TOPIC TITTLE PROPOSAL:
Education and Development: The Impact Evaluation of OSEPER, Kinshasa -Matete , DRC
I am proposing to do the evaluation of Oeuvre de Suivi et de Protection des Enfants de la Rue , OSEPER Kinshasa . In English Program or Organization that works for protection and following up of street children. I will be using the Integral Approach in order to see the impact in all aspect and qualities and time in their lives.
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is in the Central of Africa. It is the largest Francophone country in the world. In fact, The Democratic Republic of Congo has vast natural resources and spans a surface area of 2.3 million square kilometers. Fewer than 40% of the nearly 77 million of its population are living in urban areas. With 80 million hectares of arable land and over 1,100 minerals and precious metals, the DRC has the potential to become one of the richest countries on the African continent and a driver of African growth if it can overcome its political instability (World Bank, 2017).
In the African Culture, especially in the Bakongo’s tradition’s, children were considered as gifts from gods and they were welcome and treated with respect and love. Also ,family was considered as the first place where economics ‘activities were operated ( AGUIRRE 2006). Today, as consequences of social and economic crisis, the continent, especially the country has now an increased rate of abandon children in the street. The phenomenon of street children may be the result of changes in several sectors such as social ( increase of revival churches’ phenomenon causing divorces , abandon children , broken families ,and absence of social politic to take care of the vulnerable population, …) , economic ( Zaireanization crisis , pillages , corruptions , high rate of unemployment,…) and politic (civil wars, lack of democracy, …).
The political situation of the DRC
The DRC was colonized by Belgium in 1960 and obtained its independency in 1960. The DRC then organized its very first election 60 years ago in 1965. The country has then encountered many difficulties such as Zaireanization, which was followed by a high rate corruption and civil wars across the country. And a series of conflicts that broke out in the 1990s creating a protracted economic and social slump (WORLD BANK.ORG). Joseph Kabila, the actual president, has been head of state of the DRC since 2001. Presidential and parliamentary elections planned initially for November 27, 2016 have been delayed due to an outdated electoral register. Efforts to defuse the political crisis into which the country has since been plunged have been made by the African Union facilitator, Mr. Edem Kodjo, and the Congolese episcopate, acting as mediators between the Congolese government and the opposition parties. As a matter of fact, a new agreement, signed on December 31, 2016, provides for a transition period during which power will be exercised jointly by President Joseph Kabila and the opposition until presidential elections are held in late 2017 as cited in the World Bank in 2017 ( World Bank 2017).
Furthermore, The World Bank experts mentioned that “the agreement stipulates that the president will not seek a third term, and the signatories agreed that no revision of the constitution will be attempted in that period. However, this agreement never entered into force. Since its signature, the president has nominated two prime ministers who have not been recognized by the opposition. Also, the Independent National Electoral Commission (CENI) believed that the elections will not be able to take place in late 2017 as planned since revision of the electoral register has not been completed. Still today, the election has not happened yet” ( World Bank.org 2018).
Taking a look at wars and corruption that had contribute to poverty of the population, we had noticed that churches have started to play a major role in improving the situation of the country by taking care of the management of some Schools , by educating people .The Word Bank Data illustrated improvement in the education and social and economic sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo with no significative impact on the population and on the economic growth of the country( WB Data Bank ).
Doctor Aguirre said in his paper about family and development All these factors cited above such as lack of education , broken family , no strong institutions , corruption ,lives without hope have Consequences on the capital investment especially human capital and affect as Neo classical economist said : ” the economic and social situation of the country” ( AGUIRRE , 2018).
It also has been mentioned on the IFM and World Bank sites that : “After sharply increasing to almost 9% in the 2013-2014 period, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), decelerated to 6.9% in 2015, then to 2.4% in 2016, its lowest point since 2001. This slump is mainly due to declining prices and a shrinking global demand for raw materials exported by the country, particularly of copper and cobalt, which account for 80% of its export revenue. This economic shock led to a deterioration in external accounts and a downturn in the country’s exchange rate in 2016, as well as a 31% drop in the exchange rate of the Congolese money against the dollar, which fueled runaway inflation of almost 24%. In 2017, growth is expected to reach 2.6%, driven by the moderate increase in commodity prices and national mining production. However, the national currency is expected to continue to decline against the dollar as the rate of inflation increases.
