Puan Duangta A/P ShetGTJ 109/4
Nurizzati Binti Manan141680
Immunology is a phenomena which have long been recognized and manipulated. We should bare in our minds that the immune system is comprises the body’s second and third lines of defense in which the first line of defense consist of a number of physical barrier including the skin, the mucous membrane , the fatty acid of the skin, the low pH of stomach, enzymes and microcidal molecules secreted by a variety of cell types and cell that act nonspecifically against infectious organisms. The physiological functioning of immune system are also deals with immunology as well as the malfunction of immune system in immunological disorder like allergies, hypersensitivity, immune deficiency, transplant rejection and autoimmune disorders. When the immune system reacts against harmless substance in the environment, so that allergies can easily occur. There are so many opportunities for things to go wrong because of the immune system is extremely complex. The allergic reaction which occur when the immune system begins to react with harmless substance in the environment are exaggerated, it could damaging immune responses to substance that are normally harmless. People with allergy disease are easily exposed to common environmental substances such as house dust mite or grass pollen, a type of white blood cell ( B lymphocytes) which produce specific antibody and known as IgE against that substance. When the IgE attach to another type of white blood cell which is mast cell, they initiate a complex immune response that leads to the allergy.

Different people with allergies are allergic to different substances and they are commonly allergic to house dust mite, pollen from grasses and trees, animal dander including cat,dog, allergic to moulds, foods lie peanuts, shellfish, fish, chicken egg, and latex. Those people with allergies will also react differently when they are exposed to their allergens and the common reaction are including allergic eczema or urticarial, allergic rhinitis which is hay fever, allergic asthma and anaphylaxis.

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Based on statistic, it could be said that approximately 20% of the general population is defined as atopic. In atopic diseases, allergens are anigens that elicit an immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses.