29 July 2018
The French and Indian War
The French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years War, is an important event that took place in American history. In the early 1750s, France’s expansions to the Ohio River Valley caused many conflicts with the British colonies. These issues eventually lead to the long and difficult battle between the French and British.
Between 1754 and 1755, George Washington, Gen. Edward Braddock, and Governor William Shirley of Massachusetts were defeated in a quick succession by the French. Gov. Shirley feared that French settlers in Acadia would side with them in military confrontation, this lead to people leave to other British colonies where many cruelly suffered. British military effort was delayed by the lack of interest, victories in the American colonies, and France winning the support of Indians. In 1756 the British declared war, but the commander of the U.S Lord Loudoun faced the same problems as his predecessors and met little success against the French and Indians.
Tables had turn when William Pitt saw colonial conflicts as the key to building a British empire in 1757. He paid Prussia to fight Europe and reimbursed the colonies for raising troops in North America. The British won their first victory at Louisbourg near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River in July 1758. Then took Fort Frontenac at the western end of the river. The British closed Quebec, where Gen. James Wolfe won a war on Plains of Abraham in September of 1759. With the fall of Montreal in September of 1760, the French lost their last hold in Canada. Eventually, Spain joined France to defeat England and the rest of the war Britain focused on going against France and Spain territories.
In conclusion, the treaty that ended this lengthy war was the Treaty of Paris of 1763. France gave up all its territories in the mainland of North America, ending any foreign military threat to the British colonies. British received the territories of Canada from France and Florida from Spain, opening the Mississippi Valley to westward expansion.
U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/treaty-of-paris.
History.com Staff. “French and Indian War.” History.com, A;E Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/topics/french-and-indian-war.