Public finances also deteriorated in 2016, with a growing fiscal deficit of -1.6% of GDP against -0.2% in 2015. The drop in export revenue was reflected in a decrease in state revenue. Lacking access to domestic and international financial markets, the government had to drastically reduce public expenditure to contain the deficit and limit monetary financing by the Central Bank of the Congo. The government has launched sectoral reforms to strengthen governance and transparency in the extractive industries (forestry, mining, and oil sectors) and to improve the business climate. Currently, almost all contracts signed by the government are accessible to the public. The DRC participates in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) and regularly publishes reports on revenues from natural resources. However, systematizing the procedures necessary for a competitive process in awarding mining, oil, and forestry contracts requires additional efforts from the government”(WB 2018).
The poverty level is so high despite a decrease in the poverty rate, from 71% to 64% between 2005 and 2012. Almost 85 % of the population cannot afford the basic needs. The DRC still ranks 176 out of 187 among the poorest countries in the world on the most recent Human Development Index calculated by the United Nations (UN,2015). In fact, The United Nations estimates that there are about 2.3 million displaced people and refugees in the DRC and 323,000 DRC nationals living in refugee camps outside the country.
Dr Zurlo said that: “the quality of the education matters on the Economic growth and Development of a country” ( Zurlo ,2017) .Since 1993 , the quality of the education in DRC as illustrated by the World Bank data is getting worst in spade of the fact that in some region of the country , data show improvement in the number of enrollment . Wars, poverty and socio-economic situation are factors that affect the quality of the education in the DRC. And without a better education, there is no freedom as said Paulo Freire (The purpose of Education Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Preface, Ch. 1-2 (85 pps)
2.Research Framework :AGUIRRE argued that Family is considered as an important factor for the economic growth and development of a country ( AGUIRRE ,2003 p35). She also added that Data from across countries and sciences show that the “breakdown of the family damages the economy and the society since human, moral, and social capital is reduced, and social costs increased” (AGUIRRE Aguirre, Maria Sophia. “The Family and Economic Development: Socioeconomic Relevance and Policy Design”, in The Family in the New Millennium, ed. Scott Love and Thomas Holman, London: Praeger Perspectives, 2006.).
They also suggest clearly that the family should be the point of reference if sustainable development has to be achieved. This is so not because the family is a problem to economic development but rather the contrary. In fact, there is no doubt that children develop best within a family that is functional (AGUIRRE ,2006) .In addition to that, economic growth assumptions under Neo-Classical theories are functions of Labor, Capital, Technology and Human Capital. It’s also affected by institutions in which this economic process takes place (NGUEHA ,H.,2011) .As an economist , Dr. Aguirre argued that Two key factors influence economic growth: Technological change and capital accumulation. These factors also have impact on the quality of the labor in the economic situation of a country( AGUIRRE ,2006) and also affect the Real GDP of a country ( Q = f ( K, L, ?, La, H ) ).
Furthermore, we are tempted to believe that as Aguirre said ( 2011 ), investing in physical and human capital in the form of education and training give them hope and contribute to growth.That’s why , we are going to see if the training and education that these children are receiving at OSEPER management will give them hope as a capability as argued Duflo Esther and Armatiya Sen , hope , capacity and ability to transform their lives and change their behavior from no active or negative actors to positive agent of the economic growth and development of their country, which is the DRC. We will try to evaluate the integral approach impact of these training in the children’s lives. This research will be focus on the impact of these training on to children living on the street of the city of Kinshasa. In fact, it will be focused on the impact on the quality of life, one that is consistent with the dignity of the human person, strengthening of families; as well as on the social and civic responsibility.
For my research, I will be using the integral approach to evaluate the impact of OSEPER (Oeuvre de Suivi, d’Education et de Protection des Enfants de la Rue) in the street children of Matete, a county within the capital. The integral approach is the one which takes in account all the aspect of development. Studies show that is the best way to evaluate the impact of a development program on a population. Aguirre also suggests that to “accomplish sustainable development, it is not enough to evaluate the way economic development has been researched and conducted thus far. Rather, a new approach to understanding its process is needed. This new approach is an integral approach to economic development, i.e., an approach that seeks to respect the dignity of the human person, strengthen the family, and foster civic and social responsibility. This, in turn, necessitates an integrated view of the person in society and, consequently, a focus on the economic agent’s decision process acknowledging him or her in a holistic manner and in his or her social dimension” (Aguirre,2011).
