The importance of self-disclosure in online interaction have being determined steadily in recent researches, disclosure therefore has a compelling role in the formation of online impression (Antheunis, Valkenburg & Peter 2007) and also in the building up of intimacy (Bazarova, 2012). There’s a little feedback responses people get in return to their online self disclosure, this gap basically is of great importance because reciprocal interactions foster’s the development of online communication overtime (Walter,1996). Self esteem is seen to be an important outcome of the results one gets on online self-disclosure and it is formed through the relationship one has with his or her peers, and this most often can occur online. People really do not understand the major role feedback has to self disclosure in online communication and how it affects one’s self esteem negatively, a few studies were carried out that pointed that the effects of online feedback showed how people perceived themselves and that the recipient’s self esteem is related to the feedback gotten from peers (Thomas et al 2010, Valkenburg, Peter, & Schouten 2006). This makes online feedback playing a major role in communication and it’s more so related to self esteem, but then little attention has been paid to it. A survey was carried out among Dutch adolescents and it was found out that individuals who continuously used social network sites received feedback which were mainly positive and brought about a positive relation with their social self- esteem and well- being (Valkenburg et al, 2006). There was a replication on the results and it was conducted as a Japanese survey study, here they found that feedbacks on teenagers that were positive, created a satisfaction with themselves, and they had a feeling of acceptance, compared to the negative feedback which there was a reduction in satisfaction and the feelings of acceptance (Miura ; Yamashita 2007). Models were used to illustrate the effects of online feedback on self esteem and also on the receiving face- to- face feedback on self esteem, the first model went in further in explaining that the reduced audio- visual cues and the editability of texts on online communication, promotes self communication and when there is a reduction in these cues, before then go for information they receive. And the favorability of this information brings about the assumption on impressions and reactions in a positive way thereby creating idealized impressions of their online communication partners. This model went further in explaining that online communication has a major effect on interpersonal impressions than face- to -face communication (Carr ; Foreman 2016; Jiang, Bazarova ; Hancock, 2011, Walther, De- Andrea ; Tong 2010). The second model which is also called Hyper personal communication model focuses on the incorporation of positive interactions and effects.
In the process of understanding the dynamics of reciprocal change in online communication a number of traditional theories were used in the clarification. These theories include’s the social change theory (Altman & Taylor 1973) and the theory of self- disclosure (Jourard 1964). These theories were used to explain the self disclosure in face-to-face communication, it was stated that self disclosure involves the exchange of one’s personal information and during the process of this exchange reciprocity plays a major role (Jourard 1964), if one communication partner reduces one rate of disclosure it’s therefore equivalent to a similar level of disclosure by the other. The reciprocity principle plays a vital role in obtaining the negative and positive response people have towards each other (Fehr & Gachter,2000). Therefore, the allocation of impersonal information brings about impersonal responses, while more personal disclosures bring about personal responses. In the case of confidential self- disclosure, communal disclosure expands liking between communication partners and the confidentiality of their relationship (Collins & Miller 1994).
The hyper-personal communication model was used in explaining self disclosure and this model explains how favorable effects of self disclosure on inter personal relationships occur through reciprocal responses between communication partners. These theories which includes the social change theory, the theory of self disclosure and the hyper-personal communication model implied that messages can have consequential ramification partly through other’s behavior in response to those messages. The tendency to interchange the height of confidentiality in each other’s messages brings about the effect of feedback on the receiver’s reciprocal feedback (Jourard,1964) here initiates the reciprocal principle has playing a major role, trying to reciprocate to friendly actions exerted by others people tend to act in a positive manner by being nice and collective, while they behave negatively in reciprocating to others hostile actions (Fehr;Gachter,2000). Few studies have been able to portray the effects of reciprocity in an array of conditions and behaviors (Cialdini ; James2009, Giacalone ; Greenberg 1997, Tidd;Lockard1978) suggested that correlative effects are prone to occur to the power of interpersonal communication, more so people are also likely to give back the power of their communication partners messages by reacting positively towards a positive message and negatively towards a negative message.
According to (Fehr; Gachter2000) based on the research made on reciprocity, positive feedback responses to received feedback messages are called positive reciprocal feedback, and also negative feedback responses are called negative reciprocal feedback. The power of a feedback received by people incline the power of their response to that feedback, and also the intensity of one’s response is dependent on the communication mode in which the conversation is conducted. Existing literature theorizes that online communication is likely to act as a medium of emphasizing both positive and negative responses to feedback in comparison to face-to-face communication. An experiment was conducted in the course of this study, this experiment contained a two communication mode, the online against the face-to-face, two feedback valence were used (confirming vs disconfirming) between subjects design. In the course of this study participants were randomly assigned to conditions, were 149 participants took part in the study within the age limit of 30 years, the percentages of participants were 51.7% Females, 79.9% Mother, 80.5% Father respectively. The main purpose of this experiment was to find out or better still investigate the effect of online feedback on self esteem, the role of reciprocal feedback in the same relationship and lastly to investigate whether the effects differ between online and face-to-face communication. After the study was conducted the results/findings were divided into categories that included subtopics which was in conjunction with the aim of the study.
The findings made on the effect of online feedback on self esteem were inconsistent with their expectations, because there was an assumption that the valence of the feedback did not affect the self esteem of the participant, the current study majorly focused on the effect of single feedback messages, in relation to the experiment the participants didn’t know the confederate before the commencement of the experiment, this therefore resulted in self esteem not being influenced directly after the feedback. And also the findings made on the effect of feedback on the receiver’s reciprocal feedback brought back the principle on reciprocity in people’s behavior. It was seen that there was a positive reaction by participants to confirming feedback from the communication partner than to disconfirming feedback. Lastly there was also an expectation that communication online would involve both positive and negative responses, but it didn’t work out that way only negative responses were found to be intensified online, and this further explained that communication therefore may likely affect an individual’s willingness to respond to another person, which also is dependent on the positive and negative response. Considering the online feedback dynamics in online communication, this study majorly contributed to the already existing research because it was able to commence study points to a crucial role of peoples responses in the effects of online feedback on self esteem and also the findings recommended the occurrence of coping behavior through retaliation. The effect of communication partner’s feedback on people’s self esteem occurs only as people reciprocate feedback to their communication partner. It is barely seen that online communications express negativity deliberately, and also reciprocating to disconfirming feedback is less risky in online communication compared to face-to-face communication. Generally research has proved that online communication aid giving negative feedback (Klesler et al 1985, Orengo Castella et al, 2000, Siegel et al 1986).