5. What is the influence of heads of school in teaching and learning process?
6. Mention applied teaching aids used in teaching at your school.
7. How do you support teaching and learning process?
8. What are the challenges faced by head of schools on teacher’s motivation? 10. How do you motivate teachers at you school?
11. What is your opinion on how to improve teacher’s motivation?
12. How does teacher’s motivation contribute to teacher’s performance?
Thank you very much for participating in this work
Documents Information needed
Teachers Files of motivation Shown motivation provided
Scheme of work Shown influence of head
3.9 Proposed Research Budget and Research Time Frame: 2017 & 2018
CORE ACTIVITIES UNITS/ITEM Cost
1. Consolidation of literature, Designing and Writing concept note of the research proposal (i) Library search
(ii)Typing and buying voucher for communication 150,000
2. Data Collection (field Work) (i) Travel and substance cost for a researcher 550,000
3. Data processing, Analysis and Report writing (i) Data processing and analysis cost for a researcher 300,000
4. Purchase and Contingence costs Contingence costs 600,000
GRAND TOTAL 1,500,000
B: Time frame work
Activity Year 2017
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Writing research proposal and model formulation
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Writing research proposal and mode formulation
Model analysis and numerical simulations
Writing manuscript for the first paper
Writing manuscript for the second paper
Putting chapters together
Production and submission of research report