In addition to the training at the center OSEPER, formation of children will also be prioritized to help them become more independent. Formation will include teaching them how to sew clothes, gardener or basic formations such as writing and reading. I will also emphasize that the training will be optional for the children and they will have all the right to withdraw from it whenever they wish to do so.NGUEHA (2011) argued that: “is that the bottom up strategy is likely to be more effective than the top-down approach: family structure seems appropriate and need to be the focus when conducting project evaluation” (Ngueha, 2011).
Street children phenomena in the developing world, in Africa, in DRC and its Challenges
More and more children are seen in the street of developing countries, Aptekar (1988) argued that “Children throng the streets of urban Latin America. Visitors from developed nations, unused to unsupervised children in such profusion and accosted by importunate children selling trivial goods or services, wonder who they are, where they come from, where they go.” In the world there is According to UN sources there are up to 150 million street children in the world today. of so called street children. And more than 10 % in DRC ( UNESCO.ORG ). This phenomenon is increasing in the world due to poverty. In fact, data show that Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region in the world where poverty has increased in the past 25 years due to the lack of education (Ngueha, 2011). He also argued that “33 million primary school-aged children in Sub-Saharan Africa do not go to school. 18 million of these children are girls and he added that In Sub-Saharan Africa, only two-thirds of children who start primary school reach the final grade(NGUEHA , 2011 p5).Others socials problems such as an increased rate of orphans living with HIV/AIDS is expected to continue rising. As it is reported that HIV/AIDS will claim the lives of 10% of teachers within the coming five years, and 20% of school-age children will be AIDS orphans (Ngueha, 2011). Also, it is reported that single parent are more likely to abandon their children due to the lack of stability in the household.
3.PROGRAM TO BE EVALUATED AND LOCATION :O.S.E.P.E.R, in French Oeuvre de Suivi, d’Education et de Protection des Enfants de la Rue ( Work of monitoring, Education and Protection of street children ), is a non-profit association recognized by the State of the Democratic Republic of the Congo through the granting of legal personality No. 314/CAB/MIN/J1GS 2003 of March 20, 2003. This work is also an expression of the Catholic Church in DRC it operates mainly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the city of Kinshasa and other cities where children come from the street.
The OSEPER develops its action straight from the street, through the mobile team and its permanent listening points installed in the environments where these children live. The aim is to approach them, through itinerant social educators, by creating a climate of confidence and by seeking to orient them towards the center welcome to start the process of their social and family reintegration, to ensure their autonomy and to begin the process of their integral development.
The presence of this reception center serves not only to accommodate a large number of children but most importantly to develop activities by providing a variety of classes such as literacy, upgrading, school upgrading, vocational learning, recreational, sporting and cultural activities, and also providing them with first-aid health care and a semi-self-managed space for them to cook their meals and take care of themselves. These centers in addition to being references for all street children, are considered as points of departure for their social reintegration as the abandoned child feels welcomed, listened to, which leads to a development of trust and a gain of self-confidence.
I believe these actions are feasible not only because of the data that are already published and shows successful accomplishments, but also because of the relevance of the approaches, the tools used and the motivation and commitment of the staff working within the centers.
Mission :The mission of the OSEPER is to ensure the care of children living on the street through psychosocial support, education. Trainings and education are believed to be important factors for the children transition from passive actors to active actors or agents of development.
The goals of the OSEPER are to provide transient accommodations and/or day and night shelter for street children, ensure psychosocial support for children in the street and their dependents, provide support for formal and non-formal education for street children (in primary and secondary education, school remedial and literacy), support access to vocational training/apprenticeship in trades for street children/Youth (14 to 17 years), provide food support to children in the street, ensuring access to health care to children of the street, ensure family and community reintegration and/or the re-establishment of links family to street children, support the autonomy of Children by introducing them to professions that ensure their autonomy and financial independence and Economic. Finally, the OSEPER also ensure the management and monitoring-evaluation of the project.
The Administrative headquarters, Congregation of the Servants of charity Asbl Work Blessed Luigi Guanella. O.S.E.P.E.R is located on 9337/4 B.P. 1800 Ave By Pass in the County of LEMBA-KINSHASA in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The OSEPER works within the network of Educators of children and young people on the street. Their partners are Either local or international.
Social Development Fund
Embassy of France in DRC
International Women’s Club of Kinshasa
Minas -Minister of Social and Humanitarian Affairs of the DRC
Reejer (Network of Educators of children and young people on the street)
RDC Business Development
UMOJA Sustainable development
UNICEF Education Sector
Embassy of the Order of Malta
Axes «DON GUANELLA» ONLUS-Chiavenna/Como ItalieLove -Paris France
Congregation of the Servants of the charity -Rome ItalyGUANELLIANO Missionary Centre – Como ItalyFoundation of AUTEUIL -Paris France Foundation help children – Milan ItalieMission Prokura Guanellianerde -Pforzheim Germany
MOCI ( Movement for the Cooperazione Internazionale)- Milan, Italie.
Hairy Onlus Rome/Venio ItalyProtective of Children- Madrid, Spain.
NGO Bridges- Palencia, Spain
WAR CHILD -London EnglandKINDERMISSION-Germany
MAMAN NATHALIE, WARCHILD and DIFID, World Bank à Through MINAS
Composition of the OSEPER
The activities of the O.S.E.P.E.R are moving towards a population of children and young people affecting more 3000 units. This population lives in six centers managed by the congregation, located in the communes of Matete, Kimbanseke, Lemba, Maluku and Limete. Among these centers, four of them are Shelters for children (girls and boys) .
In addition to the shelters, there are the reference centers for children who are still on the street. There are two centers, the first one is located in the commune of Matete called Centre Sainte Famille/Water Point Quartier Mpudi N ° 30/A bis-it is a mixed center which welcomes every day 24h more or least 1000 children and young people (girls and boys), can benefit from listening, personal hygiene, health care, a meal, literacy, fun activities and cultural, etc. It organizes an internal dispensary for the administration of primary care. Of the 1000 that can benefit from the services at the visitor center, 1200 are permanent day and night.
The second one is located in the commune of Kimbanseke called Anuarite Center located on Kasangulu N ° 102, Quartier Nsanga, and it is exclusively reserved for street girls with their baby and welcomes each day more than 100 girls, but there is the capacity of 80 girls.
In addition to these reception and accommodation centers, two mobile street teams are operational every evening to meet the children in their living environment. These Teams are multidisciplinary. The social-itinerant actors operate at night on the different sites or foci of life or activities of children in the target communes notably: Matete, Lemba, Ngaba, Masina, Limee, Ndjili, Kimbanseke, Nsele, Maluku.
These teams go to meet the children on the street to offer them a minimum package of basic social service. Listen, awareness on the various topical topics such as primary health care, distribution of protective materials and drinking water, etc. They have for goals to humanize the street by working to improve their living conditions and Asking to adopt responsible behaviors and attitudes.
In those centers children are provided with psychological, legal and health care including hospitalization. In addition, the educators of the centers are engaged to develop the individualized Guanellien educational project of each child and in the constant search for the children’s family of origin, in a follow-up work of families who have agreed to reintegrate the child. If it is not possible to trace back to the family of origin we seek in the intervention districts of the adoptive families or a reintegration with a project of autonomy.
In fact, it is through this self-contained project that the child should receive suitable vocational training, which will ensure independence and autonomy once reintegrated into his own or adoptive family. The child will take advantage of the vocational training acquired during his or her lodging to ensure independence and autonomy.
Within this part of the organization, educators work in various of places such as homes, and reach children aging from 14 to 25years. A vocational training is also provided with a view to the self-care for the definitive reintegration into the society.
The OSEPER manages a training center Professional with 1200 children and young people in The following branch : carpentry, bakery, cut and sewing, literacy, agricultural project and breeding. For those who Want to learn agricultural work and livestock, the residential stay is planned for one year within the community, which is located at the Plateau des Batéké-Cité Guanella. Currently 1200 teenagers are in formation. A home for children with disabilities Welcome to the city Guanella 200 children.
The OSEPER lives donations from partners and volunteers. Children who are housed in the different and benefit from the education, mentoring, training and reintegration are free housed and are not obliged to give anything. So , they receive donations from partners and other people of goodwill, including volunteers who work for the education, coaching and social reintegration of these children. After their completion, children can be reintegrated in the society and participate and contribute to the economic and development of the country.
Selection’s Criteria of the Organization
The first criteria to be eligible for the training is to be a street child and to accept voluntary to come to the center to receive the training. The OSEPER manages a Professional Training Center for young adult (14 to 25 years old) in The following branches : ccarpentry, bakery, cut and sewing, literacy, agricultural project, breeding.
The steps for a child to be admitted to the center
He must meet the criteria:
Being found in an open environment of delinquency: markets, bridges, bars,
Be deprived of a tutor at the time of the fact;
Consent to be resumed and then reinstated;
Agree to abide by the rules of the Centre.
the steps for the child to receive training
Before they meet an adviser
Information depends on the child’s skills and level of education, knowing that not all children are illiterate, some have interrupted schooling.
Steps to follow:
Observe children since their integration for 3 months;
Make a proposal on their skills
Submit them to a Pre-Test of guidance;
Observe again for 1 month;
Finally entrust them to the instructors according to the guidelines adopted.
Some orientations sometimes fail
the majority sex among the children framed? What for?
The boys are the majority in the various centers managed by the OSEPER. They represent 85% of the total population, compared to 15% of girls. The dominance of the male population within the center is explained by the fact that boys, without means of schooling, lack parents, most of whom belong to the most deprived Congolese social classes (military, police, and Inhabitants of peripheral neighborhoods), leave their paternal roof early. The other causes are among others the accusation of witchcraft, the loss of direct parents, the pleasure of living freely in the street.
What are the different trainings given to these children?
The training given to street children framed within the OSEPER differs depending on whether they are boys or girls. Girls receive their training in musical art, in cutting and sewing Especially), hospitality, hospitality, Culinary arts, embroidery, In gender…. As for young boys, they receive it in football, carpentry, foundry, music, agriculture, environmental management, etc.
the number of children per training.
The following table summarizes the number of children grouped in relation to the training received.
Music Cup Hotel Industry ART CUL FOOTBALL Carpentry AGRICULTURE Management of the EN TOTAL
Boys 60 50 40 70 250 250 200 160 1080
Girls 10 40 10 40 20 10 10 20 160
TOTAL 70 90 50 110 270 260 210 180 1240
Are children oriented for this or that training? Are there educational counsellors (Pathfinders) in orientation?
The various centers of OSEPER are equipped with framers, most of whom are experts in school guidance. Their main role is to guide children after their supervision. So the orientation of children Following multiple trainings is based on both the child’s potential, his skills and his level of adaptation.
The OSEPER lives donations from partners and volunteers. Children who are housed in the different and benefit from the education, mentoring, training and reintegration are free housed and are not obliged to give anything. So they receive donations from partners and other people of goodwill, including volunteers who work for the education, coaching and social reintegration of these children.
After their completion, children can be reinserted in the society and participate and contribute to the economic and development of the country.
4.POPULATION SERVED BY THE PROGRAM AND POTENTIAL SAMPLE SIZE :Tracing the number of children supervised since the creation of the OSEPER and the last two Years.
2018 Estimation of 2500
The population served by this program will be about 2000. For our analysis, I will be using a population of 1200 which is the number of street children, who are live in the shelter center and are receiving the training.
Population of street children who are living and receiving the training in the OSEPER/MATETE Group Control
the population of street children i n the waiting list
The phenomenon of “street children” is not just the prerogative of third world countries. It is lived, although with another connotation, in Europe and Asia. Their number differs from one country to another depending on the culture in which this phenomenon originates. According to a group of international experts mandated by the council of Europe’s Steering Committee on social policy (2014), we meet more children in the streets of Western countries than they are in African countries. According to the Committee, The United Kingdom records 40.000 street children, Ireland counts between 500 and 1000; 7000 in the Netherlands; 40.000 in Germany and nearly 10.000 in France.
In Africa, the situation of children living in the streets is a real social case for which authorities and families should intervene urgently. It comes in addition to the other problems facing the continent such as war, political crisis. Indeed, it caused polemics and many controversies. Accompanied by quarrels and discussions, the problem of children living in streets remains at the heart of the general concerns that affect every African child. For some, the child, who is a victim of the street, is his own author and actor. And also for others, the children who live in street are innocent and suffer as consequences the imbalance of within their own family and continent.
According to Kingolo (2015), “if we are talking about two-digit positive economic growth today, the social situation of popular mass remains precarious.” The presence of children on the streets is one of the consequences of a drifting society. One of these visible manifestations of this societal ill-being, which has become the lot of most African countries, which is revealed in the exponential growth of the phenomenon of children in the street. On the other hand, Samir Amin (1989) believed that if the years 60 had been marked with great hope of announcing an irreversible process of development in the whole of what was called “Third World”, our time is that of disillusion. Development is down. ”
In fact, according to this previous author, there is no doubt that the phenomenon of street children is the problem of development and constitutes one of the very manifestations of the failure of the latter. Indeed, “despite the growth or improvement of certain economic indicators, Africa always returns images that reveal the eruption of poverty, a terroir of violence, a strain of conflict, the backbone of poverty, a jungle whose interaction social transforms into a relationship of human manipulation (Mubangi, 2013).
Looking back to the origins of the phenomenon of children living in the streets, Balaam (2001) states that “there is not a year in Africa without the war breaking out somewhere, without the power succeeding another, without a government being in charge always with bloodshed and a river of tears and setbacks. In such movements are born social phenomena that once did not exist. Naturally, the spread of street children is a epiphenomenon. The children become scapegoats, they are relegated to the streets, engaged in the army, they are still victims and still the victim of all disorders.
Furthermore, in the D.R.Congo, the issue of children living in the street is not dealt with in the margins of juvenile delinquency. Indeed, this last question has been raised since the colonial era in 1956. The work of Laude entitled The Juvenile delinquency in the Belgian Congo and Rwanda-Burundi (1957) begins by exposing the general norms found in the vast majority of countries, then the legal provisions adopted in the territories of black Africa and finally introduces the Belgian law of 15th May of 1912, which the legislator has inspired in the Decree of December 6th,1950 on delinquent childhood in the Belgian Congo. We can see that the document is more concerned with legal provisions less the causes of delinquency.
In 2008, the psychologist and school guidance specialist, Antoine Mbuyu (2008) In His Book When our child is difficult emphasizes first on the importance of the factors influencing the child before birth and whose manifestations and external signs bear the names of the troubles or delays in the growth and development of the child. He then tackled the issue of juvenile delinquency, its various forms, its causes, and proposed some rehabilitation measures. Finally, it deals with the thorny problem of school failures, the causes that have spawned them to suggest attitudes avoid to adopt.
Kinshasa, the capital of D.R.Congo, megacity in continuous expansion, was founded in 1881 by the explorer British Henry Dead Man Stanley. He first named the city Leopold City in honor of Leopold, King of Belgians. In 1945, this capital housed about 100.000 people, and in 1960 it had 400.000 inhabitants, which made it, at the time, the biggest agglomeration of Central Africa. Fifteen years later, after the city had received the name Kinshasa in 1966, its population had already crossed the threshold of 2 million inhabitants. She believed exponentially from 500.000 inhabitants at the end of the years 1960, they were about 4.787.000 people in 1998. The latest estimates, according to the Census 2009, setting to 10.000.000 the number of inhabitants.
In regard to street children, history reveals that it is the result of the population surge observed in the city. In fact, according to Kondolo Luzingu (2015), history reveals to us that it was precisely in the years 1990 that the phenomenon of street children took a magnitude and became a real social concern. Especially since at this time there were no reception centers to help these children, and it was a time of socio-political turbulence, marked, inter alia, by the economic crisis, the democratization of the state and the proliferation of new religious movements called Revival church of Protestant Obedience.
What is the number of street children in Kinshasa? Question, not badly asked, buthard to answer. Indeed, it is difficult to know the exact number of children living in the streets of Kinshasa, especially since the last census date back to the years 1984. As there is no census of the population, a fortiori, this could not be the case for street children. However, according to statistics carried out by certain framing structures of these children, including the network of youth managers of the street (Reejer, 2012), today in Kinshasa we note with bitterness an exponential growth Children in the street, in the proportions oscillating around 350 children each month. But according to the French embassy in Kinshasa, who at the workshop Held in Kinshasa on 31 January 2012, every year, at least 4.200 children, including a quarter of young girls, are left in the streets of Kinshasa.
A framer of the work of reclassification and Protection of children of the Street (Orper, 2006) gives its figures. Indeed, for Mr. Theo Lukusa (2006) the number of street children had been assessed to be about 23.877. If we included the adults living on the street, we will estimate at a total of more than 28.000. However, the government of D.R.Congo reports about 35.000 children in the streets of Kinshasa. Nevertheless, to have a comprehensive overview of the population of the street children of Kinshasa by commune, a reference to the studies conducted by Azia (2017) seems plausible. In fact, having listed the subjects (children) according to their commune of assignment, the author gives the following proportions according to the constituent areas of the urban fabric of Kinshasa:
Military Camp 3,26
A long time ago 2,54
The Moluccas 0,72
6:STRUCTURE OF THE EVALUATION :
An integral approach is proposed for this study, and I will be utilizing open-ended questions in interviews of children living in the streets. An open-ended interview will provide the subjects the opportunity to tell their story, and therefore allows me to evaluate the impact of the training in their lives. All the list and reports will be provided by the center.
7:SAMPLE DESIGN :Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval will be sought at OSEPER. To accomplish this, the researcher will submit the proposal to the OSEPER staff, and then the board. Once both audiences have granted IRB approval, participants will be selected. I will be using a randomization method of selection of my sample. To recruit, I will discuss the purpose and value of the study with the children, and also disclose potential benefits and risks related to the study. Participants will also be reminded of their freedom to withdraw from the study at any time. Once consent is signed, participants will be assigned a code name which will be pulled out of a hat Sampling will end once data saturation occurs and no new themes are noted during interviewing. I will be giving a code for the center, for students in the treatment group and those outside of the treatment, the controlled group.
8: DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND JUSTIFICATION:
I will use surveys as the main instrument Sometimes a combination of methods is used.
To start as Zelaya suggested a person may interview another person, but to end the person uses the computer to enter information. For surveys that are long-term, the first wave could be done in one form, and the second wave they may use another form (Zelaya, 2017)
9 : METHODOLOGY PLANNED FOR DATA ANALYSIS :
I intend to use OLS regression equations for testing in case of randomized selection of treatment and control group as suggested by NGUEHA in 2012 . While writing the program, I must test correlation causality with Difference and Difference, and we will be wanting to know if (is there any correlation between the time spend in the center and their future income and the quality of their lives). We will also be using other variables in regression (quantitative data) or interviews/Focus Groups (qualitative data) to see how the program change their lives . And then I will propose some regressions.
10: PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY :
Maria Sophia Aguirre, 2011. “Achieving Sustainable Development: An Integral Approach to an Economics Perspective”
William Easterly, Cambridge, 2008. “Can The West Save Africa”
3-NGUEGHA Impact Evaluation of … 2011
4-. Zelaya Deborah , 2017 Data Collection
5-. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Preface, Ch. 1-2 (85
6-. Can The West Save Africa, William Easterly, Cambridge, 2008
.7-Michel Kongulo Luzingu , la rue terre d asile terre d immigration , 2015
8- The Role of Education Quality in Economic Growth, Hanushek/Ludger/Woessman, (76 pps)
9- A review of current literature of the impact of HIV/AIDS on children in sub-Saharan Africa Geoff Fostera and John Williamson b AIDS 2000, 14 (suppl. 3):S275-S284
10- Child & Youth Services Volume 14, 1990 – Issue 111- Our Africa 55, May 2015
12- World Bank , IFM , UNICEF , OMS web sites .
13-Esther Duflo , “Human Values and the Design of the Fight Against Poverty”, The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Harvard University, May 2012 (First lecture only2012
14- Olken, Benjamin, “Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia,” Journal of Political Economy, 115:2, 2007.
15- Maria Sophia Aguirre, 2010. “An Integral Approach to an Economic Perspective: The Case of Measuring Impact,